Comprehensive DescriptionRead full entry
Diagnosis: Small to moderately-sized salamander (males 26-57 mm SL, females 38-67 mm SL); moderate digital webbing; adults with 45-57 maxillary teeth; moderately long tail; high color variation (dorsum may be brown to light gray to black; mottling present or not; sometimes brick red to yellow middorsal field; often pink or red limbs and throat; venter may be brown with darker markings to black with sparse white spots).
Description: Bolitoglossa pesrubra is a common small to medium-sized species with moderate digital webbing. Adults are 60 to 131 mm in total length. Adult males measure 26 to 57 mm in standard length, while adult females measure 38 to 67 mm in standard length. Tail length is moderate, measuring about 49 to 51% of total length. Eyes are large and protruding. Adults have 45 to 65 maxillary teeth, extending to 3/4 the length of the eye, and 21 to 33 vomerine teeth. Adult males have 0 to 2 1/2 costal folds between adpressed limbs, while adult females have 1 to 3. Hands and feet are moderately webbed, with at least two phalanges on the longest two or three digits free of webbing. Subterminal pads are present. Head width is 14 to 17% of standard length, and leg length is 22 to 25% of standard length (Savage 2002).
Dorsal ground color varies from shiny brown to light gray to black, with or without dark brown to black mottling, or sometimes black with light spots. Paler areas are often reddish or pinkish. A broad brick-red to yellow middorsal field is sometimes present. Limbs and throat will often be pink or red. Venter may be brown with darker markings to black with scattered white spots or blotches (Savage 2002).
This species was first described by Taylor (1952), as B. pesrubra, and subsumed into B. subpalmata by Vial (1966); much of the literature on this species is under B. subpalmata. It was separated again from B. subpalmata by García-París et al. (2000). The taxon now considered B. pesrubra may still represent several species (Stuart et al. 2008).
The karyotype is 2N=26, NF (nombre fundamental, the number of chromosome arms)=52; all chromosomes are biarmed. No heteromorphism is present in sex chromosomes of this species (Kezer 1964; León and Kezer 1978).
A Spanish-language species account can be found at the website of Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio).