Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This Australian endemic occurs along the southeast coast of Australia from southeast Queensland south along the coast of New South Wales, throughout Victoria and into the southwest corner of South Australia. It is also found along the northern and eastern coasts of Tasmania, as well as an isolated population in the centre. It also occurs on many offshore islands. Five sub-species are recognized. The extent of occurrence of the species is approximately 700,000km2.
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Distribution and Habitat

South-east coast of Australia from south-east Queensland south along the coast of New South Wales, throughout Victoria and into the south-west corner of South Australia. Also found along the northern and eastern coasts of Tasmania. Five sub-species are recognised.The extent of occurrence of the species is approximately 708300 km2.Common and widespread.

  • Barker, J., Grigg, G. C., and Tyler, M. J. (1995). A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, New South Wales.
  • Hero, J.-M., Littlejohn, M., and Marantelli, G. (1991). Frogwatch Field Guide to Victorian Frogs. Department of Conservation and Environment, Victoria.
  • Martin, A.A. (1972). ''Studies in Australian amphibia III. The Limnodynastes dorsalis complex (Anura: Leptodactylidae).'' Australian Journal of Zoology, 20, 165-211.
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Geographic Range

Southern Australia (Walker 1999).

Biogeographic Regions: australian (Native )

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Pobblebonk frogs have warty skin, thick, short legs, and round heads. Ground color is dark to pale grey with dark to bronze marking on the sides. Large glands are visible at the edge of the mouth and tibia region of the leg (Walker 1999). Webbing on the toes may stretch up to 1/4 the length of the toe. Pobblebonk frogs also have prominent teeth (Latham Bathfrog 1999). Adults reach 52-83 mm in size (Walker 1999). A pale "shovel" or spade can be seen on the hind toe (ACT Herpetological Association).

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The species frequents all habitats except alpine areas, rainforest and extremely arid zones. It is found commonly in suburban gardens, dams and swamps. It burrows in loamy soils and forages on the surface after rain. It breeds in dams, small lakes, marshes and slow-flowing streams. From August to April males may travel up to 1km to breeding sites. Males call in concealed positions, usually in floating vegetation. Up to 4,000 eggs are laid in a floating foam nest. In warm weather they complete development in 4-5 months, in cold weather development may take 12-15 months.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Burrows in loamy soil in grassland or wetland and river areas (Walker 1999).

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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

No specific information could be found on this species, but frogs normally eat insects, worms, spiders, and centipedes, and although some frogs may eat fruit, mice, or snakes, (Latham Frog 1999) it can be assumed that the Pobblebonk frog follows the typical frog diet.

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Pobblebonk frogs emerge from burrows to breed after rain. Females lay up to 4,000 eggs in foam nest using specialized skin flaps on the fingers to move bubbles from the water surface into the nest (Walker 1999).

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Jean-Marc Hero, Peter Brown, Ed Meyer, Frank Lemckert, Peter Robertson, John Clarke

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2002
    Least Concern
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These frogs are often dug up by gardeners (Walker 1999). They also face habitat loss as many Australian grasslands are endangered or threatened at this time (ACT Government 1997).

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Population

Population
It is a common and widespread species. There are at least 100,000 in Tasmania alone.

Population Trend
Stable
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Frequents all habitats except alpine areas, rainforest and extremely arid zones. Found commonly in suburban gardens, dams and swamps. Burrows in loamy soils and forages on the surface after rain. Breeds in dams, small lakes, marshes and slow-flowing streams.From August to April males may travel up to 1km to breeding sites. Males call in concealed positions, usually in floating vegetation. Up to 3 900 - 4 000 eggs are laid in a floating foam nest. In warm weather they complete development in 4 - 5 months in cold weather development may take 12 - 15 months.

  • Barker, J., Grigg, G. C., and Tyler, M. J. (1995). A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, New South Wales.
  • Hero, J.-M., Littlejohn, M., and Marantelli, G. (1991). Frogwatch Field Guide to Victorian Frogs. Department of Conservation and Environment, Victoria.
  • Martin, A.A. (1972). ''Studies in Australian amphibia III. The Limnodynastes dorsalis complex (Anura: Leptodactylidae).'' Australian Journal of Zoology, 20, 165-211.
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Threats

Major Threats
Expanding development along the east coast of Australia might pose a threat in the future. Drainage of wetlands for the creation of agricultural land is an ongoing threat. Chytrid fungus was detected in this species in Goomburra, Queensland.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

No known declines and large extent of occurrence.

Expanding development along the east coast of Australia may pose a threat in the future.

