Greater kudus are found in southern and eastern Africa. The population is the most dense in the south. In East Africa, the population is broken up and there are many isolated groups in the mountains (Estes, 1991).
Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )
occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations
Greater kudu are one of the tallest antelopes, with shoulder heights ranging from 100 cm to 150 cm. Greater kudus have the largest horns in the bushbuck tribe, averaging 120 cm in length. The body color of the greater kudu varies from reddish brown to blue-gray, with the darkest individuals found in the southern populations. The color of the males darkens with age. Along its back, the kudu has six to ten stripes. Its tail is black tipped with a white underside. Males possess a beard that females lack (Estes, 1991).
Range mass: 120 to 315 kg.
Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry
Catalog Number: USNM 163247
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Preparation: Skin; Skull
Collector(s): K. Roosevelt
Year Collected: 1909
Locality: Donyo Gelsha, Escarpment E Of Lake Baringo, Baringo District, Rift Valley, Kenya, Africa
Zambezian Halophytics Habitat
The Makgadikgadi spiny agama (Agama hispida makarikarika) is endemic to the Makgadikgadi Pans complex within the Botswana element of the Zambezian halophytics ecoregion. This agama typically inhabits the edges of the pans but it is difficult to spot, since it buries itself in the sand during the heat of the day.
One of the largest saltpans in the world, the Makgadikgadi Pan complex in Botswana stretches out over 12,000 square kilometres. The ecoregion is classified within the Flooded Grasslands and Savanna biome. Surrounded by the semi-arid Kalahari savannas, the pans experience a harsh climate, hot with little rain, and are normally a vast, glaring expanse of salt-saturated clay. These pans are sustained by freshwater from the Nata River, and more infrequently, from input from the Okavango Alluvial Fan by way of the Boteti River. Saline- and drought-tolerant plant species generally line the pan perimeters, with grasslands further removed from the pans.
For most of the year the pans are depauperate in bird numbers, except for ostriches and species such as the Chestnut-banded sand-plover and Kittlitz’s plover (Charadrius pallidus, C. pecuarius). The sole hospitable area to birds during these times is the Nata Delta, which has a permanent water source and a small resident population of waterbirds including grebes (Podiceps spp.), cormorants (Phalacrocorax spp.), ducks and plovers (Charadrius spp.) with a few flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber, Phoeniconaias minor) and pelicans (Pelecanus spp.). The grasslands surrounding the pans support a moderate bird fauna with species such as ostriches, secretary birds (Sagittarius serpentarius), kori bustards (Ardeotis kori), korhaans (Eupodotis spp.), sandgrouse (Pterocles spp.) and francolin (Francolinus spp.) being common. The Hyphaene palms to the west of the pans are nesting sites for, among others, the greater kestrel (Falco rupicoloides) and the palm-nut vulture (Gypohierax angolensis). After good rains the pans are transformed into a vibrant paradise, attracting thousands of waterbirds, most of which come to breed on the pans. Wattled and southern crowned cranes (Grus carunculatus, Balearica regulorum), saddle-billed, marabou and open-billed storks (Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis, Leptoptilos crumeniferus, Anastomus lamelligerus), African fish eagles (Haliaeeetus vocifer), black-necked grebes (Podiceps nigricollis), Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), eastern white and pink-backed pelicans (Pelecanus onocrotalus, P. rufescens), geese and waders such as avocets (Recurvirostra avosetta), black-winged stilts (Himantopus himantopus), plovers, sandpipers and teals (Anas spp.) congregate around the pans. The most spectacular arrival are the greater and lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber and Phoeniconaias minor) that flock to the pans in their thousands.
Most mammalian taxa within the ecoregion inhabit the grasslands surrounding the pans. These include Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus), Gemsbok (Oryx gazella), Springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), Steenbok (Raphicerus campestris), Greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardus), Burchells zebra (Equus burchelli), Blue wildebeest (Connocheatus taurinus), black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas), Brown hyaena (Hyaena brunnea), Spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), Lion (Panthera leo), Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), Painted hunting dog (Lycaon pictus) and even African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana) along the Boteti River. The Nxai Pan has a sizeable Springbok population and is one of the few places where Springbok and Impala cohabit. These two antelope are normally separated by habitat preference, but the Acacia savanna surrounding Nxai Pan provides the impala with a suitable habitat while the grass covered pan mimics the desert conditions preferred by Springbok.
- A. Campbell. 1990. The nature of Botswana: a guide to conservation and development. IUCN, Harare, Zimbabwe. ISBN: 2880329345
- C.MIchael Hogan & World Wildlife Fund. 2015. Zambezian halophytics. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and Environment. Washington DC
Greater kudu are found in a variety of habitats throughout Africa. As long as they have good cover, greater kudu are able to survive in the settled areas of Africa. Greater kudu can be found in habitats that provide bush and thicket cover. In the rains, greater kudu remain in the deciduous woodlands. During the dry season they can be found in along the banks of rivers where there is rich vegetation (Estes, 1991).
Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest ; scrub forest
Habitat and Ecology
Greater kudu are herbivores. They eat a wide variety of leaves, herbs, fruits, vines, flowers, and some new grass. They may water in the dry season but are capable of surviving in a waterless region (Estes, 1991).
Life History and Behavior
Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical
Status: captivity: 23.0 years.
Status: captivity: 20.8 years.
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
Greater kudu are seasonal breeders in southern Africa. At the equator, they calve in the rainy season, which is from February to June, and mate near or after the end of the rains (Kingdon, 1982). Females, if well nourished, can breed in two years. Most females, however, do not reach maturity until three years of age. Males are mature in five years. There is a nine month gestation period, and calves are born when the grass is high. Calves remain hidden for two weeks before joining the herd. Greater kudu calves are weaned at six months. Male calves remain in the maternity herd for 1 and 1/2 to 2 years while the females remain in it longer (Estes, 1991).
Range number of offspring: 1 (low) .
Average number of offspring: 1.
Range gestation period: 7 to 8.7 months.
Average weaning age: 6 months.
Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual
Average birth mass: 15000 g.
Average number of offspring: 1.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female: 517 days.
Parental Investment: altricial ; post-independence association with parents
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Tragelaphus strepsiceros
Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.
Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tragelaphus strepsiceros
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
US Federal List: no special status
CITES: no special status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 1996Lower Risk/conservation dependent(Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure
East (1999) estimated a total population of around 482,000 Greater Kudu, with the largest populations found in Namibia, where the species remains widely abundant on private farmland, and South Africa. Population trends are generally stable or increasing on private land and in protected areas in southern and south-central Africa and Tanzania, but show a tendency to decline in other regions.
In the northern parts of its range, key areas where some of the northern populations appear to have reasonable prospects for long-term survival include Zakouma N.P. (Chad), Awash N.P. (Ethiopia), Baringo, northern Laikipia and Tsavo (Kenya), and Tarangire (Tanzania) (East 1999).
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Greater kudus destroy farmers' crops in Africa (Kingdon, 1982).
In southern Africa, greater kudus have been hunted for many years. The meat from the greater kudus is very good and the horns of the male kudus are a trophy for many African hunters (Kingdon, 1982). Greater kudu can also be found in zoos throughout the world (Estes, 1991).
Positive Impacts: food ; body parts are source of valuable material
The greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) is a woodland antelope found throughout eastern and southern Africa. Despite occupying such widespread territory, they are sparsely populated in most areas, due to a declining habitat, deforestation and poaching. The greater kudu is one of two species commonly known as kudu, the other being the lesser kudu, Tragelaphus imberbis.
Greater kudus have a narrow body with long legs, and their coats can range from brown/bluish-grey to reddish-brown. They possess between 4–12 vertical white stripes along their torso. The head tends to be darker in colour than the rest of the body, and exhibits a small white chevron which runs between the eyes.
Male greater kudus tend to be much larger than the females, and vocalize much more, utilizing low grunts, clucks, humming, and gasping. The males also have large manes running along their throats, and large horns with two and a half twists, which, were they to be straightened, would reach an average length of 120 cm (47 in), with the record being 187.64 cm (73.87 in). They diverge slightly as they slant back from the head. The horns do not begin to grow until the male is between the age of 6–12 months, twisting once at around 2 years of age, and not reaching the full two and a half twists until they are 6 years old; occasionally they may even have 3 full turns.
This is one of the largest species of antelope. Males weigh 190–270 kg (420–600 lb), with a maximum of 315 kg (694 lb), and stand up to 160 cm (63 in) tall at the shoulder. The ears of the greater kudu are large and round. Females weigh 120–210 kg (260–460 lb) and stand as little as 100 cm (39 in) tall at the shoulder; they are hornless, without a beard or nose markings. The head-and-body length is 185–245 cm (6.07–8.04 ft), to which the tail may add a further 30–55 cm (12–22 in).
- T. s. strepsiceros, southern parts of the range from southern Kenya to Namibia, Botswana and South Africa
- T. s. chora, northeastern Africa from northern Kenya through Ethiopia to eastern Sudan, western Somalia and Eritrea
- T. s. cottoni, Chad and western Sudan
This classification was supported by the genetic difference of one specimen of northern Kenya (T. s. chora) in comparison with several samples from the southern part of the range between Tanzania and Zimbabwe (T. s. strepsiceros). No specimen of the northwestern population, which may represent a third subspecies (T. s. cottoni) was tested within this study.
