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Overview

Brief Summary

Description

There are only three species of Peccaries in the world, all in South America. Only Collared Peccaries also live in North America. Their range includes a great variety of habitats, and they eat all kind of vegetation, including cactus. They live in highly social and communicative groups. Grooming is an important social behavior, and they have at least 15 different types of calls signaling alarm, submission, and aggression. Territorial groups of 15-50 animals stay together, and cooperate to defend the herd, but they form subgroups that disperse to feed. An alpha male is the dominant animal in the herd. Peccaries often have twins.

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Mammal Species of the World
  • Original description: Linnaeus, C., 1758.  Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classis, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tenth Edition, Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm, 1:50, 824 pp.
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Distribution

Collared Peccaries are found in the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. The 14 subspecies occur from northern Argentina in South America, throughout Central America, and have spread into the southern Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas in the United States.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

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Range Description

The Collared Peccary is widely distributed. It occurs in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas in the USA, a large part of Mexico and Central America, the entire Amazon basin, the Pacific coastal forest of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, the llanos and lowland forest of Venezuela, the Guianas and Suriname, all of Brazil where it is increasingly fragmented in the south and east, and the Gran Chaco of Paraguay, Bolivia and northern Argentina where it also occurs in the upper Parana and Paraguay river basins. In Argentina, the species is extinct in the eastern and southern portions of its original distribution. The Argentine population/s of Collared Peccaries in Misiones is isolated from the rest of the country. Some of the larger islands near the mainland in the Caribbean, such as Trinidad and Tobago, also have populations of P. tajacu. However, islands further from the mainland do not currently have peccaries. Their range has recently expanded northward in the southwestern United States (Albert et al. 2004) including into Oklahoma adjacent to Texas (Stangl and Dalquest 1990).
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Northern Argentina and northwestern Peru to north-central Texas, northwestern New Mexico (Albert et al. 2004), and Arizona; introduced in Cuba (Grubb, in Wilson and Reeder 1993).

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Physical Description

Morphology

Shoulder height: 0.3 to 0.5 m Length: 0.8 to 1.0 m. Weight: 15 to 25 kg. Collared Peccaries are often confused with pigs due to their appearance. Their coat is a grizzled grayish black throughout, except for a yellowish tinge on the cheeks and a whitish to yellowish collar extending the mane, over the shoulders, and to the throat. While males and females are very similar in size and color, young are a yellowish brown color, with a black stripe down the back. Collared Peccaries have short, straight tusks that fit together tightly enough to hone eachother down with every jaw movement. This razor sharpness gives this species its common name: Javelina: a javelin is a lightweight, tip-shaped spear. Javelinas have a distinct dorsal gland on the rump that is essential in much species-specific behavior. They also have poor eyesight and good hearing, which are believed to contribute to the very vocal nature of this species.

Range mass: 15 to 25 kg.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

Average basal metabolic rate: 33.165 W.

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Size

Length: 102 cm

Weight: 29500 grams

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Size in North America

Sexual Dimorphism: None

Length:
Range: 0.85-1.02 m

Weight:
Range: 15-25 kg
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Ecology

Habitat

Sierra Madre Oriental Pine-oak Forests Habitat

This taxon is found in the Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests, which exhibit a very diverse community of endemic and specialized species of plants, mammals, reptiles and amphibians. These high mountains run north to south, beginning in the USA and ending in Mexico. The Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests are a highly disjunctive ecoregion, owing to the fact that they are present only at higher elevations, within a region with considerable expanses of lower elevation desert floor.

The climate is temperate humid on the northeastern slope, and temperate sub-humid on the western slope and highest portions of the mountain range. Pine-oak forest habitat covers most of the region, even though most of the primary forest has been destroyed or degraded. However, the wettest portions house a community of cloud forests that constitute the northernmost patches of this vegetation in Mexico. The forests grow on soils derived from volcanic rocks that have a high content of organic matter. The soils of lower elevations are derived from sedimentary rocks, and some of them are formed purely of limestone. In the northernmost portions of the ecoregion, the forests occur on irregular hummocks that constitute biological "islands" of temperate forest in the middle of the Chihuahuan Desert. To the south, from Nuevo León southward until Guanajuato and Queretaro, the ecoregion is more continuous along the mainstem of the Sierra Madre Oriental.

Dominant tree species include the pines: the endemic Nelson's Pine (Pinus nelsonii), Mexican Pinyon (P. cembroides), Smooth-bark Mexican Pine (P. pseudostrobus), and Arizona Pine (P. arizonica); and the oaks Quercus castanea and Q. affinis. In mesic environments, the most common species are P. cembroides, and Alligator Juniper (Juniperus deppeana), but in more xeric environments on the west slopes of the mountains, the endemic P. pinceana is more abundant. Gregg's Pine (P. greggii) and Jelecote Pine (P. patula) are endemic.

