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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species is found in Bangladesh (Ashan, 1989), SE China (Wang and Fuller, 2001, 2003), Lao PDR (Duckworth, 1997), Peninsular Malaysia (Lim, 2001, Wells and Francis, 1988, Laidlaw pers. comm.), Myanmar (Than Zaw et al. in press.), Lao PDR, Nepal, North eastern India, Taiwan, Thailand, Viet Nam and Cambodia (Wilson and Reeder, 2005, Van Rompaey, 2001). It is rarely found on high mountains (Van Rompaey, 2001), but it has been collected at 1650 m (Kurseong, Bengal, India; Pocock, 1941). From 16 records at 10 sites in Lao PDR, 14 are from over 450 m, suggesting that this species occurs, at least in south and central Lao PDR, mostly in hills and mountains (Van Rompaey, 2001). In Cambodia and Viet Nam, its range extends down to the plains (150 m) and to sea level in Hong Kong.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species has been recorded mainly near water, in evergreen and deciduous forest, scrubby areas, in plantations and near human settlements (Pham Trong Anh, 1980; Duckworth et al, 1997; Van Rompaey, 2001, Than Zaw et al. in press). It has been recorded up to 1,650 m (Pocock, 1941; Duckworth, 1997; Van Rompaey, 2001). It is diurnal in at least Lao PDR, Viet Nam, Cambodia and Myanmar, despite earlier statements it was nocturnal, which were based on very little real evidence (reviewed in Than Zaw et al. (in press) (Pham Trong Anh, 1992; Duckworth, 1997, Long and Minh Hoang 2006, Roberton et al. in prep., Than Zaw et al. in press., J. Walstone pers. comm.). Wang and Fuller (2001) conducted a study on the food habits of this species in southeastern China and found that it ate mammals, reptiles, insects and crustaceans.

In Lao PDR, this species is found in evergreen forest (including degraded areas), mainly near water; the most recent records are from hill and mountainous areas (Duckworth et al, 1999). In Thailand, Cambodia and southern Viet Nam this species is found also in deciduous forest. In India this species is found in lowland wet-evergreen forests, secondary forest and areas around industrial areas (ie oil refineries). There are records from rice fields and other agricultural areas, and even near human settlements (Pham Trong Anh, 1980). However, in Assam, India, it has not been observed near human habitations (Choudhury, 1997). Little is known about its breeding, though the gestation period is thought to be about nine weeks; probably meaning that this species reproduces more slowly than Herpestes javanicus (Lekagul and McNeely 1977). It feeds on fish, frogs, crabs, mollusks, insects and crayfish (Van Rompaey, 2001).

It is readily approached by humans due to its apparent nearsightedness (Van Rompaey, 2001), and fearlessness (Pocock, 1941). It has lived up to 13 years and 4 months in captivity (Jones, 1982). Wang and Fuller (2001) conducted a study on the ecology of this species near Taohong Village in northern Jiangxi Province, southeastern China, from April 1993 to November 1994. Wang and Fuller (2003) conducted a study on the food habits of this species in a rural agricultural area of southeastern China (Taohong Village, Jiangxi Province) by analyzing its scats, the study was conducted between June 1992 and November 1994, and found that this species ate mammals, reptiles, insects, and crustaceans.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 13.3 years (captivity) Observations: One specimen lived 13.3 years in captivity (Richard Weigl 2005).
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Duckworth, J.W. & Timmins, R.J.

Reviewer/s
Belant, J. (Small Carnivore Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is listed as Least Concern as it is found in a wide variety of habitats including both open and deciduous Dipterocarp forest and evergreen forests from the lowlands to relatively high altitudes (>1,000 m); and thus there is no justification or available evidence to suggest that the species could be considered threatened by habitat loss or change. Hunting affects localized parts of the global population, especially in Lao and Viet Nam. But even in Viet Nam the species persists in extremely heavily hunted areas. Even though declines in these countries might warrant a higher category of threat listing, they are offset by the commonness of the species in countries such as Cambodia, where hunting threats are considerably lower and unlikely to significantly increase in the next 15 years or so (i.e. assuming a short generation time). No other threats have been identified that could be leading to a significant decline in the species.
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Population

