Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Completely aquatic and gilled throughout life. Among mudpuppies and waterdogs (genus Necturus), this species is medium-sized. All mudpuppies and waterdogs have bushy external gills, two gill slits, a laterally compressed tail, and four toes on front and hind feet. Necturus beyeri is brownish dorsally and lighter brown ventrally. Numerous dark brown to blacks spots can be seen on the dorsum, sides, and venter. Adults are 16-22 cm total length. Sexually mature males can be distinguished by the swollen cloaca and pair of enlarged cloacal papillae that project posteriorly. Hatchlings are mottled with a few light spots dorsally. Hatchling size is 13-16 mm snout to vent length (Shoop 1965). Juveniles are spotted and do not have stripes as seen in N. maculosus. Description primarily from Petranka (1998).

Sympatric with N. alabamensis in some localities, but these species differ in body shape (near cylindrical in N. beyeri vs. flattened in N. alabamensis), ventral coloration (presence vs. absence of spots), and microhabitat use (living in streambank burrows, and frequently active in the water column vs. shelter under rocks or debris, active on the bottom) (Neill. 1963; Bart et al. 1997).

The systematics of Necturus in general, and N. beyeri in particular have been problematic. Some authors have doubted that the Alabama waterdog (N. alabamensis) is a separate species from the Gulf Coast waterdog. Although they co-occur in some areas, these forms are apparently distinct in microhabitat preference, morphology, and with respect to genes (Neill 1963; Guttman et al. 1990; Bart et al. 1997). See Petranka (1998) for discussion.Necturus beyeri, N. alabamensis, and N. maculosus are relatively closely related (Guttman et al. 1990).

  • Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
  • Bart, H. L., Jr., Bailey, M. A., Ashton, R. E., Jr., and Moler, P. E. (1997). ''Taxonomic and nomenclatural status of the Upper Black Warrior River Waterdog.'' Journal of Herpetology, 31, 192-201.
  • Guttman, S. I., Weigt, L. A., Moler, P. E., Ashton, R. E., Jr., Mansell, B. W. and Peavy, J. (1990). ''An electrophoretic analysis of Necturus form the southeastern United States.'' Journal of Herpetology, 24(2), 163-175.
  • Neill, W. T. (1963). "Notes on the Alabama waterdog, Necturus alabamensis Viosca." Herpetologica, 19, 166-174.
  • Sever, D. M., and Bart, H. L., Jr. (1996). ''Ultrastructure of the spermathecae of Necturus beyeri (Amphibia: Proteidae) in relation to its breeding season.'' Copeia, 1996(4), 927-937.
  • Shoop, C. R. (1965). "Aspects of reproduction in Louisiana Necturus populations." American Midland Naturalist, 74, 357-367.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

This species can be found in Lower Coastal Plain from Texas eastward to the Mobile Bay drainage in Alabama, USA (Bart et al. 1997).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution and Habitat

The range is composed of two disjunct portions. Populations occur from eastern Texas to central Louisiana, and from southeastern Louisiana to central Mississippi. Found in medium to large streams. Logjams and leafy detritus are important habitat for adults and young (Petranka 1998 and references therein).

  • Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
  • Bart, H. L., Jr., Bailey, M. A., Ashton, R. E., Jr., and Moler, P. E. (1997). ''Taxonomic and nomenclatural status of the Upper Black Warrior River Waterdog.'' Journal of Herpetology, 31, 192-201.
  • Guttman, S. I., Weigt, L. A., Moler, P. E., Ashton, R. E., Jr., Mansell, B. W. and Peavy, J. (1990). ''An electrophoretic analysis of Necturus form the southeastern United States.'' Journal of Herpetology, 24(2), 163-175.
  • Neill, W. T. (1963). "Notes on the Alabama waterdog, Necturus alabamensis Viosca." Herpetologica, 19, 166-174.
  • Sever, D. M., and Bart, H. L., Jr. (1996). ''Ultrastructure of the spermathecae of Necturus beyeri (Amphibia: Proteidae) in relation to its breeding season.'' Copeia, 1996(4), 927-937.
  • Shoop, C. R. (1965). "Aspects of reproduction in Louisiana Necturus populations." American Midland Naturalist, 74, 357-367.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Type Information

