Overview

Comprehensive Description

Brief

"Body covered with warts, parotid gland eliptical."
  • Daniels, R J R(2005) Amphibians of Peninsular India, University Press, Hyderabad
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Description

Head with distinct rostral, preorbital, supraorbital, postorbital and a short orbito-tympanic, cranial crests; no temporal ridge; interorbital space much broader than upper eyelid; tympanum very distinct, at least two third the diameter of the eye; first finger generally but not always extends beyond second; double subarticular tubercles only under third finger. Toes with single subarticular tubercle; parotid elipticle, with dark brown scattered branching concretions; skin heavily tuberculated on flanks, tubercles usually tipped with dark brown spines; a lateral dorsal staggered row of 8-9 enlarged tubercles; cranial crests, lips, digit tips, metacarpal and metatarsal tubercles are cornified with dark brown, which tend to peal off in preserved specimens; head is almost smooth.

Recently Khan (2001) has distinguished Pakistani population of this toad as a new subspecies Bufo melanostictus hazarensis, on the basis of kidney shaped parotid glands; double subarticular tubercles under penultimate phalanx of all fingers; rostral ridge absent from head; temporal ridge present; light brown dorsum.

It is the largest toad in Pakistan, female exceeds 150 mm in snout-vent length.

Color: Dorsum uniform gray of various shades, brown or reddish with dark spots, ventrum uniform dirty white, speckled with light brown on chin and throat.

The throat of breeding male is light orange or yellow. It develops cornified pads on inner side of first and second fingers.

In Pakistan this toad is a highland form, does not extend in the Indus Valley.

For photos of Bufo melanostictus, also known as Duttaphrynusmelanostictus, adults and larvae and another species account, see www.frogsofborneo.org.

  • Church, G. (1960). ''The invasion of Bali by Bufo melanostictus.'' Herpetologica, 16(1), 15-21.
  • Khan, M.S. (1982). ''Collection, preservation and identification of amphibian eggs from the plains of Pakistan.'' Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 14, 241-243.
  • Khan, M.S. (1991). Morphoanatomical specialization of the buccopharyngeal region of the anuran larvae and its bearing on the mode of larval feeding. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Natarajan, R. (1953). ''A note on the chromosomes of Cacopus systoma.'' Proceedings of the 40th Indian Science Congress, Part 3, 180-181.
  • Mertens, R. (1969). ''Die Amphibien und Reptilien West-Pakistans.'' Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, 197, 1-96.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs widely from northern Pakistan through Nepal, Bangladesh, India (including the Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Sri Lanka, southern China (including Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau), Myanmar, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Viet Nam, Thailand and Cambodia to Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Anambas Islands and Natuna Islands, introduced to Bali, Sulawesi, Ambon and Manokwari, New Guinea (northeastern portion of the Vogelkop Peninsula, centred on Manokwari). It has been recorded from sea level up to 1,800m asl.
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All over India and adjacent countries till Indonesia
  • Daniels, R J R(2005) Amphibians of Peninsular India, University Press, Hyderabad
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Distribution and Habitat

Until recently Bufo melanostictus was reported to as the common toad of Indo-Pakistan subcontinent (Günther, 1864; Murray, 1884; Boulenger, 1890; Annandale and Rao, 1918). However, in Pakistan, this toad is confined to District Hazara, Northwestern Frontier Province, Alpine Punjab and Azad Kashmir (Mertens, 1969a; Khan, 1972a).

