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Comprehensive Description

Description

"The specimens were colored pink and... they are small" (Borradaile, 1903: pg. 441)

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Manalel, Jasmine

Source: Maldives and Laccadives

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The striped barnacle, Balanus amphitrite, is a medium-sized surface-fouling, sessile barnacle with distinct vertical bands of purple stripes on it's protective rigid housing plates, known as capitulum plates. It is conical in appearance and largest at the base, with a diamond-shaped opening protected by a movable opercular lid composed of two symmetrical triangular halves. Each of these halves contains two plates, the tergum and the scutum. The operculum opens when is the lid halves are flexed out to the sides (Cohen 2005).B. amphitrite is an acorn barnacle (Suborder Balanomorpha). Like all members of the taxon, it resides within a protective wall of rigid plates and is attached by its base directly to solid substrata. In contrast, goose barnacles attach by means of slender, flexible stalks (Cohen 2005).
  • Anil A.C., Chiba K., Okamoto K., and H. Kurokura. 1995. Influence of temperature and salinity on larval development of Balanus amphitrite: Implications in fouling ecology. Marine Ecology Progress Series 118:159-166.
  • Anil, A. C. ; And J. Kurian. 1996. Influence of food concentration, temperature, and salinity on the larval development of Balanus amphitrite. Marine Biology 127:115-124.
  • Bishop M.W.H. 1950. Distribution of Balanus amphitrite Darwin var. denticulata (Broch). Nature 165:409.
  • Boudreaux M.L., and L.J. Walters. 2005. Competition between oysters and barnacles: The impact of native and invasive barnacle density on native oyster settlement, growth, and survivorship. Poster presented at the 18th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Federation (ERF) Norfolk VA, October 16-21 2005. Abstract available online.
  • Calcagno J.A., Lopez Gappa J., and A. Tablado. 1997. Growth and production of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in an intertidal area affected by sewage pollution. Journal of Crustacean Biology 17:417-423.
  • Calcagno J.A., Gappa J.L., and A. Tablado. 1998. Population dynamics of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in an intertidal area affected by sewage pollution. Journal Of Crustacean Biology 18:128-137.
  • Carlton J.T. and M.H. Ruckelshaus. 1997. Nonindigenous marine invertebrates and algae. Pp 187-201 in: Simberloff D., Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds). Strangers in Paradise. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 467 p.
  • Charnov E.L. 1987. Sexuality and hermaphroditism in barnacles: a natural selection approach. pp: 89-104 in: Southward A.J. (Ed.). Crustacean Issues 5. Barnacle Biology.
  • Balkema, Rotterdam.Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online.
  • Hayward, P.J., & Ryland, J.S., eds. 1990. The marine fauna of the British Isles and north-west Europe. 2 vols. Oxford, Clarendon Press.
  • Henry D.A., and P.A. McLaughlin. 1975. The barnacles of the Balanus amphitrite complex (Cirripedia, Thoracica). Zoologische Verhandlingen (Leiden) 141:1-254.
  • LaBarbera M. 1984. Feeding currents and particle capture mechanisms in suspension feeding animals. American Zoology 24:71-84.
  • Matias J.R., Rabenhorst J., Mary A., and A.A. Lorilla. 2003. Marine biofouling testing of experimental marine paints: Technical considerations on methods, site selection and dynamic tests. Proceedings of the SSPC 2003 Industrial Protective Coatings Conference and Exhibit in New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • Miron G., Walters L.J., Tremblay R., and E. Bourget. 2000. Physiological condition and barnacle larval behavior: a preliminary look at the relationship between TAG/DNA ratio and larval substratum exploration in Balanus amphitrite. Marine Ecology Progress Series 198:303-310.
  • Mook D. 1983. Responses of common fouling organisms in the Indian River, Florida, to various predation and disturbance intensities. Estuaries 6:372-379.
  • Pillai K.N. 1958. Development of Balanus amphitrite, with a note on the early larvae of Chelonibia testudinaria. Bull. Central Res. Inst. Kerala 6:117-130.
  • Vaas K.F. 1978. Immigrants among the animals of the delta-area of the SW. Netherlands. Hydrological Bulletin 9:114-119.
  • Zullo, V. A. 1963. A Preliminary Report On Systematics And Distribution Of Barnacles (Cirripedia) Of Cape Cod Region. Systematics-Ecology Program, Marine Biology Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 33 p.
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© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Distribution

The specimens "were taken at Fadifolu Atoll." (Borradaile, 1903: pg. 441)

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Manalel, Jasmine

Source: Maldives and Laccadives

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Balanus amphitrite is a common, broadly distributed coastal and estuarine biofouling organism found on hard natural surfaces such as rocks, in oyster beds, red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) prop roots and mollusc shells. It is also found on artificial substrates like ship hulls, pilings, riprap, and seawalls.The native range of B. amphitrite is uncertain, but may be located in the Indian Ocean to the southwestern Pacific, based on its presence in the Pleistocene fossil record (Cohen 2005). It is now a dominant fouling organism found in warm and temperate waters worldwide (Desai et al. 2006).USGS collection information lists B. amphitrite as established in Florida coastal waters by 1975 (Henry and McLaughlin 1975, Carlton and Ruckelshaus 1997), but the initial introduction most likely occurred much earlier and the first reports of the species in Florida date to at least the 1940s. Mook (1983) reported Balanus amphitrite and B. trigonus as occurring in lesser abundances than B. eburneus is India River Lagoon settlement studies conducted in 1977-1978 in Fort Pierce in the vicinity of Harbor Branch Oceanographic. Boudreaux and Walters (2005) suggest B. amphitrite and the native B. eburneus are abundant in the Mosquito Lagoon portion of the estuary.
  • Anil A.C., Chiba K., Okamoto K., and H. Kurokura. 1995. Influence of temperature and salinity on larval development of Balanus amphitrite: Implications in fouling ecology. Marine Ecology Progress Series 118:159-166.
  • Anil, A. C. ; And J. Kurian. 1996. Influence of food concentration, temperature, and salinity on the larval development of Balanus amphitrite. Marine Biology 127:115-124.
  • Bishop M.W.H. 1950. Distribution of Balanus amphitrite Darwin var. denticulata (Broch). Nature 165:409.
  • Boudreaux M.L., and L.J. Walters. 2005. Competition between oysters and barnacles: The impact of native and invasive barnacle density on native oyster settlement, growth, and survivorship. Poster presented at the 18th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Federation (ERF) Norfolk VA, October 16-21 2005. Abstract available online.
  • Calcagno J.A., Lopez Gappa J., and A. Tablado. 1997. Growth and production of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in an intertidal area affected by sewage pollution. Journal of Crustacean Biology 17:417-423.
  • Calcagno J.A., Gappa J.L., and A. Tablado. 1998. Population dynamics of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in an intertidal area affected by sewage pollution. Journal Of Crustacean Biology 18:128-137.
  • Carlton J.T. and M.H. Ruckelshaus. 1997. Nonindigenous marine invertebrates and algae. Pp 187-201 in: Simberloff D., Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds). Strangers in Paradise. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 467 p.
  • Charnov E.L. 1987. Sexuality and hermaphroditism in barnacles: a natural selection approach. pp: 89-104 in: Southward A.J. (Ed.). Crustacean Issues 5. Barnacle Biology.
  • Balkema, Rotterdam.Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online.
  • Hayward, P.J., & Ryland, J.S., eds. 1990. The marine fauna of the British Isles and north-west Europe. 2 vols. Oxford, Clarendon Press.
  • Henry D.A., and P.A. McLaughlin. 1975. The barnacles of the Balanus amphitrite complex (Cirripedia, Thoracica). Zoologische Verhandlingen (Leiden) 141:1-254.
  • LaBarbera M. 1984. Feeding currents and particle capture mechanisms in suspension feeding animals. American Zoology 24:71-84.
  • Matias J.R., Rabenhorst J., Mary A., and A.A. Lorilla. 2003. Marine biofouling testing of experimental marine paints: Technical considerations on methods, site selection and dynamic tests. Proceedings of the SSPC 2003 Industrial Protective Coatings Conference and Exhibit in New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • Miron G., Walters L.J., Tremblay R., and E. Bourget. 2000. Physiological condition and barnacle larval behavior: a preliminary look at the relationship between TAG/DNA ratio and larval substratum exploration in Balanus amphitrite. Marine Ecology Progress Series 198:303-310.
  • Mook D. 1983. Responses of common fouling organisms in the Indian River, Florida, to various predation and disturbance intensities. Estuaries 6:372-379.
  • Pillai K.N. 1958. Development of Balanus amphitrite, with a note on the early larvae of Chelonibia testudinaria. Bull. Central Res. Inst. Kerala 6:117-130.
  • Vaas K.F. 1978. Immigrants among the animals of the delta-area of the SW. Netherlands. Hydrological Bulletin 9:114-119.
  • Zullo, V. A. 1963. A Preliminary Report On Systematics And Distribution Of Barnacles (Cirripedia) Of Cape Cod Region. Systematics-Ecology Program, Marine Biology Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 33 p.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Physical Description

Size

The maximum basal length of Balanus amphitrite is reported to be around 20 mm (Anderson 1986, Cohen 2005).Research conducted in the Mediterranean suggests a mean lifespan of 77 days and a maximum lifespan of 1.26-1.40 years, and a somewjhat longer mean lifespan of 22 months and maximum lifespan of 5-6 years in South Africa and Argentina (Calcagno et al. 1997, 1998).
  • Anil A.C., Chiba K., Okamoto K., and H. Kurokura. 1995. Influence of temperature and salinity on larval development of Balanus amphitrite: Implications in fouling ecology. Marine Ecology Progress Series 118:159-166.
  • Anil, A. C. ; And J. Kurian. 1996. Influence of food concentration, temperature, and salinity on the larval development of Balanus amphitrite. Marine Biology 127:115-124.
  • Bishop M.W.H. 1950. Distribution of Balanus amphitrite Darwin var. denticulata (Broch). Nature 165:409.
  • Boudreaux M.L., and L.J. Walters. 2005. Competition between oysters and barnacles: The impact of native and invasive barnacle density on native oyster settlement, growth, and survivorship. Poster presented at the 18th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Federation (ERF) Norfolk VA, October 16-21 2005. Abstract available online.
  • Calcagno J.A., Lopez Gappa J., and A. Tablado. 1997. Growth and production of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in an intertidal area affected by sewage pollution. Journal of Crustacean Biology 17:417-423.
  • Calcagno J.A., Gappa J.L., and A. Tablado. 1998. Population dynamics of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in an intertidal area affected by sewage pollution. Journal Of Crustacean Biology 18:128-137.
  • Carlton J.T. and M.H. Ruckelshaus. 1997. Nonindigenous marine invertebrates and algae. Pp 187-201 in: Simberloff D., Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds). Strangers in Paradise. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 467 p.
  • Charnov E.L. 1987. Sexuality and hermaphroditism in barnacles: a natural selection approach. pp: 89-104 in: Southward A.J. (Ed.). Crustacean Issues 5. Barnacle Biology.
  • Balkema, Rotterdam.Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online.
  • Hayward, P.J., & Ryland, J.S., eds. 1990. The marine fauna of the British Isles and north-west Europe. 2 vols. Oxford, Clarendon Press.
  • Henry D.A., and P.A. McLaughlin. 1975. The barnacles of the Balanus amphitrite complex (Cirripedia, Thoracica). Zoologische Verhandlingen (Leiden) 141:1-254.
  • LaBarbera M. 1984. Feeding currents and particle capture mechanisms in suspension feeding animals. American Zoology 24:71-84.
  • Matias J.R., Rabenhorst J., Mary A., and A.A. Lorilla. 2003. Marine biofouling testing of experimental marine paints: Technical considerations on methods, site selection and dynamic tests. Proceedings of the SSPC 2003 Industrial Protective Coatings Conference and Exhibit in New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • Miron G., Walters L.J., Tremblay R., and E. Bourget. 2000. Physiological condition and barnacle larval behavior: a preliminary look at the relationship between TAG/DNA ratio and larval substratum exploration in Balanus amphitrite. Marine Ecology Progress Series 198:303-310.
  • Mook D. 1983. Responses of common fouling organisms in the Indian River, Florida, to various predation and disturbance intensities. Estuaries 6:372-379.
  • Pillai K.N. 1958. Development of Balanus amphitrite, with a note on the early larvae of Chelonibia testudinaria. Bull. Central Res. Inst. Kerala 6:117-130.
  • Vaas K.F. 1978. Immigrants among the animals of the delta-area of the SW. Netherlands. Hydrological Bulletin 9:114-119.
  • Zullo, V. A. 1963. A Preliminary Report On Systematics And Distribution Of Barnacles (Cirripedia) Of Cape Cod Region. Systematics-Ecology Program, Marine Biology Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 33 p.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Diagnostic Description

