Comprehensive DescriptionRead full entry
Physalaemus centralis belongs to the P. cuvieri species group (Nascimento et al. 2005; Frost 2007), and closely resembles the latter species, but differs from it by its larger size and body width (in dorsal view), the presence of two black spots in the sacral region, and the shorter head. The snout-vent length varies from 30 to 40 mm. Bokermann (1962) did not provide an accurate description, but briefly: Head wide. Tympanum distinct, measuring ½ of the eye diameter. Supratympanic fold very evident, reaching the base of the arm. Vocal sacs large. Arms strong and small. Subarticular tubercles presents. Tarsal tubercle present. General dorsal color pattern light gray, but can greatly vary to red or cream, with some individuals bearing a granular omega-shaped (Ω) mark on the dorsum. Throat blackish. Dorsal surface of the members with wide transversal stripes (Bokermann, 1962). It seems not to show sexual dimorphism (Brasileiro and Martins 2006).
The tadpole was described by Rossa-Feres and Jim (1993). Total length 20 mm at Gosner stage 37. Body ovoid in dorsal view and depressed/globular in lateral view. Snout rounded. Eyes large, dorsolaterally directed. Nares dorsal, small and rounded. Spiracle lateroventral, low on the left side, short and narrow, without free edge. Spiracle tube fused to the body wall, with elliptical opening, directed posteroventrally. Vent tube long, medial and partially fused with the fin. Oral apparatus emarginate laterally, with a single row of marginal papillae with dorsal and lateroventral gap, forming a ventral ridge with a variable number of papillae. Submarginal papillae absent. Jaw sheaths wide. Upper sheaths slightly convex. Lower sheaths widely V-shaped. LTRF 2(2)/2. The internal oral features were thoroughly described by Prado and Rossa-Feres (2005). Tail weakly convex. Caudal muscle heavy. General coloration brown, fins translucent, with marginal dark blotches, concentrated in the posterior third of the tail (Rossa-Feres and Jim 1993, Rossa-Feres and Nomura 2006).
The karyotype was described by Denaro (1972); the diploid number is equal to 22.
Pictures of the life cycle of Physalaemus centralis can be found in Brasileiro and Martins (2006). The epithet of this species (centralis) refers to its distribution in central Brazil.