The distribution of Japanese serows is restricted to the Japanese islands of Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku.
Biogeographic Regions: palearctic (Native )
Other Geographic Terms: island endemic
- Fukuda, G. 1995. Illustrated pocket book of animals in colour. 5-12, 1 Chome, Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan: Hokuryukan.
- Kubo, K., Y. Nakagawa, N. Maeda, K. Numata, T. Yamada. 2001. Yama-kei pocket guide 24, Nihon yasei doubutsu. 1-1-33, Shiba-daimon, Minatoku, Tokyo, Japan: YAMA-KEI Publishers Co.,Ltd..
Japanese serows are similar in appearance to goats. Their horns average 12 to 16 cm in length. Their body length is approximately 130 cm, and their shoulder height is about 65 cm. Adult serows weigh 30-45 kg, and they are not strongly sexually dimorphic. Their pelage is dark brown, but in the northern part of their range the color is lighter. They possess large infraorbital glands that are used in scent marking their territories. This gland can be seen easily.
Range mass: 30 to 45 kg.
Average mass: 37 kg.
Average length: 130 cm.
Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry
Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike
Habitat and Ecology
Japanese serows inhabit forested areas on mountains.
Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial
Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; mountains
- Kishimoto, R., T. Kawamichi. 1996. Territoriality and monogamous pairs in a solitary ungulate, the Japanese serow, Capricornis crispus . Animal Behavior, 52: 673-682.
- Ochiai, K. 1999. Diet of the Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus) on the Shimokita Peninsula, northern Japan, in reference to variations with a 16-year interval. Mammal study, 24: 91-102.
- Ochiai, K., K. Susaki. 2002. Effects of territoriality on population density in the Japanese serow, (Capricornis crispus). Journal of Mammalogy, 83(4): 964-972.
Japanese serows are browsers that feed primarily on the buds and leaves of deciduous broad-leaved trees. They also feed on leaves of evergreen coniferous trees and fallen acorns. They sometimes eat flowers and fruits.
Plant Foods: leaves; wood, bark, or stems; seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit; flowers
Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore )
- Takatsuki, S., N. Ôsugi, T. Itô. 1988. A Note on the Food Habits of the Japanese Serow at the Western Foothill of Mt. Zao, northern Japan. Journal of the Mammalogical Society of Japan, 13(2): 139-142.
Because Japanese serows are territorial and their density in any particular area is limited, their impact on vegetation is relatively low. However, some species of plants are affected by their browsing and consequently they have some influence over the vegetation.
Japanese serows have no or very few predators other than humans. A potential predator is Ursus thibetanus, Asiatic black bears. However, Asiatic black bears are not highly predatory. Historically, wolves probably preyed on serows, but wolves were exterminated from the serow's range by the early 1900s. More significantly, humans hunted them for meat and hide in the past. They are currently protected as a Japanese natural heritage and hunting is prohibited. Recently, dog predation was found to be a leading source of mortality in some areas.
- humans (Homo sapiens)
- domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)
Life History and Behavior
Japanese serows use scent marking to hold territories. Because they are solitary animals and have little occasion to encounter other individuals of the same species, they use scent marking as their primary method of communication. Females use sound to call their young.
Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic ; chemical
Other Communication Modes: scent marks
Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical
The maximum longevity is 20 to 21 years for males and 21 to 22 years for females. Life expectancies at birth are 5.3 to 5.5 years for males and 4.8 and 5.1 years for females. One study found that serows live in same territory for 11.7 to 12.4 years. Because serows disperse from their natal territories at 2 to 4 years of age to establish their own territories, they live most of their lives in the territory they established. Also, it is likely that successful establishment of a territory increases an individual's chances of survival greatly, those without territories have greater risk of mortality.
Status: wild: 20 to 22 years.
Status: wild: 4.8 to 5.5 years.
Status: captivity: 10.0 years.
- Tokida, K., S. Miura. 1988. Mortality and Life Table of a Japanese Serow (Capricornis crispus) Population in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Journal of the Mammalogical Society of Japan, 13(2): 119-126.
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
Japanese serows usually form monogamous pairs. However, some males mate with two and occasionally three females in the same breeding season. Two field studies at different locations found a similar proportion of polygynous males (20-30%), suggesting that the proportion of animals that mate polygynously is perhaps fixed in the species. Both sexes form territories that they defend against other individuals of the same sex. Usually male territories almost completely overlap those of a female, but sometimes male territories include territories of more than one female. In these cases, those males are polygynous. Mated pairs remain together every year, perhaps because they hold consistent territories. When a mate is displaced from their territory, their mate remains in the same territory and mates with the individual that takes over the territory of the displaced animal.