Many mammalian species wander these rugged hills. Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Puma (Puma concolor), Cliff Chipmunk (Tamias dorsalis), Collared Peccary (Tayassu tajacu), Coati (Nasua narica), Jaguar (Panthera onca) and Coyote (Canis latrans) are a few of the many diverse mammals that inhabit this ecoregion. Some threatened mammals found in the ecoregion are: Bolaños Woodrat (Neotoma palatina VU); Diminutive Woodrat (Nelsonia neotomodon NT), known chiefly from the western versant of the Sierra Madre; Chihuahuan Mouse (Peromyscus polius NT); and Mexican Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris nivalis EN).

A considerable number of reptilian taxa are found in the Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests, including three endemic snakes: Ridgenose Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi); Fox´s Mountain Meadow Snake (Adelophis foxi); and the Longtail Rattlesnake (Crotalus stejnegeri VU), restricted to the central Sierra Madre. An endemic skink occurring in the ecoregion is the Fair-headed Skink (Plestiodon callicephalus). The Striped Plateau Lizard (Sceloporus virgatus) is endemic to the ecoregion. The Sonoran Mud Turtle (Kinosternon sonoriense VU) is found in the ecoregion and ranges from southwestern New Mexico south to northwestern Chihuahua.

The following anuran taxa occur in the Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests: Red-spotted Toad (Anaxyrus punctatus); Cane Toad (Rhinella marina); Elegant Narrow-mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne elegans); New Mexico Spadefoot Toad (Spea multiplicata); Sinaloa Toad (Incilius mazatlanensis); Pine Toad (Incilius occidentalis); Southwestern Toad (Anaxyrus microscaphus); Woodhouse's Toad (Anaxyrus woodhousii); Great Plains Narrowmouth Toad (Gastrophryne olivacea); Great Plains Toad (Anaxyrus cognatus); Plateau Toad (Anaxyrus compactilis); Texas Toad (Anaxyrus speciosus); Sonoran Desert Toad (Incilius alvarius), found only at lower ecoregion elevations here; Rana-ladrona Silbadora (Eleutherodactylus teretistes); Sabinal Frog (Leptodactylus melanonotus); Mexican Leaf Frog (Pachymedusa dacnicolor); Montezuma Leopard Frog (Lithobates montezumae); Yavapai Leopard Frog (Lithobates yavapaiensis); Northwest Mexico Leopard Frog (Lithobates magnaocularis); Bigfoot Leopard Frog (Lithobates megapoda), who generally breeds in permanent surface water bodies; Mexican Cascade Frog (Lithobates pustulosus); Tarahumara Frog (Lithobates tarahumarae VU); Western Barking Frog (Craugastor augusti); Lowland Burrowing Frog (Smilisca fodiens); Taylor's Barking Frog (Craugastor occidentalis); Blunt-toed Chirping Frog (Eleutherodactylus modestus VU), found only at the very lowest elevations of the ecoregion; Shiny Peeping Frog (Eleutherodactylus nitidus); California Chorus Frog (Pseudacris cadaverina); Rio Grande Frog (Lithobates berlandieri); Madrean Treefrog (Hyla eximia); Mexican Treefrog (Smilisca baudinii); Dwarf Mexican Treefrog (Tlalocohyla smithii); Canyon Treefrog (Hyla arenicolor); Northern Sheep Frog (Hypopachus variolosus); Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis). There are three salamanders found in the ecoregion: the endemic Sacramento Mountains Salamander (Aneides hardii), found only in very high montane reaches above 2400 meters; Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum); and the Tarahumara Salamander (Ambystoma rosaceum).

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Chihuahuan Desert Habitat

This taxon is found in the Chihuahuan Desert, which is one of the most biologically diverse arid regions on Earth. This ecoregion extends from within the United States south into Mexico. This desert is sheltered from the influence of other arid regions such as the Sonoran Desert by the large mountain ranges of the Sierra Madres. This isolation has allowed the evolution of many endemic species; most notable is the high number of endemic plants; in fact, there are a total of 653 vertebrate taxa recorded in the Chihuahuan Desert.  Moreover, this ecoregion also sustains some of the last extant populations of Mexican Prairie Dog, wild American Bison and Pronghorn Antelope.

The dominant plant species throughout the Chihuahuan Desert is Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata). Depending on diverse factors such as type of soil, altitude, and degree of slope, L. tridentata can occur in association with other species. More generally, an association between L. tridentata, American Tarbush (Flourensia cernua) and Viscid Acacia (Acacia neovernicosa) dominates the northernmost portion of the Chihuahuan Desert. The meridional portion is abundant in Yucca and Opuntia, and the southernmost portion is inhabited by Mexican Fire-barrel Cactus (Ferocactus pilosus) and Mojave Mound Cactus (Echinocereus polyacanthus). Herbaceous elements such as Gypsum Grama (Chondrosum ramosa), Blue Grama (Bouteloua gracilis) and Hairy Grama (Chondrosum hirsuta), among others, become dominant near the Sierra Madre Occidental. In western Coahuila State, Lecheguilla Agave (Agave lechuguilla), Honey Mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), Purple Prickly-pear (Opuntia macrocentra) and Rainbow Cactus (Echinocereus pectinatus) are the dominant vascular plants.

