Southern Australia (Walker 1999).
Biogeographic Regions: australian (Native )
Distribution and Habitat
South-east coast of Australia from south-east Queensland south along the coast of New South Wales, throughout Victoria and into the south-west corner of South Australia. Also found along the northern and eastern coasts of Tasmania. Five sub-species are recognised.The extent of occurrence of the species is approximately 708300 km2.Common and widespread.
Pobblebonk frogs have warty skin, thick, short legs, and round heads. Ground color is dark to pale grey with dark to bronze marking on the sides. Large glands are visible at the edge of the mouth and tibia region of the leg (Walker 1999). Webbing on the toes may stretch up to 1/4 the length of the toe. Pobblebonk frogs also have prominent teeth (Latham Bathfrog 1999). Adults reach 52-83 mm in size (Walker 1999). A pale "shovel" or spade can be seen on the hind toe (ACT Herpetological Association).
Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; bilateral symmetry
Burrows in loamy soil in grassland or wetland and river areas (Walker 1999).
Habitat and Ecology
No specific information could be found on this species, but frogs normally eat insects, worms, spiders, and centipedes, and although some frogs may eat fruit, mice, or snakes, (Latham Frog 1999) it can be assumed that the Pobblebonk frog follows the typical frog diet.
Life History and Behavior
Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis
Pobblebonk frogs emerge from burrows to breed after rain. Females lay up to 4,000 eggs in foam nest using specialized skin flaps on the fingers to move bubbles from the water surface into the nest (Walker 1999).
Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
These frogs are often dug up by gardeners (Walker 1999). They also face habitat loss as many Australian grasslands are endangered or threatened at this time (ACT Government 1997).
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 2002Least Concern
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Frequents all habitats except alpine areas, rainforest and extremely arid zones. Found commonly in suburban gardens, dams and swamps. Burrows in loamy soils and forages on the surface after rain. Breeds in dams, small lakes, marshes and slow-flowing streams.From August to April males may travel up to 1km to breeding sites. Males call in concealed positions, usually in floating vegetation. Up to 3 900 - 4 000 eggs are laid in a floating foam nest. In warm weather they complete development in 4 - 5 months in cold weather development may take 12 - 15 months.
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
No known declines and large extent of occurrence.
Expanding development along the east coast of Australia may pose a threat in the future.
Limnodynastes dumerilii is a frog species from the family Myobatrachidae. The informal names for the species and its subspecies include eastern or southern banjo frog, and bull frog. The frog is also called the pobblebonk after its distinctive "bonk" call, which is likened to a banjo string being plucked. There are five subspecies of L. dumerilii, each with different skin coloration. The species is native to eastern Australia. There has been one occurrence in New Zealand, when tadpoles of the species were found in 1999 and destroyed.
- 1 Description
- 2 Ecology and behavior
- 3 Related species
- 4 References
- 5 External links
Adults are roughly seven to eight centimetres long with dark warty backs, a prominent tibial gland, fleshy : metatarsal tubercules and a smooth white or mottled belly. The tadpole stage is relatively long, lasting up to fifteen months. The species is common. The five subspecies of Limnodynastes dumerilii are:
Eastern banjo frog, Limnodynastes dumerilii dumerilii
This is the most widespread of the five subspecies. It is mostly associated with the slopes and ranges of New South Wales, northern Victoria and the Murray River into South Australia. This subspecies normally inhabits woodland, heathland and farmland. Breeding takes place in streams, ponds and dams. Males of this subspecies have the most characteristic banjo like "bonk" of the all the subspecies. They are distinguished from other subspecies by more orange present on the flank and an orange raised stripe present from the eye to the shoulder. The subspecies is normally one solid color on the dorsal surface.
Eastern banjo frog, Limnodynastes dumerilii grayi
This subspecies occurs along the coast of New South Wales, south to Jervis Bay. It inhabits coastal swamps, dams, ponds associated with forest and heathland. This species does not breed in flowing water, which helps with distinguishing it from L. d. dumerilii in places where both occur. This is the most variegated of the subspecies, often with patches or blotches of a different color on the dorsal surface. The call of this species sounds more like a "tok", similar but louder than the striped marsh frog.
Snowy Mountains banjo frog, Limnodynastes dumerilii fryi
This is the most restricted of the subspecies. It is only found in the Snowy Mountains area of south-eastern New South Wales. Males call from ponds or pools of streams in spring and summer. Due to its restricted range it is unlikely to be confused with other subspecies, however it is pale on the dorsal surface with fairly indistinct patches or variegations.
Southern banjo frog, Limnodynastes dumerilii insularis
This subspecies occurs south of Jervis Bay, along the south coast of New South Wales, in eastern Victoria and throughout Tasmania. It is characterised and distinguished by blue coloration present on the flank. There is often a pale mid-dorsal stripe. Males call from a concealed position in water during spring, summer and autumn.
Southern banjo frog, Limnodynastes dumerilii variegata
This subspecies is very similar to Limnodynastes dumerilii insularis. This subspecies occurs in western Victoria and south-eastern South Australia. It is chiefly distinguished by range.
Ecology and behavior
Limnodynastes dumerilii is a burrowing frog. During dry times, and often just during the day, they will burrow underground. They will often be seen in large numbers after rain, and under the right conditions mass spawning can occur over just a few days. They have been known to call while underground, and can do so at any time of the year after rain.
- Waite, Edgar R. (1929): The reptiles and amphibians of South Australia. Facsimile Edition, issued to commemorate the Second World Congress of Herpetology, Adelaide,South Australia, by the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 1993.
- Brandle, Robert. "Frogs". Biological Survey of the Flinders Ranges. Department for Environment and Heritage (SA). Retrieved 2008-10-24.[dead link]
- Ryan, Paddy (13 July 2012). "Frogs - Threats and conservation". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- Whitaker, Tony; Bejakovich, Davor (June 2000). "Exotic frog incursion". Surveillance (Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry) 27 (2): 12–14. Retrieved 22 January 2015.