Mating System: monogamous ; polygynous
Japanese serows rut in September to November. The young are born in May and June, and they remain with their mother for about a year. Young reach sexual maturity at 2.5 to 3 years of age. Although serows become independent as yearlings, they remain in their natal territory. They disperse between 2 to 4 years of age, but females may inherit their mothers' territories.
Breeding interval: Japanese serows breed once yearly.
Breeding season: Breeding occurs from Septermber to November.
Range number of offspring: 1 to 3.
Average number of offspring: 1.01.
Range gestation period: 6.67 to 7.67 months.
Average weaning age: 5 months.
Average time to independence: 1 years.
Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 2.5 to 3 years.
Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 2.5 to 3 years.
Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous
Most of the parental investment is provided by the mother. Young serows follow their mothers for a year, and remain in the mother’s territory for 2 to 4 years. Lactation continues until November. Males provide no parental care to the young, although they permit young within their territories.
Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); post-independence association with parents; inherits maternal/paternal territory
- Kishimoto, R. 1989. Early Mother and Kid Behavior of a Typical "Follower", Japanese Serow Capricornis crispus . Mammalia, 53(2): 165-176.
- Kishimoto, R., T. Kawamichi. 1996. Territoriality and monogamous pairs in a solitary ungulate, the Japanese serow, Capricornis crispus . Animal Behavior, 52: 673-682.
- Ochiai, K., K. Susaki. 2002. Effects of territoriality on population density in the Japanese serow, (Capricornis crispus). Journal of Mammalogy, 83(4): 964-972.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Capricornis crispus
Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
-- end --
Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Capricornis crispus
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 1996Lower Risk/conservation dependent (LR/cd)
- 1965Less rare but believed to be threatened-requires watching
Japanese serows were hunted to near extinction by people in the past. They are currently protected as a natural heritage and hunting has been prohibited. They are listed as Lower Risk in IUCN.
US Federal List: no special status
CITES: no special status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern
The sika deer population is conspicuously increasing throughout Japan in recent years, and undergrowth of forest is decreasing by the grazing and browsing, and the interspecific competition with sika deer might affect serow population.
The Japanese serow is legally managed under two laws, LPCP and the Wildlife Protection and Hunting Law (WPHL). The competent authority of LPCP is the Agency for Cultural Affairs, and that of WPHL is the Environmental Agency (currently Ministry of the Environment). The Forestry Agency has jurisdiction over forest management policy, which concerns damage prevention and habitat treatment. In 1979, these three Agencies reached an agreement to change serow management measures. The essential points of new management policy were as follows.
1) To establish serow protection areas. This decision meant the designation of Special Natural Monument Species would be repealed and instead Serow Protection Areas would be designated based on LPCP in the future.
2) To allow serow cull as pest control outside the serow protection areas in cases of necessity.
3) The Agency for Cultural Affairs would bear responsibility for conservation in the protection areas, the Environmental Agency would bear responsibility for management of serow outside the protection areas, and the Forestry Agency for avoiding serow damage on young conifer plantations by non-fatal methods such as fencing and netting.
Conservationists, nature conservation NGOs, and some biologists opposed to this policy change.
Three primary functions were expected from the protection areas were 1) to maintain stable and viable local populations; 2) to preserve the geographical genetic diversity of serow populations; and 3) to establish a management system for serow and its habitat. Fifteen protection areas were nominated and 13 of them had been established by 1989, ranging in size from 143 km to 2,180 km. The total area is 11,800 km, which covers about 20% of the current serow range over 23 prefectures. However, in many cases, the protection areas avoid commercial forests, and are situated at relatively high elevations including unsuitable habitats for serow. Therefore, some protection areas do not have enough suitable habitat quality and/or area size for the effecitve protection of local populations.
The Agency of Cultural Affairs initiated a systematic survey of serow management in 1985, composed of main and supplemental survey programs. The purpose of main survey program is to monitor population trends and habitat conditions once every 6 or 7 years for each protection area. This program is carried out by specialists. The supplemental survey program is carried out annually, except in the main surveys year, by local inhabitants to monitor population indices, habitat changes and damage, by simple and easy methods. The data from both programs are used to develop the management plan for each protection area. Protection areas are not yet established in Kyushu and Shikoku due to disagreements with land owners. Therefore, the Japanese serow still retains the status of Special Natural Monument Species.
In 1978, a control cull began in the restricted small areas of Gifu and Nagano Prefectures, and the culling area has expanded to large part of central Honshu. As a matter of course, control cull is conducted outside the protection areas. The total number of serow removed was over 20,000 by 2005. The damage to conifer plantations in central Honshu markedly decreased in 1990s, because population density of serow in this area and also the area of young conifer plantations have reduced. Two kinds of permissions, based on LPCP and WPHL, are required for control culls of serow. The areas and periods of the control, the upper limit of the harvest number, and the capture methods are specified in the permits. Biological investigation of killed serow has been continued since the beginning of the control. Place and date of capture, sex, age, and reproductive condition are recorded for almost all individuals. These data are used for serow management.
In 1999, the WPHL was amended and the Specified Wildlife Management Plan System was established. This is a legal management system and each prefecture can make a plan to properly manage wildlife populations. This plan must state specific goals for the target species, and prescribe concrete measure for properly controlled hunting, preventing negative influences on the population, and conserving habitats. This adaptive management system is considered to be useful and practical for management of serow outside the protection areas, and seven such plans for serow had been established by 2007.
The management system for serow has significantly developed during the last 25 years. Serow populations are stable and/or increasing in most areas, but following problems might affect negatively some populations:
1) Growth of conifer plantations planted for the period from late 1950s to 1980s and over-grazing and/or browsing by sika deer reduce food supply for serow and deteriorate habitat quality.
2) Interspecific competition with sika deer may reduce serow populations.
The serow population has recently decreased in Kyushu. It is considered this decrease is probably caused by interspecific competition with sika deer. Also, the influence of deer control operations, such as disturbance of home ranges and accidental killing by hunting dogs and deer-fencing, might be having an impact. Surveys and countermeasures are needed for these problems.
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Because they browse on trees, Japanese serows sometimes become pests to the forestry industry as they damage planted trees. They are sometimes killed as a management practice to control damage to forestry plantations.
Negative Impacts: crop pest
Traditionally Japanese serows were an important source of meat and hide for people. Currently they are recognized as unique species endemic to Japan and classified as a natural heritage.
Positive Impacts: food ; body parts are source of valuable material; ecotourism ; research and education
The Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus)[a] is a Japanese goat-antelope, an even-toed ungulate mammal. It is found in dense woodland in Japan, primarily in northern and central Honshu. The animal is seen as a national symbol of Japan and is subject to protection in conservation areas.
Adult Japanese serow stand about 81 centimetres (32 in) tall and weigh 30–45 kilograms (66–99 lb). They are black to whitish, and colouring lightens in summer. The fur is very bushy, especially the tail. It is difficult to distinguish the sexes by sight, both of which have short, backwards-curving horns. Japanese serow are found in dense mountain forests where they eat leaves, shoots, and acorns. They are diurnal and feed in early mornings and late afternoons. Serows are solitary, or gather in couples or small family groups. The animal marks its territory with sweet-and-sour-smelling preorbital gland secretions, and males and females have separate territories that may overlap.
In the mid-20th century the Japanese serow was hunted to near-extinction. In 1955 the Japanese government passed a law designating it a "Special National Monument" to protect it from poachers. Populations have since grown so greatly that IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals ranks it "least concern". Complaints from foresters and farmers led in 1979 to the 1955 law's repeal. Since then the serow has had protected status in 13 designated protected areas over 23 prefectures, and has been subject to culling as a pest outside conservation areas. Conservationists have labelled it a "living national treasure of the forest". Athletes with superior agility and speed draw comparisons with the serow, and the Yamaha Motor Company has marketed the XT 225 sport motorcycle as the Yamaha Serow.
Coenraad Jacob Temminck first described the Japanese serow in 1836, and named it Antilope crispa. John Edward Gray gave it its current name in 1846.[b] Pierre Marie Heude proposed many new genera and species in a system published in 1898; Capricornis became Capricornulus, which included crispus, pryerianus, and saxicola. The system did not find acceptance.
There is no fossil record of the Japanese serow; its evolutionary history and the closeness of its relation to the Taiwan serow (Capricornis swinhoei) are speculative Its taxonomic position has led to its being called a "living fossil". Karyotype studies indicate it was the earliest species to split from the common Capricornis ancestor. The closest relative to the Japanese Serow is the Taiwan serow (Capricornis swinhoei). Genetically, there is little difference between Japanese and Taiwan serows; their karyotype is essentially the same: 2n=50, FN=60. The Taiwan serow is smaller and shorter-haired, with browner fur and a white patch under the chin and throat.
Phylogenetically Capricornis is closer to goats and sheep than cattle. The nomenclature and status of Capricornis taxa are not completely resolved. Some researchers have considered Capricornis a junior synonym of Naemorhedus, a classification that includes gorals; molecular analysis has not supported this classification. Capricornis has a lower canine, which Naemorhedus species usually do not.
In Japan, the serow is widely thought of as a kind of deer, though deer and serows are not even of the same infraclass. In the past, the Japanese word kamoshika[c] was written using the Chinese character for shika, meaning "deer".[d] Today, when written using Chinese characters, the characters for "antelope" and "sheep"[e] are used. Sometimes the serow is mistaken for a wild boar.
Appearance and anatomy
The Japanese serow  is a small bovid whose displayed morphology is primitive in relation to other bovids. It has a stocky body whose size varies little between sexes or geographic location; it stands about 70–85 centimetres (28–33 in) tall (70–75 centimetres (28–30 in) at the shoulder) and weighs 30–45 kilograms (66–99 lb). The hoof is cloven. Compared to mainland serow, the ears are shorter and the coat is typically longer and woollier—about 10 centimetres (3.9 in) on the body. It has a bushy tail of 6–6.5 centimetres (2.4–2.6 in) and no mane. Fur is whitish around the neck and on the body may be black, black with dorsal white spot, dark brown, or whitish; the coat lightens in summer. There are three well-developed skin glands: large preorbital glands in both sexes, which increase in size as the animal ages; poorly developed interdigital glands in all four legs, and preputial glands. The adult's 32 permanent teeth form by 30 months, and have a dental formula of 0.0.3.3. The inner sides of the teeth become blackened with a hard-to-remove substance, likely tree resin. The tongue has a V-shaped apex.
Differentiation between the sexes is not well developed; body size, growth, survival, and feeding habits show negligible difference. Both sexes have short, backwards-curving horns measuring 12–16 centimetres (4.7–6.3 in);[f] the sheaths have a series of transverse rings. Horns begin to develop at about four months and continue to grow throughout the lifespan. Environment affects the size of the first growth ring. Size, curvature, and thickness and number of transverse rings are indicative of age. Up to two years, there are thicker transverse rings, of greater length and flexion than in adults; into adulthood, thinner horn rings force the thick transverse rings upward. Growth increment slows earlier in maturation in females than in males. Researchers use genitalia and sexual behaviour to distinguish the sexes. Females have two pairs of mammae.
Hearing is sensitive and eyesight is strong—the serow is able to detect and react to movement from a distance, and it can see well in low lighting. Sense of smell is also strong, and the serow can be observed raising its head and sniffing the air around it.
Distribution, ecology, and behaviour
Capricornis crispus is the only wild bovine ruminant in Japan, and is endemic to three of the four main islands of Japan:  primarily northern and central Honshu, and small areas in Shikoku and Kyushu. It can tolerate colder, snowier climates than mainland serows. The animal is found solitary, in pairs, or in small family groups in open grassland and forests at an elevation of about 1,000 metres (3,300 ft), and uses caves to rest in. It prefers temperate deciduous forest, but also lives in broad-leaved or subalpine coniferous forest made up of Japanese beech Japanese oak (ja), alpine meadow, and coniferous plantations. Population density is low, at an average of 2.6 per square kilometre (6.7/sq mi), and no greater than 20 per square kilometre (52/sq mi).
C. crispus is philopatric and territorial, and marks trees with sweet-sour-smelling preorbital gland secretions to indicate its territory. Males and females establish separate, overlapping ranges, typically 10–15 hectares (25–37 acres), the male's typically larger than the female's. Aggression is rare, but the serow may react with hostility to territorial breaches. The animal has few predators, as Japanese wolves have become extinct; bears may prey on the serow. It flees with a whistling snort when it detects danger. It is an agile, sure-footed mountain dweller that is able to sprint up mountains and to jump from cliff to cliff to safety, an agility hunters have likened to the ninja.
The diurnal Japanese serow is a browser that feeds in early morning and late afternoon, primarily on fleshy or coniferous leaves, plant shoots, and acorns. It feeds on alder, sedge, Japanese witch-hazel (Hamamelis Japonica), and Japanese cedar. It adjusts its diet to what food is locally available, and as a ruminant, the serow has a four-chambered stomach. Studies indicate that even severe winters have negligible impact on the serow's food intake, suggesting that, given its solitary social structure, it selects its territory to ensure sufficient food supply. Defecation occurs in set locations.
Life expectancies may be up to 20–25 years.[g] Parapoxvirus is common, though rarely fatal; Infection causes papular and nodular lesions. There have been epidemics of contagious pustular dermatitis. Bacteria such as E. coli and Lyme borreliosis are common, and Toxoplasma gondii has been reported. C. crispus is susceptible to numerous parasites, such as the nematode Trichuris discolor and the lungworm Protostrongylus shiozawai.
Capricornis crispus is socially monogamous.[h] Females reach sexual maturity at 30 months. First breeding takes place at age 2.5–3 years; breeding occurs once a year, between September and January. In a courtship ritual resembling that of goats or gazelles, the male Japanese serow licks the female's mouth, strikes her on the hind legs with his forelegs, and rubs her genitalia with his horns. Both sexes display Flehmen responses.
Birth takes place between June and August after a gestation period of about 210–220 days. It takes about half an hour, as the female walks about. The single fawn is 30 centimetres (1 ft) tall and reaches adult height in a year. The fawn stays with its mother for a year or two. It then moves gradually from its mother's range until it establishes its own. Young that do not disperse on their own may be chased away by the mother.
A C. crispus on Mount Sanpōiwa in the Ryōhaku Mountains
Relationship with humans
The earliest record of human contact with the serow is of a small number of prehistoric Jōmon period bones unearthed by archaeologists, primarily in mountainous regions. It is speculated the serow was hunted for its hide and for food. What is believed to be the earliest written record appears in the Nihon Shoki (720): the Emperor Tenmu (r. 672–686) sent the hides of a yamashishi to senior statesmen; this yamashishi likely refers to the serow, and recurs elsewhere in the Nihon Shoki. The 8th-century Man'yōshū contains a waka poem by Kakinomoto no Hitomaro that mentions a group of shishi; a number of writers have concluded this animal is the serow, but others have pointed out the serow is normally solitary. Heian period (794–1185) documents record gifts of serow horns brought to the capital. Japan's earliest extant medical work, the Daidōruijuhō (ja) (808), appears to record the use of serow horn and flesh for medicinal purposes.
For centuries following the Heian period mention of the serow becomes scarce. There is some belief that it was still hunted for medicinal use. The Edo period (1603–1868) saw records increase. The Wakan Sansai Zue encyclopaedia of 1712 contains an illustrated entry on the serow. Laws prohibiting hunting (ja) came into effect, but exception were made where animals damaged crops. Following the Meiji Restoration in 1868, realistic depictions appeared of the serow, beginning with one in Keisuke Ito's Fauna Japonica (1870).
Hunting and conservation
The serow has long been hunted in Japan, especially in northern Japan where, along with bear-hunting, serow-hunting was strongly associated with matagi culture. Throughout Japan's mountainous regions the serow has been a valued catch, its various body parts used without waste. Prized in particular its meat—until the mid-20th century serow meat was so widely eaten in these regions the animal itself was known as "meat".[i] Its waterproof hides were used for rafters' backflaps, its horns were ground as a preventative against diseases such as beriberi, and a cure for stomachaches was made from the serow's small intestines and gall bladder.
An animal that once inhabited deep forests far from populated areas, the Japanese serow has increasingly penetrated the outskirts of villages. In western Honshū, it had become extinct by the 20th century. Elsewhere it had been hunted to such a severe degree that the Japanese government declared it a "Non-Game Species" in a 1925 hunting law. In 1934 the Law for Protection of Cultural Properties designated it a "Natural Monument Species".[j] Poaching continued, so in 1955 the government declared the Japanese serow a "Special Natural Monument",[k] at which point overhunting had brought its numbers to 2000–3000. Populations grew as the police put an end to poaching, and post-War monoculture conifer plantations created favourable environments for the animal. By the 1980s, population estimates had grown to up to 100,000 and serow range had reached 40,000 square kilometres (15,000 sq mi). Between 1978 and 2003, its distribution increased 170%, and population had stabilized.
Conflicts with agriculture and forestry led to a 1978 repeal of the full protection the animal received under the 1955 designation. Thenceforth 13[l] designated protection areas were established over 23 prefectures. They cover about 20% of the serow range, have a total area of 11,800 square kilometres (4,600 sq mi), and range in size from 143 square kilometres (55 sq mi) to 2,180 square kilometres (840 sq mi). Culling removed 20,000 outside of conservation areas between 1978 and 2005.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals ranked the Japanese serow as "Least Concern" in 2008, as it has wide distribution in Japan, and a large, stable or increasing population. The Law for Protection of Cultural Properties (ja)[m] and Wildlife Protection and Hunting Law (ja)[n] provide for the legal management of the Japanese serow. In 1979 the Agency for Cultural Affairs, Environmental Agency, and Forestry Agency reached an agreement on serow management measures, such as the establishment of protection areas and culling as pest control. The measures met with resistance from conservationists, naturalist organizations, and some biologists, as the animal had previously been fully protected. A 1999 amendment to the Wildlife Protection and Hunting Law allowed prefectures to manage wildlife populations; by 2007 seven plans had been established for serow management outside of conservation areas.
Foresters have raised concerns that the rising serow populations have interfered with post-War mountainside reforestation efforts, as the animal feeds on the saplings of Japanese cypress, Japanese cedar, and Japanese red pine, species with commercial significance. Serow have caused damage to farm crops in mountain villages, and the villagers have objected to conservationists' efforts. Damage by serows to forests has been characterized in parts of Japan in criminal or martial terms: the media have referred to the problems as ningen to shika no sensō ("the war between humans and deer") and kamoshika sensō, ("serow war"). Frustration with government and conservationists led 400 foresters to launch a lawsuit in the 1980s over serow damage to timber plantations. Foresters in Gifu Prefecture have justified the shooting of serows in the legs, as such shooting would not be fatal. Estimating accurate population numbers has been difficult. Foresters see the serow as a harmful animal, and resent government interference in controlling serow-hunting. They have accused the government and wildlife experts of undercounting serows, while conservationists have counteraccused that foresters may inflate population numbers and levels of forestry damage to promote their own interests.
Conservationists such as Shin Gotō believe that the increased visibility is due not to an absolute increase in populations, but to deforestation which has driven the animal further from its traditional home. Serows close to populated areas may feed on farms and cypress, including saplings. Clearcutting practices may also contribute to the problem, as clearcut forests create areas of rapid herbaceous growth ideal for herbivores, who see population increases. The situation is temporary, though, and after regrowth of trees leads to the forest canopy closing over after 15–20 years, the herbivore populations are displaced as the herbaceous growth ceases to flourish. In the 1990s, as the number of young plantations decreased, so did forestry damage from serows; concern instead turned to damage caused by sika deer, wild boars, and Japanese macaques. In Kyushu in particular, increased grazing and browsing competition from sika deer may be slowing growth of serow populations.
|Shimokita Peninsula||Shimokita Hantō||April 1981||37,300 (92,000)||Aomori|
|Kita-Ōu Mountains||Kita-Ōu Sankei||February 1984||105,000 (260,000)|
|Kitakami Sankei (ja)||Kitakami Sankei||July 1982||41,000 (100,000)||Iwate|
|Minami-Ōu Mountains||Minami-Ōu Sankei||November 1984||57,700 (143,000)|
|Asahi—Iide Mountains||Asahi—Iide Sankei||March 1985||122,000 (300,000)|
|Echigo—Nikkō—Mikuni Mountains||Echigo—Nikkō—Mikuni Sankei||May 1984||215,200 (532,000)|
|Kantō Mountains||Kantō Sanchi||November 1984||79,000 (200,000)|
|Minami Alps||Minami Arupusu||February 1980||122,000 (300,000)|
|Kita Alps||Kita Arupusu||November 1979||195,600 (483,000)|
|Shirayama||Shirayama||February 1982||53,700 (133,000)|
|Suzuka Mountains||Suzuka Sanchi||September 1983||14,100 (35,000)|
|Ibuki—Hira Mountains||Ibuki—Hira Sankei||March 1986||67,500 (167,000)|
|Kii Mountains||Kii Sankei||July 1989||79,500 (196,000)|
|Shikoku Mountains||Shikoku Sanchi||TBA||TBA|
|Kyushu Mountains||Kyushu Sanchi||TBA||TBA|
Labelled a "living national treasure of the forest",[o] the Japanese serow has achieved emblematic status in Japan with national associations. It is seen as a relic species harking back to the formation of the Japanese archipelago as distinct from mainland Asia. In a symbolic gesture in 1973, the Chinese government gifted Japan a giant panda, to which the Japanese government returned two Japanese serow. Municipalities and other regions of Japan have adopted the serow as a local symbol.
In Japan, the Japanese serow is most commonly known as kamoshika or kamoshishi. It has historically been given a variety of names, often based on its appearance, some of which translate as "mountain sheep", "wool deer", "nine tail cow", and "cow demon". Regional names abound, some of which translate as "dancing beast", "foolish beast", or "idiot". Japanese people often characterize the serow as "weird" or "abnormal", and it is seen as a "phantom animal" as it tends to live alone in the depths of distant forests, and appears to observe forest workers from areas high in the mountains.
The serow has a reputation in Japan for its speed and agility. Superior athletes are compared to the serow, as it is known not only for its agility, but also its sprinting ability. The Yamaha Motor Company has marketed the XT 225 sport motorcycle as the Yamaha Serow, and the title character of the Miyazaki-directed animated film Princess Mononoke (1997) uses a serow-like creature as a mount. In Japanese, the word ochiru means both "to fail an exam" and "to fall"; as the serow is known for its sure-footedness on mountain cliffs, students can buy omamori charms marked with a serow hoofprint in the hope it will help them pass exams.
- Japanese serow (Japanese: ニホンカモシカ Hepburn: Nihon kamoshika?)
- As Capricornis crispa; Robert Swinhoe amended it for gender agreement in 1870.
- In Japanese, the word kamoshika refers both to serow and antelope species.
- "Deer" (Japanese: 鹿 Hepburn: shika?)
- Japanese serow ("antelope-sheep") (Japanese: 羚羊 Hepburn: kamoshika?)
- A mean of 14.5 centimetres (5.7 in) for 30 males and 13.7 centimetres (5.4 in) for 30 females was found in a 1985 study at Gifu University.
- Estimates place life expectancy at birth at 4.8–6.5 years,
- Although the Japanese serow is generally monogamous, a 1996 study showed that 20% of males to be polygynous with two females.
- "Meat" (Japanese: 肉 Hepburn: niku?)
- "Natural Monument" (Japanese: 天然記念物 Hepburn: ten'nen kinenbutsu?)
- "Special Natural Monument" (Japanese: 特別天然記念物 Hepburn: tokubetsu ten'nen kinenbutsu?)
- 15 such areas were originally proposed. Disputes with landowners have prevented their establishment in Kyushu and Shikoku.
- Law for Protection of Cultural Properties (Japanese: 文化財保護法 Hepburn: bunkazai hogo-hō?)
- Wildlife Protection and Hunting Law (Japanese: 鳥獣の保護及び狩猟の適正化に関する法律 Hepburn: chōjū no hogo oyobi shuryō no tekiseika ni kansuru hōritsu?)
- "living national treasure of the forest" (Japanese: 森の生きている国宝 Hepburn: mori no ikiteiru kokuhō?)
- Tokida 2008.
- Jass & Mead 2004, p. 1.
- Tokida 2008; Grubb 2005.
- Jass & Mead 2004, p. 2.
- Togashi et al. 2009, p. 412.
- Wei et al. 2013, p. 6800.
- Jass & Mead 2004, p. 5.
- Lue 1987, p. 125.
- Min, et al. 2004, p. 369.
- Maruyama, Ikeda & Tokida 1997, p. 271.
- Knight 2003, p. 128.
- Knight 2003, p. 129.
- Knight 2003, pp. 128–129.
- Abe 2008, p. 113.
- Knight 2003, p. 125.
- Burton & Burton 2002, p. 2323.
- Iijima & Tsuchiya 2010, p. 115.
- Iijima & Tsuchiya 2010, p. 114.
- Jass & Mead 2004, p. 3.
- Atoji, Suzuki & Sugimura 1988, p. 159.
- Nawa 2009, p. 23.
- Jass & Mead 2004, p. 4.
- Ochiai & Susaki 2002, p. 970.
- Burton & Burton 2002, p. 2324.
- Ochiai & Susaki 2002, p. 964.
- Nawa 2009, p. 26.
- Nawa 2009, p. 25.
- Honda, Tatsukawa & Miura 1987, p. 365.
- Doko & Chen 2013, p. 53.
- Ono 2000, p. 25.
- Knight 2003, p. 126.
- Knight 2003, p. 130.
- Jiang et al. 2008, p. 1220.
- Natori & Porter 2007, p. 1443.
- Honda, Tatsukawa & Miura 1987, p. 368.
- Natori & Porter 2007, p. 1456.
- Tokida 2008; Jass & Mead 2004, p. 4.
- Inoshima 2010, p. 701.
- Sakae & Ishida 2012, p. 224; Jass & Mead 2004, p. 4.
- Kishimoto 2003, p. 147.
- Togashi et al. 2009, p. 415.
- Nawa 2009, p. 166.
- Nawa 2009, pp. 166–167.
- Nawa 2009, p. 167.
- Nawa 2009, p. 168.
- Knight 2003, p. 145.
- Knight 2003, p. 150.
- Maruyama, Ikeda & Tokida 1997, p. 273.
- Knight 2003, pp. 157–158.
- Knight 2003, p. 137.
- Knight 2003, p. 147.
- Knight 2003, pp. 148–150.
- Knight 2003, p. 151.
- Knight 2003, p. 157.
- Knight 2003, p. 152.
- Ono 2000, p. 145.
- Knight 2003, p. 148.
- Knight 2003, pp. 129–130.
- Abe, Hisashi, ed. (2008). 日本の哺乳類 (Nihon no Honyuurui) [A Guide to the Mammals of Japan] (in Japanese). Tokai University. ISBN 978-4-486-01802-5.
- Burton, Maurice; Burton, Robert, eds. (2002). International Wildlife Encyclopedia. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 2323–2324. ISBN 978-0-7614-7266-7.
- Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 704. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Honda, Katsuhisa; Tatsukawa, Ryo; Miura, Shingo (1987). "Heavy metal accumulation in wild Japanese serow". In Soma, Hiroaki. The Biology and Management of Capricornis and Related Mountain Antelopes. pp. 365–387. ISBN 978-94-011-8030-6.
- Iijima, Masahiro; Tsuchiya, Kimiyuki (2010). 日本哺乳類大図鑑 (Nihon Honyuurui Daizukan) [The Encyclopedia of Wild Mammals in Japan] (in Japanese). Kaiseisha (ja). ISBN 978-4-03-971170-0.
- Kishimoto, Ryosuke (2003). "Social monogamy and social polygyny in a solitary ungulate, the Japanese Serow (Capricornis crispus)". In Reichard, Ulrich H.; Boesch, Christophe. Monogamy: Mating Strategies and Partnerships in Birds, Humans and Other Mammals. Cambridge University Press. pp. 147–158. ISBN 978-0-521-52577-0.
- Knight, John (2003). Waiting for Wolves in Japan: An Anthropological Study of People-Wildlife Relations: An Anthropological Study of People-Wildlife Relations. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-158864-8.
- Lue, Kuang-Yang (1987). "The Biology and Management of Capricornis and Related Mountain Antelopes". In Soma, Hiroaki. A preliminary study on the ecology of Formosan serow Capricornis crispus swinhoei. Springer Netherlands. pp. 125–133. doi:10.1007/978-94-011-8030-6_10. ISBN 978-94-011-8032-0.
- Maruyama, N.; Ikeda, H.; Tokida, K. (1997). "9.4 Japan". In Shackleton, David M. Wild Sheep and Goats and Their Relatives: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Caprinae. IUCN. pp. 271–274. ISBN 978-2-8317-0353-4.
- Nawa, Akira (2009). 森の賢者カモシカ: 鈴鹿山地の定点観察記 (Mori no Kenja Kamoshika: Suzuka Sanchi no Teiten Kansatsu-ki) [Serow, Sage of the Forest: Record of Observation in the Suzuka Mountains] (in Japanese). Sunrise Publishing. ISBN 978-4-88325-389-0.
- Ono, Yūichi (2000). ニホンカモシカのたどった道: 野生動物との共生を探る (Nihonkamoshika no tadotta michi: Yasei doubutsu to no kyōsei wo saguru) [The Path Taken by the Japanese Serow: Exploring Symbiosis with Wildlife] (in Japanese). Chuokoron-Shinsha. ISBN 978-4-12-101539-6.
- Atoji, Yasuro; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Sugimura, Makoto (December 1988). "Lectin Histochemistry of the Interdigital Gland in the Japanese Serow (Capricornis crispus) in Winter" (PDF). Journal of Anatomy (161): 159–170.
- Doko, Tomoko; Chen, Wenbo (2013). "The Geographical distribution and habitat use of the Japanese serow (Naemorhedus crispus) in the Fuji-Tanzawa region, Japan". Journal of Environmental Information Science 41 (5): 53–62.
- Inoshima, Yasuo (2010). "Spatial and Temporal Genetic Homogeneity of Orf Viruses Infecting Japanese Serows (Capricornis crispus)". Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 72 (6): 701–707. doi:10.1292/jvms.09-0467.
- Jass, Christopher N.; Mead, Jim I. (15 December 2004). "Capricornis crispus" (pdf). Mammalian Species (American Society of Mammalogists) (750): 1–10. ISSN 1545-1410.
- Jiang, Zhaowen; Torii, Harumi; Takatsuki, Seiki; Ohba, Takahiro (2008). "Local Variation in Diet Composition of the Japanese Serow During Winter". Zoological Science (25): 1220–1226. doi:10.2108/zsj.25.1220.
- Min, M. S.; Okumura, H.; Jo, D. J.; An, J. H.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, C. B., Shin, N. S.; Lee, M. H.; Han, M. H.; Voloshina, I. V.; Lee, H. (2004). "Molecular Phylogenetic Status of the Korean Goral and Japanese Serow Based on Partial Sequences of the Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene". Molecules and Cells 17 (2): 365–372. ISSN 0219-1032. PMID 15179056.
- Natori, Y.; Porter, W. P. (2007). "Model of Japanese Serow (Capricornis crispus) Energetics Predicts Distribution on Honshu, Japan". Ecological Applications 17 (5): 1441–1459. doi:10.1890/06-1785.1. ISSN 1051-0761. PMID 17708220.
- Ochiai, K.; Susaki, K. (2002). "Effects of Territoriality on Population Density in the Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus)". Journal of Mammalogy 83 (4): 964–972. doi:10.1644/1545-1542(2002)083<0964:eotopd>2.0.co;2. JSTOR 1383502.
- Togashi, Mikiko; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Deguchi, Yoshitaka; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Honjou, Sachika; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Osawa, Takeshi (2009). "Plasma and Fecal Sex Steroid Hormone Profiles During the Estrous Cycle in a Japanese Serow (Capricornis crispus)". Journal of Reproduction and Development 55 (4): 412–417. doi:10.1262/jrd.20165.
- Sakae, C.; Ishida, T. (February 2012). "Direct Evidence for Toxoplasma gondii Infection in a Wild Serow (Capricornis crispus) from Mainland Japan". Journal of Parasitology 98 (1): 224–225. doi:10.1645/GE-2881.1. ISSN 1937-2345. PMID 21882974.
- Liu, Wei; Yao, Yong-fang; Yu, Qin; Ni, Qing-yong; Zhang, Ming-wang; Yang, Jian-dong; Mai, Miao-miao; Xu, Huai-liang (2013). "Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship between three serow species of the genus Capricornis based on the complete mitochondrial DNA control region sequences". Molecular Biology Reports (40): 6793–6802. doi:10.1007/s11033-013-2796-8.