Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Indris are active during the day and are most at home in the trees, where they feed on leaves, flowers and fruit, but they do occasionally descend to the forest floor to cross small treeless areas or to eat soil (4) (6). On the ground they cannot walk on all fours and so move around on their back legs, standing upright and holding their arms outstretched for balance, skipping in a unique fashion through the forest (6). These primates are social animals, living in family groups of two to five individuals, consisting of two adults and their offspring (6) (7). The adult female is dominant to the male. Females are often larger in size as they need to forage for more food than the male to feed themselves and their young (6). The male's role is to defend the territory, and mark the boundaries with urine and secretions from its glands in the muzzle (5) (7). The indri has a characteristic call, consisting of a series of howls, which serve to unite groups, express territoriality, and convey information about age, sex and reproductive ability (6). Breeding is seasonal, followed by a gestation period of more than five months. The female only gives birth to single offspring at a time, which develop more rapidly than the young of comparable sized primates (4). The young are born with the same colouration and features as the adult indris and are carried across the belly and later on the females back (6). Infant mortality is high, with 50 percent of infants dying before they are two years old from falls, injuries or illnesses, and sexual maturity comes late, after nine years for females (4). The fact that females only reproduce once every two to three years and that there are high infant mortality rates, adds to their population problem; their relatively slow breeding cycles cannot compete with their declining numbers (6).
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Description

Indris are considered to be the largest of all of the lemurs, and are the only lemurs with vestigial tails. They have dense, silky black and white fur, with their patterns varying between populations on the island (4). Indris at the northern edge of the range tend to be darker, while those at the southern edge are usually lighter in colour. Their ears are black and tufted, and they have long muzzles, long slender legs and short arms (5). They are arboreal, with fantastic adaptations to allow them to climb trees and leap from one to another. Their powerful legs are about one third longer than their arms, and are able to propel them through the forest canopy in an upright position over distances of up to ten metres (4). The hands and feet are large and adapted for climbing trees and running along the forest floor, with small opposable thumbs, and large opposable big toes, which are useful for grabbing and handling things. The other toes are held together by webbing and work as one unit (5). The females are often larger in size than the males, and look very similar in appearance, as do the juveniles (4).
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The Indri according to MammalMAP

Today’s EDGE(Evolutionary Distinct and Globally Endangered) species is the interesting indri (Indri indri).

Restricted to the north-eastern rainforest of the island, the indri is the largest lemur species indigenous to Madagascar, and is distinguished from other lemurs by its short, vestigial tail. They weigh between 7 and 10 kg, females being larger than males, and can be up to 90 cm in length. Indris are black with some white pelage (colouring varying by location), have large, tufted, black ears and yellow eyes.

Indris are diurnal animals, and among the most arboreal of the lemurs. They feed primarily on leaves, but also consume fruits, flowers and seeds.

Females give birth to one offspring every two to three years, and weaning takes place after about 6 months. Indris appear to be monogamous and live in family units.

According to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the indri is listed as Endangered.  The main threat they face is the loss of their habitat to supply fuel and timber, as well as slash-and-burn agriculture.

For more information on MammalMAP, visit the MammalMAP virtual museum  or blog.

  • Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. 2008. Indri indri. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. . Downloaded on 06 January 2014.
  • Gron, K.J. 2010. Primate Factsheets: Indri (Indri indri) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology . . Downloaded on 06 January 2014.
  • Lundrigan, B. & Katapol, C. 2000. “Indri indri”. In: Animal Diversity Web. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Indri_indri/. Downloaded on 06 January 2014
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The Indri according to Mammal

Today’s EDGE (Evolutionary Distinct and Globally Endangered) species is the interesting indri (Indri indri).

Restricted to the north-eastern rainforest of the island, the indri is the largest lemur species indigenous to Madagascar, and is distinguished from other lemurs by its short, vestigial tail. They weigh between 7 and 10 kg, females being larger than males, and can be up to 90 cm in length. Indris are black with some white pelage (colouring varying by location), have large, tufted, black ears and yellow eyes.

Indris are diurnal animals, and among the most arboreal of the lemurs. They feed primarily on leaves, but also consume fruits, flowers and seeds.

Females give birth to one offspring every two to three years, and weaning takes place after about 6 months. Indris appear to be monogamous and live in family units.

According to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the indri is listed as Endangered.  The main threat they face is the loss of their habitat to supply fuel and timber, as well as slash-and-burn agriculture.

Interesting facts:

Indris are vocal animals, making loud calls produced by a laryngeal air sac, and can be heard by humans from as far away as 1.9 kilometres.

The native name for indris was actually ‘babakota’ or ‘ambalana’, but a misunderstanding arose between the local Malagasy people and the person who ‘discovered’ it, as indri means ‘there it is’.

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Distribution

Range Description

This highly distinctive lemur is endemic to the island of Madagascar where it inhabits the eastern rain forests from Anjanaharibe-Sud in the north south to Anosibe An-ala Classified Forest. It has not been found on the Masoala Peninsula or in Marojejy (Mittermeier et al. 2008). Usually at low eleveations, but ranges up to 1,800 m (Goodman and Ganzhorn 2004).
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Historic Range:
Malagasy Republic (=Madagascar)

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Geographic Range

Indris, Indri indri, are found in the northeastern part of Madagascar.

Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

  • Nowak, R. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World, 4th edition. V-1. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
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Range

This species is endemic to Madagascar, a large island off the coast of east Africa (4). In the 1900s it was common throughout Madagascar but now the indri is only found in the eastern side of the island in the rainforests, from Mangoro River north to Sambava (5).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Indri indri is considered to be the largest of the surviving lemur species. Individuals weigh between 7 and 10 kg when fully mature. The length of the head and body is 60 to 90 cm. The tail is vestigial and is only 5 to 6 cm long. Indris have prominent tufted ears, a long muzzle, long slender legs, short arms, and silky pelage. Individuals have variable pelage coloration, with patterns of grays, browns, blacks, and whites found in this species. The ears are always black, and the face, ears, shoulders, back, and arms are usually black, but may vary in color. Whitish patches may occur on the crown, neck or flanks, but may also occur on the rear and outside surfaces of the arms and legs. Individuals at the northern end of their range tend to be darker, whereas those at the southern end tend to be lighter in color.

Indris also have large hands and feet. The thumb is small and slightly opposable, but the big toe is large and very opposable. The other toes are held together by webbing and work as a unit.

Range mass: 7 to 10 kg.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The Indri inhabits tropical moist lowland and montane forests. It lives in groups of two to six individuals, normally consisting of a monogamous adult pair (they seek new partners only after a mate dies) and their offspring. Groups in fragmented habitat tend to be larger than those in more extensive, undisturbed areas (Pollock 1979, Powzyk 1997). The diet consists primarily of immature leaves supplemented by flowers, fruit, seeds and bark, which vary in proportion according to season. They occasionally descend to the ground to eat earth, perhaps to detoxify seeds that have also been consumed (Powzyk 1997, Britt et al. 2002, Powzyk and Thalmann 2003). Home ranges average 18 ha in the fragmented forests of Analamazaotra, but have been estimated as large as 40 ha in the more pristine forests of Mantadia. Females give birth every two to three years. Reproduction is highly seasonal, with the birth of a single offspring occurring in May or June. Reproductive maturity is reached between seven and nine years of age (Pollock 1977).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Indris reside in coastal and montane rainforest from sea level to 1,800 m in northeastern Madagascar.

Range elevation: 0 to 1,800 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; mountains

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Inhabits montane and coastal rainforest from sea level to 1800 meters (6), but most typical of montane forest (2).
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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

Indris are vegetarian. They feed mainly on the fruits, leaves, and flowers of trees. Sometimes they feed on ground vegetation.

Plant Foods: leaves; fruit; flowers

Primary Diet: herbivore (Frugivore )

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Associations

Ecosystem Roles

As frugivores, indris probably help to disperse seeds. To the extent that they serve as prey for other animals, they may affect local food webs.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

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Predation

Details on predation of these mammals are not available in the literature. However, it is likely that large birds, or heavier carnivorous mammals may prey upon them.

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Communication and Perception

As in other diurnal primates, visual signals are used in communication. Body posture and facial expressions are probably included in their visual signals. Indris are vocal, and use various calls to communicate. In addition, because they are social, tactile communication is probably important, especially between members of a family. Males use scent cues in marking familial territories.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: scent marks

Perception Channels: visual ; acoustic

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Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

The lifespan of this species has not been reported. However, other lemurs may live betweeen 25 and 40 years in captivity. Indris are probably similar.

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Reproduction

Data on the mating system of these animals have not been reported. However, Indris appear to live in family units, consisting of a mated pair and their offspring. This indicates that these mammals are likely to be monogamous.

Mating System: monogamous

Indris breed seasonally, with individual females producing one offspring every 2 to 3 years. Births occur in May after a gestation of 120 to 150 days. Young are weaned at about 6 months of age, although they stay close to their mothers for about two years. Females become reproductively mature between 7 and 9 years of age.

Breeding interval: Indris breed once every two to three years.

Breeding season: Births occur in December in the northern part of the range, and in May in the southern portion of the range.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Range gestation period: 120 to 150 days.

Average weaning age: 6 months.

Average time to independence: 8 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 7 to 9 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); fertilization ; viviparous

The young ride on the mother's belly up to the age of 4 to 5 months, and then they move to the mother's back. Weaning takes place at about 6 months. At 8 months of age, the young are moving independently, although they stay close to their mothers until after age 2. The role of males in parental care has not been reported.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Female); post-independence association with parents; extended period of juvenile learning

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
A2cd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P.

Reviewer/s
Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Endangered as the species is thought to have undergone a reduction of more than 50% over the past 36 years (assuming a generation length of 12 years) due primarily to a decline in area and quality of habitat within the known range of the species and due to levels of exploitation.

History
  • 2000
    Endangered
  • 1996
    Endangered
  • 1994
    Endangered
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Endangered
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1990
    Endangered
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Endangered
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
  • 1986
    Endangered
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
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Current Listing Status Summary

Status: Endangered
Date Listed: 06/02/1970
Lead Region: Foreign (Region 10) 
Where Listed: Malagasy Republic(=Madagascar)


Population detail:

Population location: Malagasy Republic(=Madagascar)
Listing status: E

For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Indri indri, see its USFWS Species Profile

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Indri indri is an endangered species. It is endemic to Madagascar, and it is losing its rainforest habitat for fuel, timber, and slash-and-burn agriculture. Destruction is occurring even in protected areas. Hunting of indris is taboo to the local people, although occasionally one is killed for food. Indris are not typically kept in captivity. Previous attempts to do so have been unsuccessful.

US Federal List: endangered

CITES: appendix i

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: endangered

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Status

Classified as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List 2007 (1) and listed on Appendix 1 of CITES (3).
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Population

Population
Population densities are low, typically ranging from 5.2-22.9 per km² (Powzyk and Thalmann 2003).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Indris are threatened by the loss of rain forest habitat to supply fuel and timber and to make way for slash-and-burn agriculture. Hunting of the Indri was considered taboo by many local people (and still is in some areas), but fady has broken down in many regions and hunting pressure is now quite significant in some areas. Studies of villages in the Makira Forest indicate that Indri have also been hunted in the past for their skins, which were worn as clothing, that the meat is prized and fetches a premium price, and that current levels of hunting are unsustainable (Golden 2005).
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The indri is one of the most endangered species of lemur on Madagascar, and one of the most threatened primates in the world (4). They live by the coast, where forests have become so fragmented that they are almost too small to sustain viable populations (6). The main threat is slash-and-burn agriculture, a practice that continues even in protected areas (7). Forests are also cut down for fuel and timber as human populations increase (5). Hunting of the indri is a taboo in many areas on the island, so this species does not suffer as much as other lemurs from trapping, although sometimes it is killed for food (5) (7). Despite this, the indri is a seriously endangered species and will almost certainly face extinction in the next 100 years if conservation efforts do not succeed (4).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It occurs in three national parks (Mananara-Nord, Mantadia and Zahamena), two nature reserves (Betampona and Zahamena) and five special reserves (Analamazaotra, Mangerivola, Ambatovaky, Anjanaharibe-Sud, and Marotandrano) (Mittermeier et al. 2008). The corridors between Mantadia and Zahamena is being proposed as a Conservation Site. Anosibe An-ala Classified Forest in the south should be proposed as a protected area. A major region wide conservation education campaign to eliminate hunting, with the Indri as the flagship species, is recommended.
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Conservation

The indri has never been bred successfully in captivity (7). Protection of their natural habitat is therefore imperative to ensure that they are not lost forever (6) (7). Unfortunately there is no easy answer to Madagascar's conservation problems. Despite the indri being endangered, Madagascar's increasing human population needs space and resources and inevitably this erodes natural habitats (4). This problem is made worse because Madagascar is an island; this therefore limits the area that men and wildlife can expand into (6). Conservation plans have designated some areas of the island to be protected from deforestation, but there is evidence that forest clearing continues inside the parks (5) (7). It would be sad indeed to see the indri populations, once so prevalent, dwindle away to nothing (6).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Indris are interesting animals and may be important in attracting ecotourists to Madagascar.

Positive Impacts: ecotourism

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Wikipedia

Indri

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Animalia

The Indri (Indri indri), also called the Babakoto, is one of the largest living lemurs. It is a diurnal tree-dweller related to the sifakas and, like all lemuroids, it is native to Madagascar.

Contents

Etymology

The name "indri", pronounced /ˈɪndri/, comes from the Malagasy word indry [ˈiɳɖʐʲ], meaning "there" or "there it is." French naturalist Pierre Sonnerat heard a Malagasy point out the animal and took the word to be its name. The Malagasy name for the animal is babakoto [bəbəˈkut]. Babakoto is most commonly translated as "ancestor" or "father", but several translations are possible.[5] "Koto" is a Malagasy word for "little boy",[6] and "baba" is a term for "father", so the word "babakoto" may be translated as "father of a little boy."[7] The father-son dynamic of many of the Babakoto origin myths helps to explain the Malagasy name.

Physical characteristics

Along with the Diademed Sifaka, the Indri is the largest lemur still in existence. It has a head-body length of 64–72 cm (2.10–2.36 ft) and can reach nearly 120 cm (3.9 ft) with legs fully extended. It can weigh between 6 and 9.5 kg (13 and 21 lb),[5] though the average is on the lower end of the range.[8]

The Indri is a vertical clinger and leaper and thus holds its body upright when traveling through trees or resting in branches. It has long, muscular legs which it uses to propel itself from trunk to trunk. Its large greenish eyes and black face are framed by round, fuzzy ears that some say give it the appearance of a teddy bear. Unlike any other living lemur, the Indri has only a rudimentary tail. The silky fur is mostly black with white patches along the limbs, neck, crown, and lower back. Different populations of the species show wide variations in color, with some northern populations consisting of mostly or entirely black individuals. The face is bare with pale black skin, and it is sometimes fringed with white fur.[5]

Due to these color variations, Colin Groves listed two subspecies of the Indri in 2005: The dark Indri indri indri from the northern part of its range and the relatively pale Indri indri variegatus from the southern part.[1][8] Later editions of Lemurs of Madagascar by Russell Mittermeier et al. do not recognize this classification,[5] and recent genetic and morphological work suggests the variation in the Indri is clinal.[9]

Behavior

Indri resting after eating (Andasibe-Mantadia National Park, Madagascar)