Because of its recent origin, few warm-blooded vertebrates are restricted to the Chihuahuan Desert scrub. However, the Chihuahuan Desert supports a large number of wide-ranging mammals, such as the Pronghorn Antelope (Antilocapra americana), Robust Cottontail (Sylvilagus robustus EN); Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Grey Fox (Unocyon cineroargentinus), Jaguar (Panthera onca), Collared Peccary or Javelina (Pecari tajacu), Desert Cottontail (Sylvilagus auduboni), Black-tailed Jackrabbit (Lepus californicus), Kangaroo Rats (Dipodomys sp.), pocket mice (Perognathus spp.), Woodrats (Neotoma spp.) and Deer Mice (Peromyscus spp). With only 24 individuals recorded in the state of Chihuahua Antilocapra americana is one of the most highly endangered taxa that inhabits this desert. The ecoregion also contains a small wild population of the highly endangered American Bison (Bison bison) and scattered populations of the highly endangered Mexican Prairie Dog (Cynomys mexicanus), as well as the Black-tailed Prairie Dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).

The Chihuahuan Desert herpetofauna typifies this ecoregion.Several lizard species are centered in the Chihuahuan Desert, and include the Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum); Texas Banded Gecko (Coleonyx brevis), often found under rocks in limestone foothills; Reticulate Gecko (C. reticulatus); Greater Earless Lizard (Cophosaurus texanus); several species of spiny lizards (Scelopoprus spp.); and the Western Marbled Whiptail (Cnemidophorus tigris marmoratus). Two other whiptails, the New Mexico Whiptail (C. neomexicanus) and the Common Checkered Whiptail (C. tesselatus) occur as all-female parthenogenic clone populations in select disturbed habitats.

Representative snakes include the Trans-Pecos Rat Snake (Bogertophis subocularis), Texas Blackhead Snake (Tantilla atriceps), and Sr (Masticophis taeniatus) and Neotropical Whipsnake (M. flagellum lineatus). Endemic turtles include the Bolsón Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus), Coahuilan Box Turtle (Terrapene coahuila) and several species of softshell turtles. Some reptiles and amphibians restricted to the Madrean sky island habitats include the Ridgenose Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi), Twin-spotted Rattlesnake (C. pricei), Northern Cat-eyed Snake (Leptodeira septentrionalis), Yarrow’s Spiny Lizard (Sceloporus jarrovii), and Canyon Spotted Whiptail (Cnemidophorus burti).

There are thirty anuran species occurring in the Chihuahuan Desert: Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Rana chircahuaensis); Red Spotted Toad (Anaxyrus punctatus); American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus); Canyon Treefrog (Hyla arenicolor); Northern Cricket Frog (Acris crepitans); Rio Grande Chirping Frog (Eleutherodactylus cystignathoides); Cliff Chirping Frog (Eleutherodactylus marnockii); Spotted Chirping Frog (Eleutherodactylus guttilatus); Tarahumara Barking Frog (Craugastor tarahumaraensis); Mexican Treefrog (Smilisca baudinii); Madrean Treefrog (Hyla eximia); Montezuma Leopard Frog (Lithobates montezumae); Brown's Leopard Frog (Lithobates brownorum); Yavapai Leopard Frog (Lithobates yavapaiensis); Western Barking Frog (Craugastor augusti); Mexican Cascade Frog (Lithobates pustulosus); Lowland Burrowing Frog (Smilisca fodiens); New Mexico Spadefoot (Spea multiplicata); Plains Spadefoot (Spea bombifrons); Pine Toad (Incilius occidentalis); Woodhouse's Toad (Anaxyrus woodhousii); Couch's Spadefoot Toad (Scaphiopus couchii); Plateau Toad (Anaxyrus compactilis); Texas Toad (Anaxyrus speciosus); Dwarf Toad (Incilius canaliferus); Great Plains Narrowmouth Toad (Gastrophryne olivacea); Great Plains Toad (Anaxyrus cognatus); Eastern Green Toad (Anaxyrus debilis); Gulf Coast Toad (Incilius valliceps); and Longfoot Chirping Toad (Eleutherodactylus longipes VU). The sole salamander occurring in the Chihuahuan Desert is the Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum).