"They... have given me much trouble, but I have placed them here on account of the undoubted absence of pores from the radii, and because the mandibles agree best with Darwin's description for the species." (Borradaile, 1903: pg. 441)

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Manalel, Jasmine

Source: Maldives and Laccadives

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Look Alikes

The IRL native ivory barnacle (Balanus eburneus) is somewhat similar in appearance but the white plates lack stripes and it is slightly larger (9.5-24.5 mm) than Balanus amphitrite. B. amphitrtie. is also larger than the star barnacle Chthamalus stellatus Two other probable non-native congeners, B. reticulatus and B. trigonus, are also common in Florida fouling communities, but the striped barnacle can be readily distinguished from these (Carlton and Ruckelschaus 1997). The non-native barnacle Megabalanus coccopoma, recently discovered in Florida waters, has plates that are distinctly pink in color and is considerably larger than the other acorn barnacles found in Florida.
  • Anil A.C., Chiba K., Okamoto K., and H. Kurokura. 1995. Influence of temperature and salinity on larval development of Balanus amphitrite: Implications in fouling ecology. Marine Ecology Progress Series 118:159-166.
  • Anil, A. C. ; And J. Kurian. 1996. Influence of food concentration, temperature, and salinity on the larval development of Balanus amphitrite. Marine Biology 127:115-124.
  • Bishop M.W.H. 1950. Distribution of Balanus amphitrite Darwin var. denticulata (Broch). Nature 165:409.
  • Boudreaux M.L., and L.J. Walters. 2005. Competition between oysters and barnacles: The impact of native and invasive barnacle density on native oyster settlement, growth, and survivorship. Poster presented at the 18th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Federation (ERF) Norfolk VA, October 16-21 2005. Abstract available online.
  • Calcagno J.A., Lopez Gappa J., and A. Tablado. 1997. Growth and production of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in an intertidal area affected by sewage pollution. Journal of Crustacean Biology 17:417-423.
  • Calcagno J.A., Gappa J.L., and A. Tablado. 1998. Population dynamics of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in an intertidal area affected by sewage pollution. Journal Of Crustacean Biology 18:128-137.
  • Carlton J.T. and M.H. Ruckelshaus. 1997. Nonindigenous marine invertebrates and algae. Pp 187-201 in: Simberloff D., Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds). Strangers in Paradise. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 467 p.
  • Charnov E.L. 1987. Sexuality and hermaphroditism in barnacles: a natural selection approach. pp: 89-104 in: Southward A.J. (Ed.). Crustacean Issues 5. Barnacle Biology.
  • Balkema, Rotterdam.Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online.
  • Hayward, P.J., & Ryland, J.S., eds. 1990. The marine fauna of the British Isles and north-west Europe. 2 vols. Oxford, Clarendon Press.
  • Henry D.A., and P.A. McLaughlin. 1975. The barnacles of the Balanus amphitrite complex (Cirripedia, Thoracica). Zoologische Verhandlingen (Leiden) 141:1-254.
  • LaBarbera M. 1984. Feeding currents and particle capture mechanisms in suspension feeding animals. American Zoology 24:71-84.
  • Matias J.R., Rabenhorst J., Mary A., and A.A. Lorilla. 2003. Marine biofouling testing of experimental marine paints: Technical considerations on methods, site selection and dynamic tests. Proceedings of the SSPC 2003 Industrial Protective Coatings Conference and Exhibit in New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • Miron G., Walters L.J., Tremblay R., and E. Bourget. 2000. Physiological condition and barnacle larval behavior: a preliminary look at the relationship between TAG/DNA ratio and larval substratum exploration in Balanus amphitrite. Marine Ecology Progress Series 198:303-310.
  • Mook D. 1983. Responses of common fouling organisms in the Indian River, Florida, to various predation and disturbance intensities. Estuaries 6:372-379.
  • Pillai K.N. 1958. Development of Balanus amphitrite, with a note on the early larvae of Chelonibia testudinaria. Bull. Central Res. Inst. Kerala 6:117-130.
  • Vaas K.F. 1978. Immigrants among the animals of the delta-area of the SW. Netherlands. Hydrological Bulletin 9:114-119.
  • Zullo, V. A. 1963. A Preliminary Report On Systematics And Distribution Of Barnacles (Cirripedia) Of Cape Cod Region. Systematics-Ecology Program, Marine Biology Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 33 p.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 72 specimens in 14 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 14 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 4177
  Temperature range (°C): 1.824 - 27.198
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.086 - 37.102
  Salinity (PPS): 32.493 - 35.485
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.258 - 4.875
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.085 - 2.620
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.993 - 146.980