The Indri practices long-term monogamy, seeking a new partner only after the death of a mate. It lives in small groups consisting of the mated male and female and their maturing offspring. In the more fragmented forests of their range, the Indri may live in larger groups with several generations. Habitat fragmentation limits the mobility and capacity of these large groups to break into smaller units.[10]

Reproduction

Female Indri bear offspring every two to three years, with a gestation period of approximately 60 days. The single infant is usually born in May or June.[5] The mother is the primary caregiver, though the father assists, remaining with his mate and offspring. Infants are born mostly or completely black and begin to show white coloration (if any) by two or three months of age.[10] The infant will cling to its mother's belly until it is four or five months old, at which time it is ready to move onto her back. The Indri begins to demonstrate independence at eight months, but it will not be fully independent from its mother until it is at least two years old. The Indri reaches reproductive maturity between seven and nine years of age: a relatively slow rate.[5]

Communication

The Indri is well known for its loud, distinctive songs, which can last from 45 seconds to more than 3 minutes. Song duration and structure varies among and even within groups, but most songs have the following three-phase pattern.

Usually, a "roar sequence" lasting for several seconds will precede the more characteristic vocalizations. All members of the group (except the very young) participate in this roar, but the song proper is dominated by the adult pair. They follow the roar with a "long note sequence", characterized by notes of up to 5 seconds in duration. After this is the "descending phrase sequence". The wails begin on a high note and become progressively lower-pitched. It is common here for two or more Indri to coordinate the timing of their descending notes to form a duet.

Different Indri groups typically sing sequentially, responding to one another. As well as solidifying contacts between groups, the songs may communicate territorial defense and boundaries, environmental conditions, reproductive potential of the group members, and warning signals. The Indri may sing after disturbances such as thunder, airplanes, bird calls, and other lemur calls. A group will sing almost every day, up to seven times daily. The peak singing hours are between 7 and 11 AM. Daily frequency of song is highest in November and December (near breeding season), when the Indri are even heard during the night.

Several other Indri vocalizations have been identified. The "roar" is also used as a warning signal for aerial predators such as hawks. The Indri emit a "hoot" or "honk" to warn of terrestrial predators such as the fossa. Other vocal categories include the "grunt", "kiss", "wheeze", and "hum". The purpose of these is still not entirely clear.[10]

Diet and feeding

The Indri is herbivorous and primarily folivorous. It prefers young, tender leaves but will also eat seeds, fruits, and flowers. Female Indri seem to have greater preference for immature leaves than males do and will spend more time foraging among them. A wide variety of plant species are consumed, with members of the laurel family featuring prominently in the diet. The Indri consumes little non-tree vegetation.

To feed, the Indri plucks off a leaf or other plant part with its teeth. It uses its hands to pull tree branches closer to its mouth.[10]

Distribution

This lemur inhabits the lowland and montane forests along the eastern coast of Madagascar, from the Réserve Spéciale d’Anjanaharibe-Sud in the north to the Mangoro River in the south. They are absent from the Masoala Peninsula and the Marojejy National Park, even though both regions are connected to forests where indri do occur less than 40 km away.[5]

Relationship with humans

Mythology

A lithograph of "Indris indris," (Brehms Tierleben)

Across Madagascar, the Indri is revered and protected by fady (taboos).[citation needed] There are countless variations on the legend of the Indri's origins, but they all treat it as a sacred animal, not to be hunted or harmed.

According to one origin myth, a boy went into the forest to collect honey, was stung by bees, and fell from a tree. An Indri caught him and carried him to safety.[7]

Most legends establish a closer relationship between the Indri and humans. In some regions it is believed that there were two brothers who lived together in the forest until one of them decided to leave and cultivate the land. That brother became the first human, and the brother who stayed in the forest became the first Indri. The Indri cries in mourning for his brother who went astray.