In Groves and Grubbs book Ungulate Taxonomy, a recent taxonomic revision was made that evaluated all species and subspecies of Kudu and other ungulates. This review split the genus Tragelaphus into 4 separate genera, Tragelaphus (Bushbuck, Sitatunga, Bongo, and the Gedemsa or Mountain Nyala), Nyala (the Nyala), Ammelaphus (Lesser Kudu), and Strepsiceros (Greater Kudu) and there close relative Taurotragus (Elands). The Greater Kudu was split into four species based on genetic evidence and morphological features (ex horn structure and coat color). Each species was based on a different subspecies, Strepsiceros strepsiceros (Cape Kudu), Strepsiceros chora (Northern Kudu), Strepsiceros cottoni (Western Kudu), and Strepsiceros zambesiensis (Zambezi Kudu) which is not commonly accepted even as a subspecies. The Cape Kudu is found in South Central South Africa, the Zambezi Kudu (closely related to the Cape Kudu) is found from Tanzania South to North and West South Africa, Namibia, and Angola through Zambia, Mozambique, and East DR Congo, the Northern Kudu is found in East Sudan South through Ethiopia and Kenya to the Tanzanian border, and the Western Kudu found in Southeastern Chad, West Sudan, and North Central African Republic. Although this alternative taxonomy is not commonly accepted, it was accepted in the Handbook of the Mammals of the World.
Range and ecology
The range of the greater kudu extends from the east in Ethiopia, Tanzania, Eritrea and Kenya into the south where they are found in Zambia, Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa. They have also been introduced in small numbers into New Mexico, but were never released into the wild. Their habitat includes thick bushveld, rocky hillsides, dry riverbeds and anywhere with a constant supply of water. They will occasionally venture onto plains only if there is a large abundance of bushes, but normally avoid such open areas to avoid becoming an easy target for their predators. Their diet consists of leaves, grass, shoots and occasionally tubers, roots and fruit (they are especially fond of oranges and tangerines).
During the day, Greater kudus normally cease to be active and instead seek cover under woodland, especially during hot days. They feed and drink in the early morning and late afternoon, acquiring water from waterholes or roots and bulbs that have a high water content. Although they tend to stay in one area, the greater kudu may search over a large distance for water in times of drought, in southern Namibia where water is relatively scarce they have been known to travel extremely long distances in very short periods of time.
Predators of the greater kudu generally consist of lions, leopards, hyenas, and hunting dogs. Although cheetahs also prey on greater kudus, they are unable to bring down a mature male, so usually go for the more vulnerable females and offspring. When a herd is threatened by predators, an adult (usually female) will issue a bark to alert the rest of the herd. Despite being very nimble over rocky hillsides and mountains, the greater kudu is not fast enough (and nor does it have enough stamina) to escape its main predators over open terrain, so instead relies on leaping over shrubs and small trees to shake off pursuers.
Female greater kudus live in small herds of six to twenty individuals along with their calves, though males tend to be mainly solitary, they sometimes form bachelor herds that consist of four to eight young males (sometimes with an older bull as well). Rarely will a herd reach a size of forty individuals, partly because of the selective nature of their diet which would make foraging for food difficult in large groups. A herd's area can encompass 800 to 1,500 acres (6.1 km2), and spend an average of 54% of the day foraging for food..
Fully mature males will often fight other males by interlocking their horns with the other until one of them admits defeat and gives in. In rare circumstances this can sometimes result in both males being unable to free themselves from the other's horns, usually resulting in the death of both animals. Females may sometimes ward off males by biting them, due to their lack of horns.
Greater kudus reach sexual maturity between 1–3 years of age. The mating season occurs at the end of the rainy season, which can fluctuate slightly according to the region and climate. Before mating, there is a courtship ritual which consists of the male standing in front of the female and often engaging in a neck wrestle. The male then trails the female while issuing a low pitched call until the female allows him to copulate with her. Gestation takes around 240 days (or eight months). Calving generally starts between February and March, when the grass tends to be at its highest.
Greater kudus tend to bear one calf, although occasionally there may be two. To begin with, the calf will wait for the mother to feed it, but later it will become more demanding in its search for milk, and after a few months even aggressive. For the first two weeks of a calf's life, it hides where predators cannot find it. For four to five weeks after that, they roam with the herd only during daylight. Males will become self-sufficient at six months old. Females become self-sufficient at around 1 to 2 years old. Greater kudus may live up to 20 years of age when kept in captivity.
Greater kudus have both benefited and suffered from interaction with humans; they are a target for poachers. They also are very evasive, using the tactic of running short distances and then hiding instead of simply running away as other African antelope commonly do. Humans have also destroyed woodland cover, which they use for their habitat. However, wells and irrigation set up by humans has also allowed the greater kudu to occupy territory that would have been too devoid of water for them previously.
- IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). Tragelaphus strepsiceros. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 29 March 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern.
- Oddie, Bill (1994). Wildlife Fact File. IMP Publishing Ltd. Group 1, Card 110. ISBN 0951856634.
- Greater kudu. Ultimateungulate.com. Retrieved on 2013-10-17.
- Nersting, L. G.; Arctander, P. (2001). "Phylogeography and conservation of impala and greater kudu". Molecular ecology 10 (3): 711–719. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x.2001.01205.x. PMID 11298982.