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Overview

Brief Summary

Shrimp are found in large amounts in the coastal zone and tidal waters because they are well adapted to the strongly fluctuating circumstances. They are omnivores and profit from the rich supply of small animals. However, they also eat dead plants and animals, as well as excrement. They are very mobile and therefore can easily move to where the most food has gathered by the flowing water. When the temperatures drop, they move to warmer, deeper water. Many large marine animals and people are shrimp consumers.
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Biology

The common shrimp feeds on a range of worms, molluscs and crustaceans. The sexes are thought to be separate, and the timing of breeding varies around the country (2). After mating, the female carries the eggs for 3-4 weeks in summer and up to 10 weeks in spring (2). The larvae, known as 'zoeae' are planktonic, and persist for around 5 weeks. Maturity is attained after 1-2 years, and average life span is 3 years (2). This species is predated upon by many species of fish, including cod (Gadus morhua) and whiting (Merlangius merlangus). If attacked, shrimps try to escape by means of rapid flicks of the tail (3).
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Description

The common shrimp, also known as the brown shrimp, is cryptically coloured (3); it is brown and covered with tiny flecks (2). Although most specimens tend to measure between 30 and 50 mm in length, some may grow to 90 mm. The carapace extends between the eyes into a short spine, and the flexible abdomen terminates in a tail fan (known as a 'telson') (2). The word 'shrimp' is Middle English; it may derive from the German word 'schrimpen', which means 'to shrink up', and is applied to small, weak things (4).
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Comprehensive Description

Description

 The brown shimp, Crangon crangon is a long thin animal, mottled brown in colour, narrowing from a wide anterior end to a fanned tail. It is up to 8.5 cm in length and can be distinguished from most other shrimps and prawns by the short blunt-ended rostrum between the eyes. The colour can be varied by chromatophores depending on the colour of the substratum.  It is somewhat dorsoventrally flattened compared to most other shrimps and prawns. The main antennae are almost as long as the body.Crangon crangon can be confused with Crangon allmani, but Crangon allmani has a longitudinal ridge on the sixth abdominal segment. Crangon crangon has very high productivity and is an important food source for many birds, fish and crustaceans. It is commercially exploited for human consumption in northern Europe.
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Distribution

Range

Very common in European waters, and found around the coasts of Britain (2).
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 3932 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 254 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -1.36 - 294
  Temperature range (°C): 6.506 - 11.964
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.265 - 16.868
  Salinity (PPS): 7.618 - 35.498
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.787 - 8.061
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.256 - 0.890
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 11.473

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -1.36 - 294

Temperature range (°C): 6.506 - 11.964

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.265 - 16.868

Salinity (PPS): 7.618 - 35.498

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.787 - 8.061

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.256 - 0.890

Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 11.473
 
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 Crangon crangon is found on sandy and muddy ground, showing a preference for grain sizes between 125 and 710 µm and is often buried with only the eyes and antennae above the sediment surface (Pinn & Ansell, 1993).
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This species occurs from the middle shore down to submerged depths of around 150m; it also extends into estuaries and typically buries into the sand (2).
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Associations

Known predators

  • Hall SJ, Raffaelli D (1991) Food-web patterns: lessons from a species-rich web. J Anim Ecol 60:823–842
  • Huxham M, Beany S, Raffaelli D (1996) Do parasites reduce the chances of triangulation in a real food web? Oikos 76:284–300
  • L. Saldanha, Estudio Ambiental do Estuario do Tejo, Publ. no. 5(4) (CNA/Tejo, Lisbon, 1980).
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Known prey organisms

  • Hall SJ, Raffaelli D (1991) Food-web patterns: lessons from a species-rich web. J Anim Ecol 60:823–842
  • Huxham M, Beany S, Raffaelli D (1996) Do parasites reduce the chances of triangulation in a real food web? Oikos 76:284–300
  • L. Saldanha, Estudio Ambiental do Estuario do Tejo, Publ. no. 5(4) (CNA/Tejo, Lisbon, 1980).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Crangon crangon

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Crangon crangon

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

Status

Common and widespread (2).
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Threats

This shrimp is fished commercially in some areas, including Morecambe Bay, however it is not currently threatened, and remains a very common species (2).
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Management

Conservation

No conservation action has been targeted at this common species.
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Wikipedia

Crangon crangon

Crangon crangon is a commercially important species of caridean shrimp fished mainly in the southern North Sea, although also found in the Irish Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, as well as off much of Scandinavia and parts of Morocco's Atlantic coast.[1] Its common names include brown shrimp, common shrimp, bay shrimp, and sand shrimp, while translation of its French name crevette grise (or its Dutch equivalent grijze garnaal) sometimes leads to the English version grey shrimp.