  • Church, G. (1960). ''The invasion of Bali by Bufo melanostictus.'' Herpetologica, 16(1), 15-21.
  • Khan, M.S. (1982). ''Collection, preservation and identification of amphibian eggs from the plains of Pakistan.'' Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 14, 241-243.
  • Khan, M.S. (1991). Morphoanatomical specialization of the buccopharyngeal region of the anuran larvae and its bearing on the mode of larval feeding. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Natarajan, R. (1953). ''A note on the chromosomes of Cacopus systoma.'' Proceedings of the 40th Indian Science Congress, Part 3, 180-181.
  • Mertens, R. (1969). ''Die Amphibien und Reptilien West-Pakistans.'' Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, 197, 1-96.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is mainly a species of disturbed lowland habitats, from upper beaches and riverbanks to human-dominated agricultural and urban areas. It is uncommon in closed forests. It breeds in still and slow-flowing rivers and temporary and permanent ponds and pools. Adults are terrestrial and may be found under ground cover (eg. rocks, leaf-litter, logs), and are also associated with human habitations. The larvae are found in still and slow-moving waterbodies.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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General Habitat

Terrestrial species in human habitations as well as in forests
  • Daniels, R J R(2005) Amphibians of Peninsular India, University Press, Hyderabad
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Duttaphrynus melanostictus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 23
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Bufo melanostictus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 5 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACTGCCCACGCTTTTGTGATAATTTTCTTCATAGTTATGCCTATTCTTATTGGTGGGTTTGGTAACTGACTTGTGCCTTTAATA---ATTGGAGCCCCAGATATGGCTTTTCCTCGAATAAATAACATAAGCTTTTGACTTCTACCCCCATCATTCCTGCTTCTCCTTGCCTCTGCTGGAGTAGAGGCTGGAGCTGGGACCGGTTGAACTGTTTATCCACCCTTGGCTGGAAATCTTGCGCATGCAGGACCATCAGTTGATTTA---ACTATTTTCTCCCTCCACCTAGCAGGAGTGTCATCCATCCTTGGGGCAATTAATTTTATTACCACCACTCTGAATATAAAACCCCCATCAATGACTCAATATCAAACACCTCTCTTTGTGTGGTCCGTCCTGATTACCGCAGTCCTTCTCCTCCTTTCCCTACCCGTCCTTGCAGCA---GGAATTACAATGCTTCTCACTGATCGAAACTTAAATACAACATTCTTCGACCCTGCCGGGGGAGGAGACCCCATT---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTT---------------ATATCAGCATCT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bufo melanostictus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Peter Paul van Dijk, Djoko Iskandar, Michael Wai Neng Lau, Gu Huiqing, Geng Baorong, Lue Kuangyang, Chou Wenhao, Yuan Zhigang, Bosco Chan, Sushil Dutta, Robert Inger, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Muhammad Sharif Khan

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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Population

Population
It is an abundant species throughout its range that is probably increasing in many areas.

Population Trend
Increasing
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Life history notes: A rare toad in Pakistan mostly confined to the low northern hilly ranges and Azad Kashmir. Nocturnal, appears soon after sunset; during day hides under stones, logs, piles of vegetation, holes and crevices among stones and in ground. Once a suitable place is selected, it is permanently shared with several toads.

The toad is lethargic timid animal. It moves about with deliberate hops from place to place in search of insects on which it feeds. In tropical southeast Asia it is most common amphibian, comes out after sunset in large numbers and frequents mostly the human habitations, where it congregate under street lamps to feed on photophilic insects (Church, 1960).

In temperate environs of western Himalayas, the breeding is initiated by the monsoon rains, from July to August. Males, gather in shallow side-pools along torrents and ponds. The call in low melodious "curr, curr, curr" repeated several times ending in a whistling note. The calling males become quite aggressive, tugging and jumping over each other, males for exceed female in numbers. It breeds in every available space containing some water from first showers of monsoon rains in the southern India (McCann, 1938). Males are much smaller than females. However, in tropical southeast Asia, the toad is known to breed throughout the year (Church, 1960).

Calling males occasionally jump over each other and try to secure a nuptial hold on each other, however, kicks and zestful wriggling dislodge them from each other and soon they resume calling. The females lurch round, as soon one comes close, a male jumps over it and quickly tightens it nuptial clasp, the other suitors are shaken off as the nuptial pair moves to a quitter place away from the site.

