The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1987. Naemorhedus Goral. D Macdonald, ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol. 1, 1 Edition. New York, NY: Facts on File Publishing.
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2001. website, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program-05/01
  • 2003. Caprinae. Pp. 87-98 in M Hutchins, ed. Grzinek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Vol. 16, 2 Edition. Detroit: Thomson-Gale Publishing.
  • Burton, J. A., and B. Pearson. 1987. Rare Mammals of the World, WIlliam Collins Sons & Co. ltd.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn M. Reeder (eds.), Mammal Species of the World,Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, 2005.
  • Duckworth, J., J. MacKinnon. 2008. "Naemorhedus Goral" (On-line). Red List of Endangered Species. Accessed April 05, 2009 at
  • Fukhar-i-Abbas, F., T. Akhtar, A. Mian. 2008. Food & Feeding Preferences of Himalayan Gray Goral in Pakistan and Arad Jammu and Kashmir. Zoo Biology, 27/5: 371-380.
  • Geist, V. 1971. Mountain Sheep: A Study in Behavior & Evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Ito, T. 1987. Breeding of goral, Formosan serow and chamois. Pages 221-223 in H. Soma, editor. The Biology and Management of Capricornis and Related Mountain Antelopes. Croom Helm, London, New York, and Sydney.
  • Jones, M. L. 1993. Longevity of ungulates in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook 32:159-169.
  • MacDonald, D. 2001. The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Matthews, L. 1971. Life of Mammals. New York: Universe Books.
  • Mead, J. I. 1989. Nemorhaedus goral. Mammalian Species 335:1-5.
  • Morris, D. 1965. The Mammals. New York: Harper & Row Publishing.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Schaller, G. B. 1977. Mountain Monarchs. Wild Sheep and Goats of the Himalaya. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Thomas, W. 2001. Endangered Wildlife and Plants of the World. Marshall Cavendish. Accessed April 10, 2009 at,M1.
  • U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1976. Endangered Status for 159 Taxa of Animals. Federal Register, vol. 41, no. 115. 24062-24067
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204
  • 汪松, 中国濒危动物红皮书·兽类,北京:科学出版社, 1998: 1-417.


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