Population
In watered edge habitats amid largely natural vegetation, this is a common specis in Viet Nam, Lao, Cambodia, Myanmar. However, outside of this preferred habitat and in some prtions of its range the species is uncommon or rare (Gyldenstolpe, 1916; Inglis et al., 1919; Delacour, 1940; Khan, 1982; Duckworth, 1997; Choudhury, 1997a; 1997b; 1999). However, it is uncommon in the Jalpaiguiri District, Bengal, India (Inglis et al. 1919), while it is common in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and north Bengal, India (Choudhury, 1997a; 1997b; 1999). It's rare in Bangladesh (Khan, 1982) and relatively common in Viet Nam (Delacour, 1940). Today in Lao it is common in forested areas in north and central (Duckworth 1997, Duckworth and Robichaud 2005). It is widespread in northern Viet Nam north of Thanh Hoa, but in small numbers (Pham Trong Anh, 1980, 1982). It is common in the forests between Thailand and Tenasserim (Peninsular Myanmar) (Gyldenstolpe, 1916). Very common in the Hukaung valley of north Myanmar, widespread and at least frequent in the northern two-thirds of the country (Than Zaw et al. in press.).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
The impact of habitat loss and degradation on this species is not fully understood, is can be found in secondary forest and selectively logged areas, however, there is no evidence that it can live in totally converted areas. Hunting and retaliatory killing for raiding poultry on farms may also be threats in areas near human settlement, but the impacts of this killing at population scales are unknown.

On the China Red List it is considered near threatened, nearly meeting vulnerable due to past population declines (A1c). There is no demand for its meat in restaurants in Viet Nam (Roberton, S. pers. comm.). Incidental capture in snares is also a threat. Retaliatory killing for raiding poultry on farms in India might be a threat, but this is not considered a major threat to the population. Hunting is probably the main threat in Lao PDR, but the species persists widely ( and, despite being a ground-dwelling animal, and thus potentially suffering from incidental trapping, there is equivocal evidence for only localized population reduction (Duckworth, W. pers. comm.).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is protected in China (‘Near Threatened’), Thailand, Myanmar and Peninsular Malaysia. It is listed in Schedule IV of the Indian Wildlife (protection) Act, 1972, and in Appendix III.

It occurs in protected areas throughout its extent of occurrence. It is protected in China (near threatened), Thailand, Myanmar, and Peninsular Malaysia. It is listed in Schedule IV of the Indian Wildlife (protection) Act, 1972, and in Appendix III of CITES (India) (Van Rompaey, 2001). It is not protected in Viet Nam.
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Wikipedia

Crab-eating mongoose

The crab-eating mongoose (Herpestes urva) is a mongoose species ranging from the northeastern Indian subcontinent to Southeast Asia, southern China and Taiwan.

Characteristics[edit]

Taxidermy exhibit in the Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology, Kunming, Yunnan, China

H. urva is generally grey in color, with a broad white stripe on its neck extending from its cheeks to its chest. Its throat is steel-gray with white ends of its hair, rendering a salt and pepper appearance. Its hind feet possess hairy soles. Its tail is short and homogeneously colored with a fairer tip. The body of the crab-eating mongoose is 36–52 cm (14–20 in) in length, and 1–2.3 kg (2.2–5.1 lb) in weight.[3]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Crab-eating mongooses are common in Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, northern Myanmar and northeastern India. They are rare in Bangladesh.[2] In Nepal, this species inhabits subtropical evergreen and moist deciduous forests, and has also been observed on agricultural land near human settlements.[4]

Ecology and behaviour[edit]

Crab-eating mongooses are usually active in the mornings and evenings, and were observed in groups of up to four individuals. They are supposed to be good swimmers, and hunt along the banks of streams and close to water.[5]

Despite their common name, their diet consists not only of crabs, but also just about anything else they can catch, including fish, snails, frogs, rodents, birds, reptiles, and insects.[4]

Conservation[edit]

Herpestes urva is listed in CITES Appendix III.[2] It is listed as Least Concern by the IUCN.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 569–70. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  2. ^ a b c d Duckworth, J.W. and Timmins, R. J. (2008). "Herpestes urva". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 
  3. ^ Sheng, H., ed. (2005). Atlas of Mammals of China (in Chinese). Zhengzhou: Henan Science and Technoledge Press. p. 188. ISBN 7-5349-2936-9. 
  4. ^ a b Thapa, S (2013). "Observations of Crab-eating Mongoose Herpestes urva in eastern Nepal". Small Carnivore Conservation 49: 31–3. 
  5. ^ Van Rompaey, H. (2001). The Crab-eating mongoose, Herpestes urva. Small Carnivore Conservation 25: 12–17,

Further reading[edit]

  • Menon, V. (2003). A field guide to Indian mammals. Penguin India, New Delhi
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