Common bird species include the Greater Roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus), Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia), Merlin (Falco columbarius), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), and the rare Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus). Geococcyx californianus), Curve-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostra), Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata), Scott’s Oriole (Icterus parisorum), Black-throated Sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata), Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens), Worthen’s Sparrow (Spizella wortheni), and Cactus Wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). In addition, numerous raptors inhabit the Chihuahuan Desert and include the Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) and the Elf Owl (Micrathene whitneyi).

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Southern Pacific Dry Forests Habitat

This taxon is found in the Southern Pacific dry forests ecoregion, which is situated along the southeastern versant of the Sierra Madre del Sur Mountains including the Pacific Ocean coastal plain. These forests are a key locus of endemism for butterflies, and has the greatest diversity of scorpions and spiders in the entirety of Mexico. This ecoregion is classified in the Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests biome. The Southern Pacific dry forests exhibit a moderate to high faunal species richness; for example, there are a total of 744 vertebrate taxa recorded in the ecoregion, with a particularly large number of endemic reptiles.

The ecoregion elevation ranges from sea level to 1400 metres. The climate is tropical and dry, with precipitation levels of 800 millimetres (mm) per annum. There is an extended arid season, which factor drives the prevalence of deciduous vegetation. The forests grow chiefly on shallow, well-drained soils derived from limestone. Closer to the base of the Sierra Madre del Sur Mountains, the soils are more rocky, and are derived from igneous rocks.

The dominant plant species include Mauto (Lysiloma divaricatum), Bursera excelsa and Fragrant Bursera (B. fagaroides), which are typically found in association with Pochote (Ceiba aesculifolia), Comocladia engleriana, and Trichilia americana. In the Mexican state of Michoacán, the macro plant species more generally in evidence are Ficus insipida, F. pertusa, Breadnut (Brosimum alicastrum), Licania arborea, Sideroxylon capiri and Elephant Ear (Enterolobium cyclocarpum).

There are a number of anuran species present in the ecoregion, including: Blunt-toed Chirping Frog (Eleutherodactylus modestus VU); Cloud Forest Stream Frog (Ptychohyla euthysanota NT), found from southeast Oaxaca to Guatemala and eastern El Salvador; Matuda's Spikethumb Frog  (Plectrohyla matudai VU). A special status caecilian found in the ecoregion is the Mexican Caecilian (Dermophis mexicanus VU), a fossorial species that can attain lengths up to sixty centimetres. A special status salamander found in the ecoregion is the Sierra Juarez Salamander (Pseudoeurycea juarezi CR), a near-endemic known only between Cerro Pelón and Vista Hermosa in the Sierra de Juarez, north-central Oaxaca. The White-lipped Peeping Frog (Eleutherodactylus albolabris CR), a near-endemic known chiefly from Agua del Obispo, central Guerrero.

The Southern Pacific dry forests contain numerous reptilian taxa, including the following endemics: Bocourt's Anole (Norops baccatus); Taylor's Anole (Norops taylori), known only to  Puerto Marquez area, in northern Acapulco, Guerrero; Simmons' Anole (Anolis simmonsi), restricted to the vicinity of Pinotepa Nacional, Oaxaca; Stegneger's Blackcollar Spiny Lizard (Sceloporus stejnegeri), restricted to the Pacific versant in the state of Guerrero, Mexico; Red Earth Snake (Geophis russatus), found in a very narrow range outside of Putla, Oaxaca; Sierra Mije Earth Snake (Geophis anocularis), known only from around Totontepec on the Atlantic versant of the Sierra Mixe, Oaxaca; Ramirez`s Hooknose Snake (Ficimia ramirezi), restricted to the Pacific versant of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Niltepec, Oaxaca; Halberg's Cloud Forest Snake (Cryophis hallbergi), found only in northern Oaxaca, at Sierra de Juarez and Sierra Mazateca; Isthmian Earth Snake (Geophis isthmicus), known only from the vicinity of Tehuantepec, Mexico; the endemic Macdougall's Spiny Lizard (Sceloporus macdougalli).

Characteristic mammalian fauna include the endemic Oaxacan Pocket Gopher (Orthogeomys cuniculus), restricted to several sites on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca. Other mammals seen in the ecoregion include the: Lesser Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae VU), Tropical Hare (Lepus flavigularis EN), restricted to Salina Cruz, Oaxaca to the extreme west of  Chiapas; Greater Bulldog Bat (Noctilio leporinus), Coati (Nasua narica), Buller’s Pocket Gopher (Pappogeomys bulleri), Javelina (Tayassu tajacu), and Mexican Long-tongued Bat (Choeronycteris mexicana NT).

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In South and Central America, the Collared Peccary inhabits tropical rainforests. In the southern United States, herds occur in Saguaro deserts, where they prefer mesquite habitats with an abundance of prickly pear cacti. Collared Peccaries have also become common in residential areas, where they may rely on human handouts for food.