Description[edit]

The chelae of C. crangon from below

Adults are typically 30–50 millimetres (1.2–2.0 in) long, although individuals up to 90 mm (3.5 in) have been recorded.[2] The animals have cryptic colouration, being a sandy brown colour, which can be changed to match the environment.[2] They live in shallow water, which can also be slightly brackish, and feed nocturnally.[2] During the day, they remain buried in the sand to escape predatory birds and fish, with only their antennae protruding.

Crangon is classified in the family Crangonidae, and shares the family's characteristic sub-chelate first pereiopods (where the movable finger closes onto a short projection, rather than a similarly sized fixed finger) and short rostrum.[3]

Distribution and ecology[edit]

Crangon crangon has a wide range, extending across the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean from the White Sea in the north of Russia to the coast of Morocco, including the Baltic Sea, as well as occurring throughout the Mediterranean and Black Seas.[4] Despite its wide range, however, there is little gene flow across certain natural barriers, such as the Strait of Gibraltar or the Bosphorus.[5] The populations in the western Mediterranean Sea are thought to be the oldest, with the species' spread across the north Atlantic thought to post-date the Pleistocene.[5]

Adults live epibenthically (on or near the sea-floor) especially in the shallow waters of estuaries or near the coast.[6] It is generally highly abundant, and has a significant effect on the ecosystems it lives in.[6]

Life cycle[edit]

Females reach sexual maturity at a length of around 22–43 mm (0.87–1.69 in), while males are mature at 30–45 mm (1.2–1.8 in).[7] The young of Crangon crangon hatch from their eggs into planktonic larvae. These pass through five moults before reaching the "post-larva" stage, at which point they settle to the sea-floor.[7]

Fishery[edit]

Global capture of Crangon crangon in tonnes reported by the FAO, 1950–2010 [8]

Over 37,000 t of Crangon crangon were caught in 1999, with Germany and the Netherlands taking over 80% of this total.[1]

As food[edit]

A bowl of brown shrimp as a snack

The brown shrimp enjoys great popularity in Belgium and its neighbouring countries. It is the basis of the dish tomate-crevette, where the shrimp are mixed with mayonnaise and served in a hollowed-out uncooked tomato. The shrimp croquette is another Belgian specialty; the shrimp are in the interior of the battered croquette along with melted cheese. Fresh unpeeled brown shrimp are often served as a snack accompanying beer, typically a sour ale or Flemish red such as Rodenbach.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Crangon crangon (Linnaeus, 1758)". Species Fact Sheets. Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved June 24, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c "Crangon crangon". ARKive. Retrieved June 24, 2011. 
  3. ^ Joana Campos, Cláudia Moreira, Fabiana Freitas & Henk W. van der Veer (2012). "Short review of the eco-geography of Crangon". Journal of Crustacean Biology 32 (2): 159–169. doi:10.1163/193724011X615569. 
  4. ^ Joana Campos, Vânia Freitas, Cindy Pedros, Rita Guillot & Henk W. van der Veer (2009). "Latitudinal variation in growth of Crangon crangon (L.): does counter-gradient growth compensation occur?". Journal of Sea Research 62 (4): 229–237. doi:10.1016/j.seares.2009.04.002. 
  5. ^ a b Pieternella C. Luttikhuizen, Joana Campos, Judith van Bleijswijk, Katja T.C.A. Peijnenburg & Henk W. van der Veer (2008). "Phylogeography of the common shrimp, Crangon crangon (L.) across its distribution range". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46 (3): 1015–1030. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.11.011. PMID 18207428. 
  6. ^ a b Joana Campos, Cindy Pedrosa, Joana Rodrigues, Sílvia Santos, Johanses I. J. Witte, Paulo Santos & Henk W. van der Veer (2009). "Population zoogeography of brown shrimp Crangon crangon along its distributional range based on morphometric characters". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 89 (3): 499–507. doi:10.1017/S0025315408002312. 
  7. ^ a b Joana Campos & Henk W. van der Veer (2008). R. N. Gibson, R. J. A. Atkinson & J. D. M. Gordon, ed. Autecology of Crangon crangon (L.) with an emphasis on latitudinal trends. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 46 (CRC Press). pp. 65–104. doi:10.1201/9781420065756.ch3. ISBN 978-1-4200-6575-6. 
  8. ^ Based on data sourced from the FishStat database, FAO.
  9. ^ "Les crevettes grises" (in French). Eating.be. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
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