Another legend tells of a man who went hunting in the forest and did not return. His absence worried his son, who went out looking for him. When the son also disappeared, the rest of the villagers ventured into the forest seeking the two but discovered only two large lemurs sitting in the trees: the first Indri. The boy and his father had transformed. In some versions it is only the son who transforms, and the wailing of the Babakoto is analogous to the father’s wailing for his lost son.[11]

In all of the Babakoto origin myths, there is some connection of the lemur with humanity, usually through common ancestry. It is easy to see why the Indri is so closely identified with humans. Its long legs, large upright body, lack of a prominent tail, vocalizations, and complex systems of communication are all reminiscent of human traits.

Another human-like characteristic of the Indri is its behavior in the sun. Like its sifaka relatives, the Indri frequently engages in what has been described as sun-bathing or sun-worshipping. As the sun rises each morning, it will sit and face it from a tree branch with its legs crossed, back straight, hands low with palms facing out or resting on its knees, and eyes half-closed. Biologists are hesitant to call this behavior sun worship, as the term may be overly anthropomorphic. However, many Malagasy people do believe that the Indri worships the sun.[12]

Conservation

The Indri is an endangered species. The primary threats to its existence are habitat destruction and fragmentation due to slash and burn agriculture, fuelwood gathering, and logging. This kind of destruction occurs even in protected areas.

The Indri is also widely hunted, despite the many origin myths and traditional taboos (fady) which hold it sacred. Cultural erosion and immigration are partly to blame for the breakdown of traditional beliefs. In some cases, Malagasy people who resent the protective fady find ways to circumvent them. People whose fady forbid them from eating the Indri may still hunt the lemurs and sell their flesh, and those forbidden to kill the Indri may still purchase and consume them. Indri meat is prized as a delicacy in some regions.[5]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Groves, C. (2005). Wilson, D. E., & Reeder, D. M, eds. ed. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 120. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=12100081. 
  2. ^ Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V. N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R. A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J. C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). Indri indri. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 1 January 2009.
  3. ^ Allen, G.M. (1939). "A checklist of African mammals". Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 83: 1–763. 
  4. ^ Harper, F. (1945). Extinct and Vanishing Mammals of the Old World. New York: American Committee for International Wild Life Protection. p. 155. http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/17795180. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Mittermeier, R.A.; Konstant, W.R.; Hawkins, F.; Louis, E.E.; Langrand, O.; Ratsimbazafy, J.; Rasoloarison, R.; Ganzhorn, J.U. et al. (2006). Lemurs of Madagascar. Illustrated by S.D. Nash (2nd ed.). Conservation International. pp. 391–403. ISBN 1-881173-88-7. 
  6. ^ Parker, Philip M. “Malagasy English Dictionary.” 2007. Webster’s Online Dictionary.
  7. ^ a b Bradt, Hilary (2002). Madagascar: The Bradt Travel Guide (7th ed. ed.). Guilford: Bradt Travel Guides Ltd. http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1841620513/worldtwitch. 
  8. ^ a b Mittermeier, R.; Ganzhorn, J.; Konstant, W.; Glander, K.; Tattersall, I.; Groves, C.; Rylands, A.; Hapke, A. et al. (2008). "Lemur diversity in Madagascar". International Journal of Primatology 29 (6): 1607–1656. doi:10.1007/s10764-008-9317-y. 
  9. ^ Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Engberg, Kelley, Randriamanana, Louis Jr, et al. (2007). Morphometric data for Indri (Indri indri) collected from ten forest fragments in eastern Madagascar. Lemur News 12: 26–29.
  10. ^ a b c d Powzyk, Joyce, and Urs Thalmann (2003). "Indri Indri, Indri". In Ed. Steven M. Goodman and Jonathan P. Benstead. The Natural History of Madagascar. Chicago: University of Chicago. pp. 1342–1345. http://www.press.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/hfs.cgi/00/15522.ctl. 
  11. ^ “The Indri Indri Alias Babakoto, One of a Kind.” Babakoto.eu – Passionate About Travel. 23 July 2001. Babakoto.eu.
  12. ^ Masson, Jeffrey Moussaieff, and Susan McCarthy. When Elephants Weep: The Emotional Lives of Animals. New York: Dell, 1995.
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