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 4177

Temperature range (°C): 1.824 - 27.198

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.086 - 37.102

Salinity (PPS): 32.493 - 35.485

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.258 - 4.875

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.085 - 2.620

Silicate (umol/l): 0.993 - 146.980
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Alien species

De paarsgestreepte zeepok Amphibalanus amphitrite is een kosmopolitische zeepok die van nature voorkomt in vrijwel alle tropische en subtropische zeeën. Het is een typische aangroeisoort die vastgehecht op scheepsrompen her en der kan terechtkomen. Het eerste exemplaar uit België werd in 1952 aangetroffen in oesterkwekerij in de haven van Oostende. Het duurde echter nog tot februari 1995 vooraleer de paarsgestreepte zeepok met regelmaat langs onze kust gevonden kon worden. Aanvankelijk werd verondersteld dat door te koude wintertemperaturen de exemplaren in onze streken zouden afsterven, maar dit bleek niet het geval. De paarsgestreepte zeepok is anno 2011 algemeen in de haven van Oostende. Deze soort gedijt goed in gebieden met een zekere fysische stress of graad van vervuiling
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© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Alien species

The striped barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite is a cosmopolitan barnacle that naturally occurs in almost every tropical and subtropical sea. It is a typical fouling species that can reach different places by attaching itself to ship’s hulls. The first specimen in Belgium was found in 1952 in farmed oysters in the port of Ostend. It took till February 1995 till the striped barnacle was commonly found along the Belgian coast. It was thought that the cold winter temperatures would kill off the species in the Belgian regions, but this did not happen. The barnacle today (2011) is a common inhabitant in the port of Ostend. The species thrives well in areas with a certain degree of physical stress or pollution.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Trophic Strategy

Like other acorn barnacles, Balanus amphitrite filter feeds when submerged by means of a set of extensible sieving appendages called cirri (barnacles belong to infraclass Cirripedia). The extended cirri are oriented perpendicular to the general flow direction and varying food concentrations and water velocities can elicit different patterns and rates of movement of the cirri to maximize particle intake (LaBarbera 1984, Crisp and Bourget 1985).
  • Anil A.C., Chiba K., Okamoto K., and H. Kurokura. 1995. Influence of temperature and salinity on larval development of Balanus amphitrite: Implications in fouling ecology. Marine Ecology Progress Series 118:159-166.
  • Anil, A. C. ; And J. Kurian. 1996. Influence of food concentration, temperature, and salinity on the larval development of Balanus amphitrite. Marine Biology 127:115-124.
  • Bishop M.W.H. 1950. Distribution of Balanus amphitrite Darwin var. denticulata (Broch). Nature 165:409.
  • Boudreaux M.L., and L.J. Walters. 2005. Competition between oysters and barnacles: The impact of native and invasive barnacle density on native oyster settlement, growth, and survivorship. Poster presented at the 18th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Federation (ERF) Norfolk VA, October 16-21 2005. Abstract available online.
  • Calcagno J.A., Lopez Gappa J., and A. Tablado. 1997. Growth and production of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in an intertidal area affected by sewage pollution. Journal of Crustacean Biology 17:417-423.
  • Calcagno J.A., Gappa J.L., and A. Tablado. 1998. Population dynamics of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in an intertidal area affected by sewage pollution. Journal Of Crustacean Biology 18:128-137.
  • Carlton J.T. and M.H. Ruckelshaus. 1997. Nonindigenous marine invertebrates and algae. Pp 187-201 in: Simberloff D., Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds). Strangers in Paradise. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 467 p.
  • Charnov E.L. 1987. Sexuality and hermaphroditism in barnacles: a natural selection approach. pp: 89-104 in: Southward A.J. (Ed.). Crustacean Issues 5. Barnacle Biology.
  • Balkema, Rotterdam.Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online.
  • Hayward, P.J., & Ryland, J.S., eds. 1990. The marine fauna of the British Isles and north-west Europe. 2 vols. Oxford, Clarendon Press.
  • Henry D.A., and P.A. McLaughlin. 1975. The barnacles of the Balanus amphitrite complex (Cirripedia, Thoracica). Zoologische Verhandlingen (Leiden) 141:1-254.
  • LaBarbera M. 1984. Feeding currents and particle capture mechanisms in suspension feeding animals. American Zoology 24:71-84.
  • Matias J.R., Rabenhorst J., Mary A., and A.A. Lorilla. 2003. Marine biofouling testing of experimental marine paints: Technical considerations on methods, site selection and dynamic tests. Proceedings of the SSPC 2003 Industrial Protective Coatings Conference and Exhibit in New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • Miron G., Walters L.J., Tremblay R., and E. Bourget. 2000. Physiological condition and barnacle larval behavior: a preliminary look at the relationship between TAG/DNA ratio and larval substratum exploration in Balanus amphitrite. Marine Ecology Progress Series 198:303-310.
  • Mook D. 1983. Responses of common fouling organisms in the Indian River, Florida, to various predation and disturbance intensities. Estuaries 6:372-379.
  • Pillai K.N. 1958. Development of Balanus amphitrite, with a note on the early larvae of Chelonibia testudinaria. Bull. Central Res. Inst. Kerala 6:117-130.
  • Vaas K.F. 1978. Immigrants among the animals of the delta-area of the SW. Netherlands. Hydrological Bulletin 9:114-119.
  • Zullo, V. A. 1963. A Preliminary Report On Systematics And Distribution Of Barnacles (Cirripedia) Of Cape Cod Region. Systematics-Ecology Program, Marine Biology Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 33 p.
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© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Associations