Terrestrial Biomes: desert or dune ; forest ; rainforest

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
P. tajacu is a highly adaptable species inhabiting a wide variety of habitats from tropical forests to deserts. At the northern fringe of its range, Collared Peccary maintain viable populations in areas where winter night-time temperatures fall below 0° C and light snow cover is occasionally present. The species' tolerance of low seasonal temperatures is exceptional for an animal also living in the tropics (Bodmer and Sowls 1993). The upper limit of its range along the Andean foothills is between 1,000-1,500 m (Grimwood 1969), though they have been found up to 2,000 m asl in Ecudaor (G. Zapata-Rios pers. comm.) and up to 3,000 m asl in the Sierra de las Minas Biosphere Reserve in central-eastern Guatemala (J. Moreira pers. comm.).
Like all peccaries, P. tajacu is a highly social animal, living in herds, which vary from fewer than six to over 30 individuals. Home ranges of groups average approximately 150 ha, but can range from 24 to 800 ha (Sowls 1984). Variation of home range size among different herds in various regions is not unusual. In the Neotropics mean home range estimates of radio-tracked Collared Peccary herds were 102 - 287 ha in the semideciduous Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil (Keuroghlian et al 2004); 64 – 109 ha in Northwestern Costa Rica (McCoy et al 1990); 460 – 543 ha on the Maraca Island of Brazil (Fragoso 1994); 685 ha in the Chaco of Paraguay (Taber et al 1994); and 157 - 243 ha in the French Guyana (Judas and Henry 1999).
The species' diet varies in accordance with this range of habitats (Beck 2005, 2006). Foods of P. tajacu can include roots, tubers, fruits, seeds, and edible parts of green growing plants, insects, and small animals (Beck 2005, 2005; Desbiez 2007; Keuroghlian and Eaton 2008). Throughout their neotropical range P. tajacu consume fruits from over 128 plant species, and destroy seeds form 79 species (Beck 2006). In tropical forests, diets are dominated by palm fruits (over 25 species, Beck 2005), supplemented with small vertebrates and invertebrates (Bodmer 1989, Beck 2005), whereas in deserts environments their diet is dominated by the cladophylls of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) (Corn and Warren 1985, Beck 2005). In a heterogeneous environment, the distribution and abundance of resources would be expected to vary among the small, spatially-stable home ranges of Collared Peccary herds. Because each herd uses a unique subset of the available habitat types (McCoy et al 1990, Judas and Henry, 1999, Fragoso,1999; Keuroghlian et al 2004, Neri 2004). The level of frugivory will vary according to local vegetation types or frugivore guild composition (Keuroghlian and Eaton 2008). Frugivory in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil for Collared Peccaries was 78% for both the dry and wet seasons. In the Peruvian Amazon 59 - 66% was composed of fruits (Kiltie 1981, Bodmer 1989); and in the Brazilian Pantanal, frugivory dramatically differed between dry and wet seasons, 17% to 49% respectively (Desbiez 2007).
Habitat and riparian zone use were herd specific for Collared Peccaries in the Atlantic Forest fragment of Brazil, and related to habitat quality and composition where stable home ranges had been established (Neri 2007, Keuroghlian and Eaton in press). Herds are kept together by vocalizations and a strong musk released from the dorsal gland. They deposit scent on tree trunks, rocks and other individuals (Byers 1980). The Collared Peccary has a diurnal/crepuscular activity pattern, typically feeding in early hours of the night but varying seasonally. They commonly rest in small groups of three to four individuals and often seek shelter in burrows, caves and under logs. Collared Peccaries frequently wallow in mud or dust and rarely spend time auto-grooming (Sowls 1984). Keuroghlian et al 2004 observed that subgrouping of herds occurred on a different spatial and temporal scale than the subherding of White-lipped Peccaries. Usually, a herd would be united early in the morning and again in late afternoon, but would split into groups of 1 to 3 individuals during the day. These subgroups appeared to forage separately and were from 30 to 250 m apart. Sightings of lone Collared Peccaries or groups of 2 to 3 individuals have frequently been reported from sites in both the Neotropics and the southwestern United States (Kiltie and Terborgh, 1983; Robinson and Eisenberg, 1985; Sowls, 1997; Castellanos, 1983; Oldenburg et al. 1985; Bissonette, 1976; Green et al. 1984). Collared Peccaries appeared to travel more in the early morning and late afternoon, when the full herd was together. During midday, subherds would usually remain in a relatively restricted area foraging. They also spent a good part of late morning and early afternoon resting in cavities excavated at the bases of large trees, next to fallen trunks, or in other cool locations (Taber et al. 1994, Keuroghlian et al. 2004).
Births have been recorded year-round, though in the southern USA there is a birth peak during the summer rainy season. In the Amazon, the Collared Peccary female is considered to be aseasonally polyoestrous (Mayor et al. 2006), with an oestrous cycle length of 27.8 ± 1.5 days (Mauget et al. 1997), a mean gestation period of 138 days (Mayor et al. 2005), a pregnancy rate of 42.5% (Mayor et al. 2010) and a litter size of 1.7 – 1.9 foetuses or newborns (Gottdenker and Bodmer 1998, Mayor et al. 2006). Reproductive production of the species in the wild was estimated at 1.12 births/year and 1.98 piglets per pregnant female (Mayor et al. 2010). Collared Peccary females presented a mean ovulation rate of 2.25 ± 0.58 CLs, a litter size of 1.77 ± 0.48 embryos or foetuses and a reproductive wastage of 0.45 ± 0.65 (21.3%) oocytes or embryos per pregnant female female (Mayor et al. 2010). Among 163 piglets, 78 were females and 85 were males. The young are highly precocial at birth, following their mothers within an hour of parturition and stopping to suckle at frequent intervals. In one case infants were observed to spend up to 24% of their time suckling (Sowls 1966). Weaning occurs at approximately 6 weeks (Sowls 1984).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: Seldom abundant in absence of dense, scrubby ground cover. Often in thickets along creeks and washes. In southern Texas, prime habitat was dense scrub cover with succulents (Ilse and Hellgren 1995). On the Zuni Indian Reservation, New Mexico, animals were observed at elevations up to 2,335 m in piñon-juniper and ponderosa pine habitats (Albert et al. 2004). Rests in caves, mine shafts, rock crevices, holes in ground. May visit water hole daily.