Paratype for Necturus beyeri
Catalog Number: USNM 102675
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1928
Locality: Oakdale, at Upper Calcasieu River, Allen, Louisiana, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Viosca, P. 1937. Copeia. 1937 (2): 123, fig. 2.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Holotype for Necturus beyeri
Catalog Number: USNM 102674
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: Female;
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1928
Locality: Oakdale, at Upper Calcasieu River, Allen, Louisiana, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Viosca, P. 1937. Copeia. 1937 (2): 123, fig. 2.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Paratype for Necturus beyeri
Catalog Number: USNM 159760
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: Male;
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1928
Locality: Oakdale, Calcasieu River, Allen, Louisiana, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Viosca, P. 1937. Copeia. 1937 (2): 123, fig. 2.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It can be found in spring-fed streams with sandy bottom. It is a bottom dweller. In Louisiana, it is closely associated with leaf-litter deposits in streams, and animals may burrow into bottom during warm season (Bart and Holzenthal 1985). Probably attaches eggs to objects in water.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Necturus beyeri

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

ACTCGATGACTATTTTCTACAAATCATAAAGATATTGGTACTCTATATTTAATATTTGGGGCTTGAGCTGGCATGGTTGGAACCGCATTA---AGTCTATTAATTCGAGCCGAATTATGTCAGCCTGGATCACTACTTGGAGAT---GACCAAATTTACTATGTAATCGTTACTGCTCATGCCTTTGTAATAATCTTTTTCATAGTAATACCAATTATAATTGGAGGCTTTGGAAACTGGCTGCTTCCTTTAATG---ATTGGAGCCCCAGATATGGCTTTTCCCCGAATAAATAATATAAGTTTTTGACTCCTGCCCCCCTCTTTCCTTCTTTTACTCGCCTCATCTGGGGTCGAGGCTGGGGCTGGGACAGGTTGAACTGTTTATCCGCCTCTTGCTGGAAATTTAGCCCATGCAGGTGCCTCTGTAGACTTA---ACTATTTTCTCTTTACATCTAGCCGGAGTTTCTTCAATTCTTGGCGCAATTAATTTTATTACAACATCCATCAATATGAAACCACCTTCTATATCCCAATACCAAACTCCTTTATTTGTTTGATCCGTATTAATTACAGCTATTCTTCTATTATTATCTTTACCGGTACTCGCAGCA---GGGATTACAATATTATTAACAGACCGAAACCTAAATACAACATTTTTTGATCCCGCAGGCGGAGGCGACCCGGTCCTATATCAACATTTATTTTGATTCTTTGGACACCCAGAGGTATACATTTTAATTCTTCCTGGATTCGGAATAATCTCCCATATTGTAACCTATTATTCGGCAAAAAAA---GAGCCCTTTGGATATATAGGAATAGTCTGAGCTATAATATCTATTGGACTATTAGGATTTATTGTCTGAGCTCACCATATATTTACAGTTGATTTAAACGTTGATACACGAGCATACTTTACATCCGCAACAATAATTATTGCAATCCCTACAGGAGTTAAAGTTTTCAGTTGACTC---GCTACTATGCATGGAG
-- end --

Download FASTA File

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Necturus beyeri

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Geoffrey Hammerson

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
Populations in the core of the range are apparently secure.

Population Trend
Unknown
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Little is known about the life history of this species. Some features may be similar to other species of Necturus. Courtship activity has not been observed. Fertilization is internal by means of a spermatophore (Petranka 1998; Sever and Bart 1996). Mating likely begins in late autumn or winter, and possibly extends over a few months. One female was found containing a spermatophore in late December. In one population that was studied in detail, oviposition sites were under large boards, railroad ties and logs embedded in sandy sections of the stream. Eggs are attached singly to the undersides of cover objects (Shoop 1965). Oviposition occurs in late April to May. Nests have been found with and without females so it is not clear if females attend their eegs. Average clutch size is around 30 (Shoop 1965; Sever and Bart 1996). Hatching occurs about 2 months after oviposition (Shoop 1965).

Diet items include crayfish, isopods, amphipods, mayflies, dragonflies and sphaeriid clams. Predators are not known, but likely include fish and crayfish (Petranka 1998). Necturus beyeri often occupies burrows in streambanks, and individuals frequently swim in the water column when they are active (Neill 1963). Mudpuppies and waterdogs are nearly inactive in the summer, and individuals are rarely found (Petranka 1998). Animals caught in the autumn may be quite lean compared with their condition in the winter and spring when they are in reproductive readiness (Bart et al. 1997).

  • Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
  • Bart, H. L., Jr., Bailey, M. A., Ashton, R. E., Jr., and Moler, P. E. (1997). ''Taxonomic and nomenclatural status of the Upper Black Warrior River Waterdog.'' Journal of Herpetology, 31, 192-201.
  • Guttman, S. I., Weigt, L. A., Moler, P. E., Ashton, R. E., Jr., Mansell, B. W. and Peavy, J. (1990). ''An electrophoretic analysis of Necturus form the southeastern United States.'' Journal of Herpetology, 24(2), 163-175.
  • Neill, W. T. (1963). "Notes on the Alabama waterdog, Necturus alabamensis Viosca." Herpetologica, 19, 166-174.
  • Sever, D. M., and Bart, H. L., Jr. (1996). ''Ultrastructure of the spermathecae of Necturus beyeri (Amphibia: Proteidae) in relation to its breeding season.'' Copeia, 1996(4), 927-937.
  • Shoop, C. R. (1965). "Aspects of reproduction in Louisiana Necturus populations." American Midland Naturalist, 74, 357-367.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
It is possibly threatened by stream siltation and pollution, but the important of this factor is unknown (Petranka 1998).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Pollution and siltation of streams and rivers are likely to be threats to waterdog populations (Petranka 1998).

  • Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
  • Bart, H. L., Jr., Bailey, M. A., Ashton, R. E., Jr., and Moler, P. E. (1997). ''Taxonomic and nomenclatural status of the Upper Black Warrior River Waterdog.'' Journal of Herpetology, 31, 192-201.
  • Guttman, S. I., Weigt, L. A., Moler, P. E., Ashton, R. E., Jr., Mansell, B. W. and Peavy, J. (1990). ''An electrophoretic analysis of Necturus form the southeastern United States.'' Journal of Herpetology, 24(2), 163-175.
  • Neill, W. T. (1963). "Notes on the Alabama waterdog, Necturus alabamensis Viosca." Herpetologica, 19, 166-174.
  • Sever, D. M., and Bart, H. L., Jr. (1996). ''Ultrastructure of the spermathecae of Necturus beyeri (Amphibia: Proteidae) in relation to its breeding season.'' Copeia, 1996(4), 927-937.
  • Shoop, C. R. (1965). "Aspects of reproduction in Louisiana Necturus populations." American Midland Naturalist, 74, 357-367.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Research on threats and population status are needed.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Relation to Humans

Mudpuppies and waterdogs are sometimes seen in the pet trade.

  • Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
  • Bart, H. L., Jr., Bailey, M. A., Ashton, R. E., Jr., and Moler, P. E. (1997). ''Taxonomic and nomenclatural status of the Upper Black Warrior River Waterdog.'' Journal of Herpetology, 31, 192-201.
  • Guttman, S. I., Weigt, L. A., Moler, P. E., Ashton, R. E., Jr., Mansell, B. W. and Peavy, J. (1990). ''An electrophoretic analysis of Necturus form the southeastern United States.'' Journal of Herpetology, 24(2), 163-175.
  • Neill, W. T. (1963). "Notes on the Alabama waterdog, Necturus alabamensis Viosca." Herpetologica, 19, 166-174.
  • Sever, D. M., and Bart, H. L., Jr. (1996). ''Ultrastructure of the spermathecae of Necturus beyeri (Amphibia: Proteidae) in relation to its breeding season.'' Copeia, 1996(4), 927-937.
  • Shoop, C. R. (1965). "Aspects of reproduction in Louisiana Necturus populations." American Midland Naturalist, 74, 357-367.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Gulf Coast waterdog

The Gulf Coast waterdog, speckled waterdog or Beyer’s waterdog (Necturus beyeri) is a species of aquatic salamander native to Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas in the United States.

Contents

Description [edit]

Gulf Coast waterdogs grow to lengths of 6.0-8.5 inches and are an overall brown in color, with lighter brown and black speckling. Due to their entirely aquatic nature, their legs are short, with four-toed feet. They have external gills, which look like feathery appendages on either side of their heads. They have paddle-shaped, flattened tails. Gulf Coast waterdogs have the largest known amphibian genome, with over 100 billion base pairs.[1]

Behavior [edit]

They have lungs as well as gills, and they are typically found hiding among rocks in clear, spring-fed streams with sandy bottoms. They will consume almost any small aquatic invertebrate they can catch.

Taxonomy [edit]

The controversy over the taxonomy of the genus Necturus has been significant, particularly in regard to N. alabamensis, N. beyeri, and N. maculosus. However, electrophoretic evidence suggests N. beyeri is a distinct species [2]

References [edit]


Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!