Balanus amphitrite occur alongside a number of different animal and algal taxa that comprise hard fouling intertidal communities, although none of these associations are likely to be obligate.Invasion History: Zullo (1963) indicates that Balanus amphitrite occurs worldwide in warm and temperate seas. The cosmopolitan distribution is attributable to the early date at which human-facilitated spread of the species began. Like other well-known ship-fouling organisms such as shipworm (e.g, Teredo navalis) and certain tunicates (e.g., Styela plicata), man has likely been unintentionally transporting B. amphitrite across wide expanses of ocean for as long as sailing ships have been in existence. Darwin himself in 1854 recognized that the broad geographic ranges inhabited by B. amphitrite and certain other barnacles, "which seem to range over nearly the whole world (excepting the colder seas)," were probably due in part to accidental transport as fouling organisms on ship hulls (Cohen 2005).The first records of B. amphitrite in and around various shipping centers in the United States confirm the early dates of introduction. In 1883 it was collected from North Carolina, from Los Angeles Harbor in 1914, from Hawaii in 1902, and from Florida by the 1940s. As early as the 1920s, the species was present on 20% of ship hulls examined (Cohen 2005). Although hull fouling (and possibly also dry ballast) is the most likely mechanism of transport in most introductions, particularly the earliest instances, B. amphitrite may in some cases also have been introduced to new locations as naupliar and cypris larvae in ballast water, or in live oyster shipments (Cohen 2005).On the east coast of the B. amphitrite presently occurs from Florida north to Massachusetts (Zullo 1963). Potential to Compete With Natives: Space competition is likely to occur among Balanus amphitrite and other barnacle species, and among B. amphitrite and other hard fouling taxa as well. However, Boudreaux and Walters (2005) report that B. amphitrite and the native congener B. eburneus are capable of persisting side-by-side, at least for a period of time. Vertical zonation of barnacles and other rocky shoreline taxa probably moderates competition somewhat. Possible Economic Consequences of Invasion: The striped barnacle is a prevalent biofouler of ships and harbor sturctures (Brankevich et al. 1984). Balanus amphitrite cements itself onto hard surfaces with a matrix of proteins (Saroyan et al. 1970). Hulls of ships, buoys, and inflow pipes of desalination plants become covered with the barnacles (Mangum et al. 1972, Starostin 1968) which eventually causes corrosion of the metals and increased maintenance costs. Barnacle aggregations also increase friction between the surface of ships' bottoms and surrounding water, thus travel costs are increased and efficiency decreased, i.e., it requires additional energy to move the ship at the same speed (London 1972).
  • Anil A.C., Chiba K., Okamoto K., and H. Kurokura. 1995. Influence of temperature and salinity on larval development of Balanus amphitrite: Implications in fouling ecology. Marine Ecology Progress Series 118:159-166.
  • Anil, A. C. ; And J. Kurian. 1996. Influence of food concentration, temperature, and salinity on the larval development of Balanus amphitrite. Marine Biology 127:115-124.
  • Bishop M.W.H. 1950. Distribution of Balanus amphitrite Darwin var. denticulata (Broch). Nature 165:409.
  • Boudreaux M.L., and L.J. Walters. 2005. Competition between oysters and barnacles: The impact of native and invasive barnacle density on native oyster settlement, growth, and survivorship. Poster presented at the 18th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Federation (ERF) Norfolk VA, October 16-21 2005. Abstract available online.
  • Calcagno J.A., Lopez Gappa J., and A. Tablado. 1997. Growth and production of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in an intertidal area affected by sewage pollution. Journal of Crustacean Biology 17:417-423.
  • Calcagno J.A., Gappa J.L., and A. Tablado. 1998. Population dynamics of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in an intertidal area affected by sewage pollution. Journal Of Crustacean Biology 18:128-137.
  • Carlton J.T. and M.H. Ruckelshaus. 1997. Nonindigenous marine invertebrates and algae. Pp 187-201 in: Simberloff D., Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds). Strangers in Paradise. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 467 p.
  • Charnov E.L. 1987. Sexuality and hermaphroditism in barnacles: a natural selection approach. pp: 89-104 in: Southward A.J. (Ed.). Crustacean Issues 5. Barnacle Biology.
  • Balkema, Rotterdam.Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online.
  • Hayward, P.J., & Ryland, J.S., eds. 1990. The marine fauna of the British Isles and north-west Europe. 2 vols. Oxford, Clarendon Press.
  • Henry D.A., and P.A. McLaughlin. 1975. The barnacles of the Balanus amphitrite complex (Cirripedia, Thoracica). Zoologische Verhandlingen (Leiden) 141:1-254.
  • LaBarbera M. 1984. Feeding currents and particle capture mechanisms in suspension feeding animals. American Zoology 24:71-84.
  • Matias J.R., Rabenhorst J., Mary A., and A.A. Lorilla. 2003. Marine biofouling testing of experimental marine paints: Technical considerations on methods, site selection and dynamic tests. Proceedings of the SSPC 2003 Industrial Protective Coatings Conference and Exhibit in New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • Miron G., Walters L.J., Tremblay R., and E. Bourget. 2000. Physiological condition and barnacle larval behavior: a preliminary look at the relationship between TAG/DNA ratio and larval substratum exploration in Balanus amphitrite. Marine Ecology Progress Series 198:303-310.
  • Mook D. 1983. Responses of common fouling organisms in the Indian River, Florida, to various predation and disturbance intensities. Estuaries 6:372-379.
  • Pillai K.N. 1958. Development of Balanus amphitrite, with a note on the early larvae of Chelonibia testudinaria. Bull. Central Res. Inst. Kerala 6:117-130.
  • Vaas K.F. 1978. Immigrants among the animals of the delta-area of the SW. Netherlands. Hydrological Bulletin 9:114-119.
  • Zullo, V. A. 1963. A Preliminary Report On Systematics And Distribution Of Barnacles (Cirripedia) Of Cape Cod Region. Systematics-Ecology Program, Marine Biology Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 33 p.
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Population Biology

