Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Polypedates leucomystax is a small to medium-sized common tree frog, with males averaging 50 mm in total length and females averaging 80 mm in total length (McKay 2006). P. leucomystax ground color is a variable shade of brown, ranging from pale brown to yellow-brown, reddish brown, gray-brown, or dark brown (McKay 2006). Throughout most of its range, patterning is prevalent, and the pattern varies from spotted to longitudinally striped. Plain forms are also seen but not as commonly. (Frith 1977; McKay 2006). However, on Bali, the most common form is plain, without pattern. (McKay 2006).

Other common names include Perching Frog, Banana Frog, Asian Tree Frog, GoldenFoam-Nest Frog, Striped Tree Frog. This species is apparently capable ofmetachrosis (color change), from pale beige during the day to dark brown withdark stripes at night.

For photos of Polypedates leucomystax adults and larvae and anotherspecies account, see www.frogsofborneo.org.

  • Frith, D. W. (1977). ''A preliminary list of the amphibia of Phuket Island and adjacent mainland Peninsular Thailand.'' Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society, 26(3-4), 189-199.
  • McKay, J.L. (2006). A Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Bali. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida.
  • Yorke, C. (1983). ''Survival of embryos and larvae of the frog Polypedates leucomystax in Malaysia.'' Journal of Herpetology, 17(3), 235-241.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs throughout northeast India and Bangladesh, it is marginal in Nepal, and possibly occurs in Bhutan (although this requires confirmation). It is considered here to be present in western Yunnan, China. It also occurs throughout most of mainland southeast Asia, including islands large (e.g. Phuket (Frith, 1977) and Singapore (Lim and Lim, 1992 and Ming, 2000)) and small (e.g. vegetated rocks off Tioman and Redang), and is widespread (and introduced) throughout the Philippines, and is present in Borneo, Mentawai, Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, Bali, Lombok, Natuna Islands, Anambas Islands, Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores, Timor and is introduced to Papua (not mapped here). It also is found in China. It is introduced to Japan and is found in Okinawajima, Tonakijima, Kurimajima, Miyakojima, Iejima, Iheyajima, Izenajima, Sesokojima and Yabuchijima. It is found up to 1,500m asl.
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Distribution and Habitat

Polypedates leucomystax is widely distributed throughout South and Southeast Asia. It thrives in both wetlands and forests. In urban settings, P. leucomystax can be found in garden ponds, on buildings, and on roads (Frith, 1977)[3663].

  • Frith, D. W. (1977). ''A preliminary list of the amphibia of Phuket Island and adjacent mainland Peninsular Thailand.'' Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society, 26(3-4), 189-199.
  • McKay, J.L. (2006). A Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Bali. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida.
  • Yorke, C. (1983). ''Survival of embryos and larvae of the frog Polypedates leucomystax in Malaysia.'' Journal of Herpetology, 17(3), 235-241.
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Type Locality

Java, Indonesia

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Faunal Affinity

Found throughout the Philippine islands.

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This common species occurs throughout the Philippines on all major islands and many small islands as well.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is a very adaptable opportunist and commensal, occurring from beach vegetation through all manner of human habitats (such as agricultural areas, ditches, artificial ponds and lakes, gardens, even in houses) and natural edge habitats to closed primary forest. It appears to be dependent on human activities to create suitable habitats. There might be separation among habitat axes among the component species in the leucomystax complex.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Polypedates leucomystax ssp. 1RuHF

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Polypedates leucomystax

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 53
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Arvin Diesmos, Angel Alcala, Rafe Brown, Leticia Afuang, Genevieve Gee, Jeet Sukumaran, Norsham Yaakob, Leong Tzi Ming, Yodchaiy Chuaynkern, Kumthorn Thirakhupt, Indraneil Das, Djoko Iskandar, Mumpuni, Robert Inger, Robert Stuebing, Paul Yambun, Maklarin Lakim

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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Population

Population
It is abundant and common throughout its range.