The eggs are laid in a double jelly string, generally in deep quieter water, where the egg-string is entangled in the vegetation or female moves round the submerged vegetation to wound the egg string round it. An egg is enclosed in a double gelatinous capsule (Khan, 1982b).

Tadpole: The tadpoles are uniform dark, inhabits side pools along hilly torrents, schools of them swarm along the marginal waters of ponds and puddles feeding on any type of algal material. The body is typically bufonid, globular with weak tail, dorsal fin is broad while ventral is narrow. The oral disc is typically bufonid, with 2(2)/3 labial tooth row formula, the oral papillae are lateral. The beak is finely serrated and sharp (Khan, 1991a).

Total length of tadpole 26-27 mm, tail 19-20 mm.

The swarms of recently metamorphosed toadlets from synchronised pairings leave water, many fall pray to several kind of predators, while several are crushed under feet and passing traffic. Karyotype number recorded for this species is 22 (Nataranjan, 1953).

  • Church, G. (1960). ''The invasion of Bali by Bufo melanostictus.'' Herpetologica, 16(1), 15-21.
  • Khan, M.S. (1982). ''Collection, preservation and identification of amphibian eggs from the plains of Pakistan.'' Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 14, 241-243.
  • Khan, M.S. (1991). Morphoanatomical specialization of the buccopharyngeal region of the anuran larvae and its bearing on the mode of larval feeding. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Natarajan, R. (1953). ''A note on the chromosomes of Cacopus systoma.'' Proceedings of the 40th Indian Science Congress, Part 3, 180-181.
  • Mertens, R. (1969). ''Die Amphibien und Reptilien West-Pakistans.'' Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, 197, 1-96.
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats to this very adaptable species. It is sometimes found in the international pet trade but at levels that do not currently constitute a major threat. It is eaten locally in northern Thailand.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Species of rugged mountains. Breeds in paddy fields, where pollution by chemicals affect its eggs and larvae.

  • Church, G. (1960). ''The invasion of Bali by Bufo melanostictus.'' Herpetologica, 16(1), 15-21.
  • Khan, M.S. (1982). ''Collection, preservation and identification of amphibian eggs from the plains of Pakistan.'' Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 14, 241-243.
  • Khan, M.S. (1991). Morphoanatomical specialization of the buccopharyngeal region of the anuran larvae and its bearing on the mode of larval feeding. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Natarajan, R. (1953). ''A note on the chromosomes of Cacopus systoma.'' Proceedings of the 40th Indian Science Congress, Part 3, 180-181.
  • Mertens, R. (1969). ''Die Amphibien und Reptilien West-Pakistans.'' Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, 197, 1-96.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
None needed, other than further taxonomic study. The range of this species overlaps with many protected areas across its range. The species should be exterminated from New Guinea as a matter of urgency.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Risk Statement

Common
  • Daniels, R J R(2005) Amphibians of Peninsular India, University Press, Hyderabad
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Relation to Humans

Exterminates crop pests and other insects.

  • Church, G. (1960). ''The invasion of Bali by Bufo melanostictus.'' Herpetologica, 16(1), 15-21.
  • Khan, M.S. (1982). ''Collection, preservation and identification of amphibian eggs from the plains of Pakistan.'' Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 14, 241-243.
  • Khan, M.S. (1991). Morphoanatomical specialization of the buccopharyngeal region of the anuran larvae and its bearing on the mode of larval feeding. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Natarajan, R. (1953). ''A note on the chromosomes of Cacopus systoma.'' Proceedings of the 40th Indian Science Congress, Part 3, 180-181.
  • Mertens, R. (1969). ''Die Amphibien und Reptilien West-Pakistans.'' Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, 197, 1-96.
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Wikipedia

Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Duttaphrynus melanostictus is commonly called Asian common toad, Asian toad, black-spectacled toad, common Sunda toad and Javanese toad. It is probably a complex of more than one toad species that is widely distributed in South and Southeast Asia.[1]

The species grows to about 20 cm (8 in) long. The species breeds during the monsoons and the tadpoles are black. Young toads may be seen in large numbers after the monsoons.