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it prefers desert,subdesert,prairie grasslands and open areas.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Collared Peccaries are primarily herbivorous, and have complex stomachs for digesting coarsely-chewed food. In its southern range, this species eats a variety of foods, including roots, bulbs, fungi, and nuts, in addition to fruits and occasional eggs, carrion, snakes, fish, and frogs. In the northern range, Collared Peccaries eats more herbivorous foods, such as roots, bulbs, beans, nuts, berries, grass, and cacti. Despite all this supplementary diet, the main dietary components of this species are agaves and prickly pears. The prickly pear is ideal in the Javelina's arid range due to its high water content. This species is also capable of eating cultivated planted by humans.

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Comments: Opportunistic omnivore. Eats acorns, tubers, bulbs, fruits and rhizomes, pads or cladophyls of cacti, beans of mesquite, catclaw, figs, eggs of birds and turtles, some carrion. Prickly pear cactus is a preferred food.

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General Ecology

Travels in socially cohesive groups of two to thirty individuals, may bed down together. At Welder Wildife Refuge, Texas, crude density was 2.0 per sq km; mean annual home range size (95% minimum convex polygon) was 1.76 sq km (Ilse and Hellgren 1995). Group home range size is several hundred acres; herd may defend territiory. Extreme cold may result in considerable mortality.

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Cyclicity

Comments: Active in early morning, late afternoon, and at night. Activity crepuscular and nocturnal in hot weather; may continue throughout day with short rest periods in winter.

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Life Expectancy

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
31.5 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 31.5 years (captivity) Observations: One captive specimen was still alive at 31.5 years of age (Richard Weigl 2005).
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Reproduction

A designated or specific breeding season does not prevail in Collared Peccary herds; rather, mating reflects climate, especially rain, and occurs throughout the year. More young are raised in rainy years. The dominant male does virtually all the breeding. Subordinate males do not have to leave the herd, but are not allowed to approach females in estrus. As a result, bachelor herds do not exist. 1 to 3, but rarely 4, young are born after a gestation period of 141 to 151 days. Birthing mothers retreat from the group; the newborn might otherwise be eaten by other group members. However, mothers rejoin the herd 1 day after giving birth. Only the older sisters of the newborn are tolerated with the young; these often become nursemaids for the new mother. Weaning occurs at 2 to 3 months. Males reach sexual maturity at 11 months; females, at 8 to 14 months. Despite the high mortality rate in this species, members have a life span of up to 24 years, which was observed in captivity.

Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual

Average birth mass: 700 g.

Average gestation period: 145 days.

Average number of offspring: 2.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)

Sex: male:
358 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)

Sex: female:
329 days.

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Breeds throughout year, but in desert areas births are concentrated in the summer rainy season (July or August in Arizona). Litter size is 1-3 (usually 2). Gestation lasts 142-148 days. Young are precocial at birth and follow their mother from the first day or two until they are at least a year old.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pecari tajacu