Matias et al. (2003) proclaim Balanus amphitrite to be the predominant barnacle of ports worldwide and noted that the global distribution was likely the result of ship-facilitated introductions occurring centuries earlier.Settlement densities can be quite high. Boudreaux and Walters (2005) indicated that over 300 individual B. amphitrite and B. eburneus were counted on a single oyster (Crassostrea virginica) shell in the Mosquito Lagoon basin of the IRL.
  • Anil A.C., Chiba K., Okamoto K., and H. Kurokura. 1995. Influence of temperature and salinity on larval development of Balanus amphitrite: Implications in fouling ecology. Marine Ecology Progress Series 118:159-166.
  • Anil, A. C. ; And J. Kurian. 1996. Influence of food concentration, temperature, and salinity on the larval development of Balanus amphitrite. Marine Biology 127:115-124.
  • Bishop M.W.H. 1950. Distribution of Balanus amphitrite Darwin var. denticulata (Broch). Nature 165:409.
  • Boudreaux M.L., and L.J. Walters. 2005. Competition between oysters and barnacles: The impact of native and invasive barnacle density on native oyster settlement, growth, and survivorship. Poster presented at the 18th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Federation (ERF) Norfolk VA, October 16-21 2005. Abstract available online.
  • Calcagno J.A., Lopez Gappa J., and A. Tablado. 1997. Growth and production of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in an intertidal area affected by sewage pollution. Journal of Crustacean Biology 17:417-423.
  • Calcagno J.A., Gappa J.L., and A. Tablado. 1998. Population dynamics of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in an intertidal area affected by sewage pollution. Journal Of Crustacean Biology 18:128-137.
  • Carlton J.T. and M.H. Ruckelshaus. 1997. Nonindigenous marine invertebrates and algae. Pp 187-201 in: Simberloff D., Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds). Strangers in Paradise. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 467 p.
  • Charnov E.L. 1987. Sexuality and hermaphroditism in barnacles: a natural selection approach. pp: 89-104 in: Southward A.J. (Ed.). Crustacean Issues 5. Barnacle Biology.
  • Balkema, Rotterdam.Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online.
  • Hayward, P.J., & Ryland, J.S., eds. 1990. The marine fauna of the British Isles and north-west Europe. 2 vols. Oxford, Clarendon Press.
  • Henry D.A., and P.A. McLaughlin. 1975. The barnacles of the Balanus amphitrite complex (Cirripedia, Thoracica). Zoologische Verhandlingen (Leiden) 141:1-254.
  • LaBarbera M. 1984. Feeding currents and particle capture mechanisms in suspension feeding animals. American Zoology 24:71-84.
  • Matias J.R., Rabenhorst J., Mary A., and A.A. Lorilla. 2003. Marine biofouling testing of experimental marine paints: Technical considerations on methods, site selection and dynamic tests. Proceedings of the SSPC 2003 Industrial Protective Coatings Conference and Exhibit in New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • Miron G., Walters L.J., Tremblay R., and E. Bourget. 2000. Physiological condition and barnacle larval behavior: a preliminary look at the relationship between TAG/DNA ratio and larval substratum exploration in Balanus amphitrite. Marine Ecology Progress Series 198:303-310.
  • Mook D. 1983. Responses of common fouling organisms in the Indian River, Florida, to various predation and disturbance intensities. Estuaries 6:372-379.
  • Pillai K.N. 1958. Development of Balanus amphitrite, with a note on the early larvae of Chelonibia testudinaria. Bull. Central Res. Inst. Kerala 6:117-130.
  • Vaas K.F. 1978. Immigrants among the animals of the delta-area of the SW. Netherlands. Hydrological Bulletin 9:114-119.
  • Zullo, V. A. 1963. A Preliminary Report On Systematics And Distribution Of Barnacles (Cirripedia) Of Cape Cod Region. Systematics-Ecology Program, Marine Biology Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 33 p.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Like most balanomorph barnacles, Balanus amphitrite is hermaphroditic. Reproductive individuals are general capable of simultaneous production of male and female gametes. However, outcrossing with neighboring individuals, occuring through the deposit of sperm into the mantle cavities of adjacent animals via a long intromittent tube and subsequent internal fertilization of eggs, is the general rule. Self-fertilization is also reported to occur, however (Charnov 1987, Furman and Yule 1990, El-Komi and Kajihara 1991, Desai et al 2006).Spawning seasonality varies by location. B. amphitrite populations in temperate areas exhibit spawning peaks in the spring and/or summer, while those in more subtropical areas may spawn throughout the year (Costlow and Bookhout 1958, Pillai, 1958, Egan and Anderson 1986).Individuals reach reproductive maturity at around 5.0 mm in length (Egan and Anderson 1986). Individuals can release 1,000-10,000 eggs/ brood and produce as many as 24 broods/year (El-Komi and Kajihara 1991).
  • Anil A.C., Chiba K., Okamoto K., and H. Kurokura. 1995. Influence of temperature and salinity on larval development of Balanus amphitrite: Implications in fouling ecology. Marine Ecology Progress Series 118:159-166.
  • Anil, A. C. ; And J. Kurian. 1996. Influence of food concentration, temperature, and salinity on the larval development of Balanus amphitrite. Marine Biology 127:115-124.
  • Bishop M.W.H. 1950. Distribution of Balanus amphitrite Darwin var. denticulata (Broch). Nature 165:409.
  • Boudreaux M.L., and L.J. Walters. 2005. Competition between oysters and barnacles: The impact of native and invasive barnacle density on native oyster settlement, growth, and survivorship. Poster presented at the 18th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Federation (ERF) Norfolk VA, October 16-21 2005. Abstract available online.
  • Calcagno J.A., Lopez Gappa J., and A. Tablado. 1997. Growth and production of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in an intertidal area affected by sewage pollution. Journal of Crustacean Biology 17:417-423.
  • Calcagno J.A., Gappa J.L., and A. Tablado. 1998. Population dynamics of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in an intertidal area affected by sewage pollution. Journal Of Crustacean Biology 18:128-137.
  • Carlton J.T. and M.H. Ruckelshaus. 1997. Nonindigenous marine invertebrates and algae. Pp 187-201 in: Simberloff D., Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds). Strangers in Paradise. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 467 p.
  • Charnov E.L. 1987. Sexuality and hermaphroditism in barnacles: a natural selection approach. pp: 89-104 in: Southward A.J. (Ed.). Crustacean Issues 5. Barnacle Biology.
  • Balkema, Rotterdam.Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online.
  • Hayward, P.J., & Ryland, J.S., eds. 1990. The marine fauna of the British Isles and north-west Europe. 2 vols. Oxford, Clarendon Press.
  • Henry D.A., and P.A. McLaughlin. 1975. The barnacles of the Balanus amphitrite complex (Cirripedia, Thoracica). Zoologische Verhandlingen (Leiden) 141:1-254.
  • LaBarbera M. 1984. Feeding currents and particle capture mechanisms in suspension feeding animals. American Zoology 24:71-84.
  • Matias J.R., Rabenhorst J., Mary A., and A.A. Lorilla. 2003. Marine biofouling testing of experimental marine paints: Technical considerations on methods, site selection and dynamic tests. Proceedings of the SSPC 2003 Industrial Protective Coatings Conference and Exhibit in New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • Miron G., Walters L.J., Tremblay R., and E. Bourget. 2000. Physiological condition and barnacle larval behavior: a preliminary look at the relationship between TAG/DNA ratio and larval substratum exploration in Balanus amphitrite. Marine Ecology Progress Series 198:303-310.
  • Mook D. 1983. Responses of common fouling organisms in the Indian River, Florida, to various predation and disturbance intensities. Estuaries 6:372-379.
  • Pillai K.N. 1958. Development of Balanus amphitrite, with a note on the early larvae of Chelonibia testudinaria. Bull. Central Res. Inst. Kerala 6:117-130.
  • Vaas K.F. 1978. Immigrants among the animals of the delta-area of the SW. Netherlands. Hydrological Bulletin 9:114-119.
  • Zullo, V. A. 1963. A Preliminary Report On Systematics And Distribution Of Barnacles (Cirripedia) Of Cape Cod Region. Systematics-Ecology Program, Marine Biology Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 33 p.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Growth