Population Trend
Stable
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Breeding is year-round in some parts of the range such as north Borneo and the wetter parts of Bali (McKay 2006). However, in drier areas such as north Bali, breeding is restricted to the start of the wet season (McKay 2006). Males congregate at still or slow-moving water, or puddles, and call from the edges or elevated positions on vegetation (McKay 2006). The call has been described as a "widely spaced nasal quack, and occasionally a low throaty chuckle" (McKay 2006). Polypedates leucomystax females deposit from 100-400 eggs in oval-shaped foam nests (Yorke 1983). The foam nests measure about 10 cm in length and are constructed on vegetation above ephemeral pools (Yorke 1983), or attached to a surface by the water's edge (McKay 2006). Hatching takes place after three to four days, occurring at the external gill stage (Yorke 1983; McKay 2006). At this point the larvae wriggle free of the foam nest and drop into the water below (McKay 2006). The larvae are opportunistic predators, attacking and consuming nearly anything they can, including both live and dead conspecific tadpoles and decaying vegetation (Yorke 1983). From hatching to metamorphosis takes approximately seven weeks (Yorke 1983).

  • Frith, D. W. (1977). ''A preliminary list of the amphibia of Phuket Island and adjacent mainland Peninsular Thailand.'' Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society, 26(3-4), 189-199.
  • McKay, J.L. (2006). A Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Bali. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida.
  • Yorke, C. (1983). ''Survival of embryos and larvae of the frog Polypedates leucomystax in Malaysia.'' Journal of Herpetology, 17(3), 235-241.
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Threats

Major Threats
It is not subjected to any significant degree of disturbance, which could threaten its survival. Presumably heavy application of pesticides around houses might pose threats to local subpopulations. It is sometimes found in the international pet trade but at levels that do not currently constitute a major threat.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

It is currently not threatened, due to its tolerance for various environmental conditions, and is abundant throughout its range (Frith, 1977)[3663].

  • Frith, D. W. (1977). ''A preliminary list of the amphibia of Phuket Island and adjacent mainland Peninsular Thailand.'' Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society, 26(3-4), 189-199.
  • McKay, J.L. (2006). A Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Bali. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida.
  • Yorke, C. (1983). ''Survival of embryos and larvae of the frog Polypedates leucomystax in Malaysia.'' Journal of Herpetology, 17(3), 235-241.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The main conservation issue is the cryptic diversity within the species complex as some of the hidden taxa might be of conservation concern, but reliable recognition needs to be established before conservation strategies can be formulated.
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Wikipedia

Common tree frog

This article is about the tropical Asian frog. For the common tree frog of the temperate Old World, see European tree frog.

Polypedates leucomystax is a species in the shrub frog family Rhacophoridae. It is known under numerous common names, including Common Tree Frog, Four-lined tree frog, Golden Gliding Frog, Golden Tree Frog, Asian White-lips, Flying Leopard Frog or Striped Tree Frog. Many past authors have united it with the common Indian tree frog in P. maculatus (or Rhacophorus maculatus, as was common in older times), but today they are generally considered distinct species. In its native range, it is also called "white-lipped tree frog", but this name is otherwise applied to a species of true tree frogs (family Hylidae).

It is found in Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and possibly Bhutan. It has been introduced to Japan.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, subtropical or tropical moist shrubland, subtropical or tropical seasonally wet or flooded lowland grassland, rivers, intermittent rivers, freshwater lakes, intermittent freshwater lakes, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marshes, freshwater springs, rocky shores, coastal freshwater lagoons, arable land, pastureland, plantations, rural gardens, urban areas, water storage areas, ponds, aquaculture ponds, irrigated land, seasonally flooded agricultural land, and introduced vegetation.

It is not considered a threatened species by the IUCN.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Diesmos, A., et al. (2004). Polypedates leucomystax. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 01 December 2013.
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