Characteristics[edit]

The wart patterns of the toads are unique and have been used for individual identification in studies.

The top of the head has several bony ridges, along the edge of the snout (canthal ridge), in front of the eye (pre-orbital), above the eye (supra-orbital), behind the eye (post-orbital), and a short one between the eye and ear (orbito-tympanic); The snout is short and blunt and the space between the eyes is broader than the upper eyelid width. The ear drum or tympanum is very distinct and is at least as wide as two thirds the diameter of the eye. The first finger is often longer than the second and the toes at least half webbed. A warty tubercle is found just before the junction of the thigh and shank (sub-articular tubercle) and two moderate ones are on the shank (metatarsus). There is no skin fold along the tarsus. The "knee" (tarso-metatarsal articulation) reaches the tympanum or the eye when the hind leg is held parallel along the side of the body. The dorsal side is covered with spiny warts. The parotoids are prominent, kidney-shaped or elliptical and elongated. The dorsal side is yellowish or brownish and the spines and ridges are black. The underside is unmarked or spotted. Males have a subgular vocal sac and black pads on the inner fingers that help in holding the female during copulation.[2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Asian common toads occur widely from northern Pakistan through Nepal, Bangladesh, India including the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia and southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau to Malaysia, Singapore, and the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Anambas and Natuna Islands. They were introduced to the Indonesian islands of Bali, Sulawesi, and Ambon and to (Indonesian) New Guinea at Manokwari on the Vogelkop Peninsula. The species is now common at Sentani in far eastern Papua Province.[3][4] They have been recorded from sea level up to 1,800 m (5,900 ft) altitude, and live mostly in disturbed lowland habitats, from upper beaches and riverbanks to human-dominated agricultural and urban areas. They are uncommon in closed forests.[1]

Ecology and behaviour[edit]

Asian common toads breed in still and slow-flowing rivers and temporary and permanent ponds and pools. Adults are terrestrial and may be found under ground cover such as rocks, leaf-litter, logs, and are also associated with human habitations. The larvae are found in still and slow-moving waterbodies.[1] They are often seen at night under street lamps especially in times when winged termites swarm. They have been noted to feed on a wide range of invertebrates including scorpions.[5] Tadpoles grown in sibling groups metamorphosed faster than those that were kept in mixed groups.[6] Tadpoles have been shown to be able to recognize kin.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d van Dijk, P. P. et al. (2004). "Duttaphrynus melanostictus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2012.2. IUCN. 
  2. ^ Boulenger, G. A. (1890). Reptilia and Batrachia. Fauna of British India. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 505–507. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.5490. 
  3. ^ Frazier, S. (Dec 15, 2011). "Asian Common Toad". Project Noah. 8077245. 
  4. ^ Frazier, S. (Jun 13, 2011). "Southeast Asian Toad, Asian Common Toad, Spectacled Toad". Project Noah. 6894260. 
  5. ^ Berry, P. Y.; Bullock, J. A. (1962). "The Food of the Common Malayan Toad, Bufo melanostictus Schneider". Copeia 1962 (4): 736–741. JSTOR 1440674. 
  6. ^ Saidapur, S. K.; Girish, S. (2001). "Growth and Metamorphosis of Bufo melanostictus Tadpoles: Effects of Kinship and Density". Journal of Herpetology 5 (2): 249–254. JSTOR 1566115. 
  7. ^ Saidapur, S. K., Girish, S. (2000). "The Ontogeny of Kin Recognition in Tadpoles of the Toad Bufo melanostictus (Anura; Bufonidae)". Journal of Bioscience 25 (3): 267–273. doi:10.1007/BF02703935. PMID 11022229. 

Further reading[edit]

Lu, W.; Qing, N. (2010). "Bufo melanostictus (Asian Common Toad). Record size". Herpetological Review 41 (1): 61. 

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