Fertilized eggs are brooded within the mantle cavity for up to several months before free-swimming planktonic larvae are released to the water column (Hawaii Biological Survey 2002).Habitat settlement selectivity in settlement stage Balanus amphitrite cyprids has been shown to vary with age. Experimental work by Miron et al. (2000) revealed that fewer young cyprids (0-5 days old) spent less time than older individuals (6-12 days old) exploring suboptimal substrata. The authors reported that the physical condition of cyprids decreased significantly with age, suggesting that substratum selectivity decreases in older individuals as the period of metamorphic competence nears its end. The settlement-stage cypris cements itself to a suitable hard substratum using a matrix of adhesive proteins secreted by the cypris antennae.
  • Anil A.C., Chiba K., Okamoto K., and H. Kurokura. 1995. Influence of temperature and salinity on larval development of Balanus amphitrite: Implications in fouling ecology. Marine Ecology Progress Series 118:159-166.
  • Anil, A. C. ; And J. Kurian. 1996. Influence of food concentration, temperature, and salinity on the larval development of Balanus amphitrite. Marine Biology 127:115-124.
  • Bishop M.W.H. 1950. Distribution of Balanus amphitrite Darwin var. denticulata (Broch). Nature 165:409.
  • Boudreaux M.L., and L.J. Walters. 2005. Competition between oysters and barnacles: The impact of native and invasive barnacle density on native oyster settlement, growth, and survivorship. Poster presented at the 18th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Federation (ERF) Norfolk VA, October 16-21 2005. Abstract available online.
  • Calcagno J.A., Lopez Gappa J., and A. Tablado. 1997. Growth and production of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in an intertidal area affected by sewage pollution. Journal of Crustacean Biology 17:417-423.
  • Calcagno J.A., Gappa J.L., and A. Tablado. 1998. Population dynamics of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in an intertidal area affected by sewage pollution. Journal Of Crustacean Biology 18:128-137.
  • Carlton J.T. and M.H. Ruckelshaus. 1997. Nonindigenous marine invertebrates and algae. Pp 187-201 in: Simberloff D., Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds). Strangers in Paradise. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 467 p.
  • Charnov E.L. 1987. Sexuality and hermaphroditism in barnacles: a natural selection approach. pp: 89-104 in: Southward A.J. (Ed.). Crustacean Issues 5. Barnacle Biology.
  • Balkema, Rotterdam.Cohen A.N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Available online.
  • Hayward, P.J., & Ryland, J.S., eds. 1990. The marine fauna of the British Isles and north-west Europe. 2 vols. Oxford, Clarendon Press.
  • Henry D.A., and P.A. McLaughlin. 1975. The barnacles of the Balanus amphitrite complex (Cirripedia, Thoracica). Zoologische Verhandlingen (Leiden) 141:1-254.
  • LaBarbera M. 1984. Feeding currents and particle capture mechanisms in suspension feeding animals. American Zoology 24:71-84.
  • Matias J.R., Rabenhorst J., Mary A., and A.A. Lorilla. 2003. Marine biofouling testing of experimental marine paints: Technical considerations on methods, site selection and dynamic tests. Proceedings of the SSPC 2003 Industrial Protective Coatings Conference and Exhibit in New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • Miron G., Walters L.J., Tremblay R., and E. Bourget. 2000. Physiological condition and barnacle larval behavior: a preliminary look at the relationship between TAG/DNA ratio and larval substratum exploration in Balanus amphitrite. Marine Ecology Progress Series 198:303-310.
  • Mook D. 1983. Responses of common fouling organisms in the Indian River, Florida, to various predation and disturbance intensities. Estuaries 6:372-379.
  • Pillai K.N. 1958. Development of Balanus amphitrite, with a note on the early larvae of Chelonibia testudinaria. Bull. Central Res. Inst. Kerala 6:117-130.
  • Vaas K.F. 1978. Immigrants among the animals of the delta-area of the SW. Netherlands. Hydrological Bulletin 9:114-119.
  • Zullo, V. A. 1963. A Preliminary Report On Systematics And Distribution Of Barnacles (Cirripedia) Of Cape Cod Region. Systematics-Ecology Program, Marine Biology Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 33 p.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Balanus amphitrite

