The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2006. "Smithsonian National Zoological Park" (On-line). Great Apes and Other Primates- White-Cheeked Gibbons. Accessed March 21, 2006 at
  • Cawthon Lang, K. 2006. "National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison" (On-line). Primate Factsheets: White-cheeked gibbon (Hylobates leucogenys) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology.. Accessed March 21, 2006 at
  • Crane, S. 2000. ""Hylobates concolor" (On-line)" (On-line). Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 18, 2006 at
  • Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn M. Reeder (eds.), Mammal Species of the World,Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, 2005.
  • Geissmann, T. 2002. Taxonomy and Evolution of Gibbons. Evolution Anthropology, Volume 11/Issue S1: 28-31.
  • Geissmann, T., N. Xuan Dang, N. Lormee, F. Momberg. 2000. Vietnam Primate Conservation Status Review 2000- Part 1: Gibbons.. Fauna and Flora International, Indochina Programme., Volume 1/Issue 1: 1-130.
  • Kappeler, P. M., and M. E. Pereira. 2003. Primate Life Histories and Socioecology. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILlinois, USA.
  • MacDonald, D. 2001. The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Miles, L., J. Caldecott. 2005. World Atlas of Great Apes and their Conservation. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
  • Mittermeier, Rusell A., Anthony B. Rylands, and Don E. Wilson, eds. 2013. Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Volume 3. Primates. 951
  • Muller, S., M. Hollatz, J. Wienberg. 2003. Chromosomal phylogeny and evolution of gibbons (Hylobatidae). Human Genetics, Volume 113/Issue 6: 493-501.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Quist, E. 2005. ""Hylobates gabriellae"" (On-line). Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 18, 2006 at
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Roos, C. 2001. Molecular Phylogeny of the Major Hylobatid Divisions. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 19/Issue 3: 486-494.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Smuts, B. B., D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, and T. T. Struhsaker. 1987. Primate Societies. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Takacs, Z., J. Carlos Morales, T. Geissmann, D. Melnick. 2005. A complet species-level phylogeny of the Hylobatidae based on mitochondrial ND3-ND4 gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 36/Issue 3: 456-467.
  • UNEP-WCMC. 2006. "UNEP-WCMC Species Database" (On-line). CITES-Listed Species. Accessed March 21, 2006 at
  • Vaughan, T., J. Ryan, N. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammology. United States of America: Thompson Learning, Inc..
  • Wilson, D., D. Burnie. 2005. The Smithsonian Institution's Animal- The Difinitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. New York: DK Publishing Inc..
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vol. 1. xxxv + 743
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wolfheim, J. 1983. Primates of the World- Distribution, Abundance, and Conservation. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press.
  • 汪松, 中国濒危动物红皮书·兽类,北京:科学出版社, 1998: 1-417.


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