The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 2004. database, Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference
  • Albuquerque, E. X. and Daly, J. W. (1977). ''Batrachotoxin, a selective probe for channels modulating sodium conductances in electrogenic membranes.'' The Specificity and Action of Animal, Bacterial and Plant Toxins. Receptors and Recognition, Series B., Volume 1 P. Cuatrecasas, eds., Chapman and Hall, London, 297-338.
  • Bartlett, R. 2003. Poison Dart Frogs. Hauppauge, New Jersey: Barron's Educational Series,Inc.
  • Bolívar, W., S. Lötters. 2004. "Phyllobates terribilis" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. Accessed May 07, 2011 at
  • Bosmans, F., Maertensa, C., Verdonck, F., and Tytgat, J. (2004). ''The poison Dart frog’s batrachotoxin modulates Nav 1.8.'' Federation of European Biochemical Societies Letters, 577(2004), 245-248.
  • Clark, V. C., Raxworthy, C. J., Rakotomalala, V., Sierwald, P., and Fisher, B. L. (2005). ''Convergent evolution of chemical defense in poison frogs and arthropod prey between Madagascar and the Neotropics.'' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(33), 11617-11622.
  • Clarke, B. 1997. The Natural History of Amphibian Skin Secretions, Their Normal Functioning and Potential Medical Applications. Biological Reviews, 72/3: 365-379.
  • Cordell, G. 1993. The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Pharmacology V43. San Diego, California: Academic Press.
  • Daly, J. 1995. The Chemistry of Poisons in Amphibian Skin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92: 9-13.
  • Daly, J. W., Secunda, S. I., Garraffo, H. M., Spande, T. F., Wisnieski, A., and Cover, J. F. (1994). '' An uptake system for dietary alkaloids in poison frogs (Dendrobatidae).'' Toxicon, 32(6), 657-663.
  • Daly, J., C. Myers, J. Warnick, E. Albuquerque. 1980. Levels of Batrachotoxin and Lack of Sensitivity to its Action in Poison-Dart Frogs ( Phyllobates ). Science, 208: 1383-1385.
  • Darst, C., P. Menendez-Guerrero, L. Coloma, D. Cannatella. 2005. Evolution of Dietary Specialization and Chemical Defense in Poison Frogs (Dendrobatidae): A Comparative Analysis. The American Naturalist, 165/1: 56-69.
  • Duellman, W., L. Trueb. 1994. Biology of Amphibians. Baltimore, Maryland: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
  • Dumbacher, J. P., Spande, T. F., and Daly, J. W. (2000). ''Batrachotoxin alkaloids from passerine birds: A second toxic bird genus (Ifrita kowaldi) from New Guinea.'' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97, 12970-12975.
  • Dumbacher, J.P., Wako, A., Derrickson, S.R., Samuelson, A., Spande, T.F., and Daly, J.W (2004). ''Melyrid beetles (Choresine): a putative source for the batrachotoxin alkaloids found in poison-dart frogs and toxic passerine birds.'' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 15857â€"15860.
  • Frost, Darrel R. 2009. database. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference v5.3
  • Gratwicke, B. 2011. "World Association of Zoos and Aquariums WAZA/ United for Conservation" (On-line). Golden poision frog. Accessed April 04, 2011 at
  • Hagman, M., A. Forsman. 2003. Correlated Evolution of Conspicuous Coloration and Body Size in Poison Frogs (Dendrobatidae). Evolution, 57/12: 2904–2910.
  • Jovanovic, O., M. Vences, G. Safarek, F. Rabemananjara, R. Dolch. 2009. Predation Upon Mantella Aurantiaca in the Torotorofotsy Wetlands, Central-Eastern Madagascar. Herpetology Notes, 2: 95-97.
  • Maxson, L. R., and Myers, C. W. (2007). ''Albumin evolution in tropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae): a preliminary report.'' Biotropica, 17(1), 50-56.
  • Maxson, L., C. Myers. 1985. Albumin Evolution in Tropical Poison Frogs (Dendrobatidae) a Preliminary Report. Biotropica, 17/1: 50-56.
  • Myers, C. W., Daly, J. W., and Malkin, B. (1978). ''A dangerously toxic new frog (Phyllobates) used by Emberá Indians of Western Colombia, with discussion of blowgun fabrication and dart poisoning.'' Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 161, 307-366.
  • Myers, C., J. Daly, B. Malkin. 1978. A Dangerously Toxic New Frog (Phyllobates) Used by Embera' Indians of Western Colombia, with Discussion of Blowgun Fabrication and Dart Poisoning. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 161/2: 313-337.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Paratype: Myers, C. W., et al. 1978. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 161 (2): 313, plate 2 and text figures 1-3, 8D.
  • Savage, J. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press.
  • Stewart, S. 2010. "The True Poison-Dart Frog: The Golden Poison Frog Phyllobates terribilis" (On-line). Accessed February 20, 2011 at
  • Walls, J. 1994. Jewels of the Rainforest:Poison Frogs of the Family Dendrobatidae. Neptune City, New Jersey: T.F.H. Publications.
  • Weygoldt, P. 1987. Evolution of Parental Care in Dart Poison Frogs (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 25/1: 51-67.
  • Widmer, A., S. Lotters, K. Jungfer. 2000. A Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of the Neotropical Dart-Poison Frog Genus Phyllobates (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae). Naturwissenchaften, 87/12: 559-562.


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