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

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Wikipedia

Balanus amphitrite

Amphibalanus amphitrite is a species of acorn barnacle in the Balanidae family. Its common names include the striped barnacle, the purple acorn barnacle and Amphitrite's rock barnacle. It is found in warm and temperate waters worldwide.

Description[edit]

B. amphitrite is a medium-sized, cone-shaped sessile barnacle with distinctive narrow vertical purple or brown stripes. The surface of the test has vertical ribbing. It has a diamond-shaped operculum protected by a movable lid formed from two triangular plates. It grows to about twenty millimetres in diameter.[2]

Distribution[edit]

It is uncertain where B. amphitrite originated but it may have been in the Indian Ocean or southwestern Pacific Ocean as fossils of the species have been found in these regions.[2] It has now spread to most of the warm and temperate seas of the world.

Habitat[edit]

B. amphitrite is a common coastal and estuarine organism found on hard natural surfaces such as bedrock, boulders, mollusc shells and red mangrove roots. It is also found on artificial surfaces such as the hulls of ships, pilings and seawalls. It can be very abundant, with over three hundred individual barnacles being recorded on a single oyster (Crassostrea virginica).[3]

Biology[edit]

B. amphitrite is a model organism for studies of fundamental and applied larval settlement. This is due to its invasive behaviour, its worldwide distribution and the ease with which it can be bred in the laboratory. Its genome has been sequenced.[4]

B. amphitrite is a hermaphrodite and individuals have both male and female reproductive organs. Sperm is introduced into the mantle cavities of adjacent barnacles through an elongated penis and the fertilised eggs are brooded within the mantle cavity for several months. Free-swimming larvae called nauplii are then released into the water column where they become part of the zooplankton. In temperate areas, spawning is mainly in the spring and summer but in warmer waters it may continue throughout the year.[5] Individuals can release up to ten thousand eggs per brood and there may be many broods per year.[6] After several moults the last larval stage, the cyprid larva, settles and crawls around looking for a suitable place to cement itself. It does this with a matrix of proteins secreted by the antennae.[6]

For feeding, B. amphitrite has specialized paired appendages called cirri. These are used to sieve food particles from the water and transfer them to the mouth. They are oriented perpendicular to the general flow direction of the water and the rates of movement vary with the availability of food so as to maximize particle intake.[7]

B. amphitrite can tolerate low salinity levels in estuaries but appears to need higher levels in order to breed.[8] It can also tolerate temperatures as low as 12°C but needs temperatures of at least 15°C to breed which limits its northerly spread.[9]

Fouling[edit]

B. amphitrite is part of the biofouling community. The larvae settle out on and colonise the hulls of ships, harbour structures, buoys and the inflow pipes of desalination plants. These become covered with barnacles and other associated hard fouling species. Metal structures become corroded and maintenance costs are increased. The fouling also causes friction between the water and the hulls of ships and this reduces efficiency and increases fuel costs.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Balanus amphitrite Darwin, 1854". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved June 14, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b Andrew N. Cohen (June 7, 2005). "Balanus amphitrite Darwin, 1854, striped barnacle". Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. Oakland, CA: San Francisco Estuary Institute. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2011. 
  3. ^ M. L. Boudreaux & L. J. Walters (October 16–21, 2005). "Competition between oysters and barnacles: the impact of native and invasive barnacle density on native oyster settlement, growth, and survivorship". 18th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Federation (ERF). Norfolk VA. 
  4. ^ Tristano Bacchetti De Gregoris, Marco Borra, Elio Biffali, Thomas Bekel, J. Grant Burgess, Richard R. Kirby & Anthony S. Clare. "Construction of an adult barnacle (Balanus amphitrite) cDNA library and selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies". BMC Molecular Biology 10: 62. doi:10.1186/1471-2199-10-62. PMC 2713238. PMID 19552808. 
  5. ^ K. N. Pillai (1958). "Development of Balanus amphitrite, with a note on the early larvae of Chelonibia testudinaria". Bulletin of the Central Research Institute of Kerala. series C 6: 117–130. 
  6. ^ a b c J. Masterson (October 5, 2007). "Balanus amphitrite, striped barnacle". Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. Retrieved June 14, 2011. 
  7. ^ Michael LaBarbera (1984). "Feeding currents and particle capture mechanisms in suspension feeding animals". American Zoologist 24 (1): 71–84. doi:10.1093/icb/24.1.71. JSTOR 3882753. 
  8. ^ K. F. Vaas (1978). "Immigrants among the animals of the Delta-area of the SW Netherlands". Aquatic Ecology 9 (3): 114–119. doi:10.1007/BF02263329. 
  9. ^ Marcus W. H. Bishop (1950). "Distribution of Balanus amphitrite Darwin var. denticulata Broch". Nature 165 (4193): 409–410. doi:10.1038/165409a0. 
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