  • Barker, J., Grigg, G. C., and Tyler, M. J. (1995). A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, New South Wales.
  • Hero, J.-M., Littlejohn, M., and Marantelli, G. (1991). Frogwatch Field Guide to Victorian Frogs. Department of Conservation and Environment, Victoria.
  • Martin, A.A. (1972). ''Studies in Australian amphibia III. The Limnodynastes dorsalis complex (Anura: Leptodactylidae).'' Australian Journal of Zoology, 20, 165-211.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The range of the species includes several protected areas throughout its range.
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Wikipedia

Limnodynastes dumerilii

Limnodynastes dumerilii is a frog species from the family Myobatrachidae. The informal names for this species, and its subspecies, include Eastern or Southern Banjo Frog, and Bull frog.[1][2] The frog is also called the pobblebonk after its distinctive "bonk" call, which is likened to a banjo string being plucked. It is native to eastern Australia and has been introduced to New Zealand. There are five subspecies of L. dumerilii, each with different skin coloration.

Description[edit]

The Eastern Banjo Frog, Limnodynastes dumerilii dumerilii

Adults are roughly seven to eight centimetres long with dark warty backs, a prominent tibial gland, fleshy : metatarsal tubercules and a smooth white or mottled belly. The tadpole stage is relatively long, lasting up to fifteen months. The species is common. The five subspecies of Limnodynastes dumerilii are:

Eastern Banjo Frog, Limnodynastes dumerilii dumerilii[edit]

This is the most widespread of the five subspecies. It is mostly associated with the slopes and ranges of New South Wales, northern Victoria and the Murray River into South Australia. This subspecies normally inhabits woodland, heathland and farmland. Breeding takes place in streams, ponds and dams. Males of this subspecies have the most characteristic banjo like "bonk" of the all the subspecies. They are distinguished from other subspecies by more orange present on the flank and an orange raised stripe present from the eye to the shoulder. The subspecies is normally one solid color on the dorsal surface.

Eastern Banjo Frog, Limnodynastes dumerilii grayi[edit]

This subspecies occurs along the coast of New South Wales, south to Jervis Bay. It inhabits coastal swamps, dams, ponds associated with forest and heathland. This species doesn't breed in flowing water, which helps with distinguishing it from L. d. dumerilii in places where both occur. This is the most variegated of the subspecies, often with patches or blotches of a different color on the dorsal surface. The call of this species sounds more like a "tok", similar but louder than the Striped Marsh Frog.

Snowy Mountains Banjo Frog, Limnodynastes dumerilii fryi[edit]

This is the most restricted of the subspecies. It is only found in the Snowy Mountains area of south-eastern New South Wales. Males call from ponds or pools of streams in spring and summer. Due to its restricted range it is unlikely to be confused with other subspecies, however it is pale on the dorsal surface with fairly indistinct patches or variegations.

Southern Banjo Frog, Limnodynastes dumerilii insularis[edit]

This subspecies occurs south of Jervis Bay, along the south coast of New South Wales, in eastern Victoria and throughout Tasmania. It is characterised and distinguished by blue coloration present on the flank. There is often a pale mid-dorsal stripe. Males call from a concealed position in water during spring, summer and autumn.

Southern Banjo Frog, Limnodynastes dumerilii variegata[edit]

This subspecies is very similar to Limnodynastes dumerilii insularis. This subspecies occurs in western Victoria and south-eastern South Australia. It is chiefly distinguished by range.

Ecology and behavior[edit]

The Eastern Banjo Frog, Limnodynastes dumerilii grayi

Limnodynastes dumerilii is a burrowing frog. During dry times, and often just during the day, they will burrow underground. They will often be seen in large numbers after rain, and under the right conditions mass spawning can occur over just a few days. They have been known to call while underground, and can do so at any time of the year after rain.

Related species[edit]

The Southern Banjo Frog, Limnodynastes dumerilii insularis

In Western Australia the Western Banjo Frog, Limnodynastes dorsalis, is common around Perth. It also has a musical, resonant "plonk" call and is also called a pobblebonk.

In Queensland, the Scarlet-sided Pobblebonk, Limnodynastes terraereginae, is a small fat frog with distinctive orange or red irregular markings.

In Western New South Wales, the Giant Banjo Frog, Limnodynastes interioris, is a similar species that tends to inhabit more arid areas than Limnodynastes dumerilii.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Waite, Edgar R. (1929): The reptiles and amphibians of South Australia. Facsimile Edition, issued to commemorate the Second World Congress of Herpetology, Adelaide,South Australia, by the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 1993.
  2. ^ Brandle, Robert. "Frogs". Biological Survey of the Flinders Ranges. Department for Environment and Heritage (SA). Retrieved 2008-10-24. [dead link]
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