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ATGTTCCTGGAACGCTGATTATTCTCAACCAATCACAAAGACATTGGCACCCTGTACTTACTGTTTGGTGCTTGAGCAGGGATAGTAGGGACTGCCCTAAGCCTGCTTATCCGTGCTGAACTAGGTCAACCTGGGACTCTACTCGGAGATGATCAAATCTACAATGTAGTCGTAACAGCCCACGCCTTTGTAATAATTTTCTTCATAGTCATACCCATCATAATTGGGGGCTTTGGAAATTGACTAGTACCACTAATAATTGGGGCACCAGATATAGCCTTCCCCCGAATAAATAATATGAGCTTTTGACTATTGCCACCATCATTCCTATTATTACTAGCATCTTCAATAGTAGAAGCGGGAGCAGGCACAGGATGAACCGTTTATCCCCCACTAGCAGGGAATCTGGCCCATGCAGGAGCCTCTGTAGACCTAACTATTTTCTCCCTACATCTAGCAGGAATCTCCTCAATTCTAGGTGCCATTAATTTCATCACTACTATTATTAACATAAAACCACCAGCAATATCCCAATACCAAACGCCCCTATTTGTTTGATCTATCCTAATCACAGCAGTGCTACTACTCCTATCACTCCCAGTCCTAGCAGCGGGTATTACTATGCTACTAACAGACCGAAACCTAAATACAACTTTCTTTGACCCAGCCGGAGGAGGAGACCCTATTCTATATCAACACTTATTCTGATTCTTTGGTCACCCCGAAGTCTATATTCTTATCCTACCTGGATTTGGAATAATCTCTCACATTGTAACTTACTACTCAGGAAAAAAAGAACCTTTCGGGTATATAGGAATGGTATGAGCCATGATATCCATCGGCTTCCTAGGCTTCATTGTATGAGCTCACCACATATTTACTGTAGGCATAGACGTGGACACACGAGCATACTTCACCTCTGCCACAATAATTATCGCTATCCCCACGGGAGTAAAAGTATTTAGCTGATTGGCCACCCTCCACGGAGGTAACATCAAATGATCACCGGCCATACTTTGAGCACTAGGCTTTATTTTCCTATTTACGGTAGGTGGTTTGACCGGCATTGTATTAGCTAACTCGTCCTTAGACATCGTCCTACACGACACGTACTATGTAGTTGCACACTTCCATTATGTCCTATCAATAGGAGCCGTCTTCGCCATTATAGGTGGCTTCGTACACTGATTTCCTTTATTCTCAGGCTATACACTCAACCAAACATGAGCAAAAATTCACTTTACCATCATATTCGTAGGTGTAAATATAACTTTCTTCCCCCAACACTTCCTTGGCTTATCGGGAATACCACGACGATACTCAGACTACCCCGATGCCTACACAGCATGAAATATTATCTCTTCAATAGGATCATTCATTTCACTAACGGCAGTAATACTAATGGTATTTATAATTTGAGAGGCATTTGCATCAAAACGAGAAGTATCCTCAGTAGAACTAACAAGCACCAACCTAGAATGATTACATGGCTGTCCCCCTCCATACCACACATTTGAAGAACCCGCATATATTAACTCAAAATAG
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pecari tajacu

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tayassu tajacu

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

The main predators of Collared Peccaries are humans, coyotes, pumas, jaguars, and bobcats. For centuries, young Peccaries have been captured, kept as domestic pets, and even fattened by Central and South American Indians. In Peru, 10,000 skins have been exported annually for decades. In Texas, more than 20,000 individuals are shot during the hunting season. Populations are fairly resilient due to adaptability, although subspecies in the tropics are threatened by rainforest destruction.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Gongora, J., Reyna-Hurtado, R., Beck, H., Taber, A., Altrichter, M. & Keuroghlian, A.

Reviewer/s
Mayor, P. & Biondo, C.

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern as this species is widely distributed and occurs in a variety of habitats, including woodlands, tropical dry and rainforests, savannas, Gran Chaco, and deserts, from the southern USA through to northern Argentina. However, given the continuing rates of habitat destruction and potential for over-hunting of this species, the status of all populations requires monitoring.

History
  • 1996
    Lower Risk/least concern
    (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Population

Population

Densities of Collared Peccary differ among habitats. In the south-eastern USA, older reports of densities ranged from 10.9 individuals/km2 in the Tucson mountains (Schweinsburg 1969), 7.3 individuals/km2 at the King Ranch, Texas and 3.5 individuals/km2 at the Welder Wildlife Refuge, Texas, to only 1.1 individuals/km2 in a Texas desert. In Venezuela, Collared Peccary density in the llanos was found to be 8 individuals/km2, whereas, in gallery forests was 2 individuals/km2 (Eisenberg 1980). In the Pantanal of Brazil densities range from 6.6 (forested) to 5.5 (cerrado) individuals/km2 (Desbiez 2007). Densities in tropical forest range from 9 individuals/km2 on Barro Colorado Island, Panama (Glanz 1982), to 5 individuals/km2 in Manu National Park, Peru (Terborgh et al. 1986). In the Peruvian Amazon, densities range from 3,7 individuals/km2 in non-flooded terra firme forest to 1.0 in flooded forest (Fang et al. 2008). In a forest fragment of Atlantic Forest of Brazil, the density found was 5.9 and 6.4 individuals/km2 (Cullen 1997, Keuroghlian et al. 2004). In a recent study conducted in the Argentine Chaco, Altrichter and Boaglio (2004) found the Collared Peccary to be more common, widely distributed and present under a wider range of conditions than the other two species of peccaries. Previous studies have shown that Collared Peccaries are less vulnerable than White-lipped Peccaries to habitat fragmentation and hunting pressure, and can maintain healthy populations even in highly degraded areas (Peres 1996, Cullen et al. 2000). The Collared Peccary's smaller herd size and range requirements facilitate its survival in small, disturbed forest remnants (i.e. Atlantic Forest of Brazil), and they have frequently been observed using matrix habitat adjacent to larger forest fragments, e.g. satellite forests and secondary growth (Keuroghlian et al. 2004).


Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
The two major threats to the survival of Collared Peccary are over-hunting for their meat and hides and excessive destruction of its natural habitats. These factors have already resulted in the extensive fragmentation of peccary populations and its extirpation over large parts of its former range (Bodmer and Sowls 1993). The Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu) and White-lipped Peccary (Tayassu pecari) are important resources for subsistence hunters of the Peruvian Amazon (Bodmer et al. 2004a). In Peru, subsistence hunting of peccaries is legally defined as the use of peccary meat for household consumption or the sale of peccary meat in settlements of fewer than 3,000 inhabitants. Rural inhabitants hunt peccaries mainly for their meat, which have an economic value of approximately $23 for a Collared Peccary and $30 for a white-lipped peccary either as subsistence food or through local sale (Bodmer et al. 2004b). Peccary pelts are sold as a by-product and have an economic value to hunters of approximately $5 for a Collared Peccary pelt and $3 for a White-lipped Peccary pelt (Bodmer and Pezo 2001, Fang 2003). Approximately 51,419 Collared Peccary pelts and 20,522 White-lipped Peccary pelts are legally exported with CITES permits every year from Peru under a quota system imposed by the Peruvian government (INRENA 2004). The pelts are tanned in Peru and primarily sold to the European leather industry for the manufacture of high quality gloves and shoes. However, it is unclear if this trade increases the hunting pressure to meet the quotas. Furthermore, how many individuals have to be killed to obtain pelts that meet the quality standards of international trade (assuming that a given number of pelt are rejected because of scars, parasite marks i.e. bot flies, and bullet holes). In addition, considering that peccary glove can sell for as much as $285, a $5 reward for a Collared Peccary pelt does not qualify as a fare trade. On the other hand, increasing the dollar value would certainly further increase the hunting pressure.
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Comments: At Welder Wildlife Refuge, Texas, feral hogs may have been involved in reducing herd and group size of peccaries (Ilse and Hellgren 1995).

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Collared Peccaries occur in a large number of national parks and other reserves throughout their extensive range in the Americas. In many of these areas populations are relatively secure, although poaching and inefficient protection are common and may nullify the nominal protection afforded by the designation of protected sites (Bodmer and Sowls 1993). Conservation measures specific to Collared Peccaries include national wildlife protection legislatures, which vary from country to country, and the inclusion in 1986 of this and other peccary species on the Appendices of CITES. The Collared Peccary was originally placed on Appendix III of CITES and in 1986 it was elevated to Appendix II (except the populations of Mexico and the United States of America, which are not included in the Appendices). Specific management regulations appertaining to hunting and movement of peccary products exist for all countries within the geographical range of P. tajacu. In the USA, for example, the species is managed as a game animal outside national parks and reserves, and may be hunted with permits under a quota system operated by state authorities. In Brazil there is a total ban on all hunting of peccaries by non-indigenous people, though this is largely unenforced in many states. Subsistence hunting is permitted in Colombia and Venezuela, but these countries prohibit the movement of peccary products, whilst in other countries, such as Peru, subsistence hunters are allowed to trade peccary products under management laws. However, in these and many Central and South American countries, rural people are often unaware of wildlife management regulations or these are flouted, sometimes quite openly, owing to the common lack of resources and trained personnel for the enforcement of protective legislation.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Collared Peccaries have readily habituated urban environments, and often frequent locations where they know they will be fed. Thus, they are potential nuisances.

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Collared Peccaries have for decades been a source of economic income due to their skins and as hunting trophies. They are among the most important big game species in Arizona. The young are often captured and serve as domestic farm animals.

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Economic Uses

Comments: May cause considerable damage to crops. Hunted for meat and hides in much of range.

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Wikipedia

Collared peccary

The collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) is a species of mammal in the family Tayassuidae found in North, Central, and South America. They are commonly referred to as javelina, saíno or báquiro, although these terms are also used to describe other species in the family. The species is also known as the musk hog, Mexican hog, and javelina. In Trinidad, it is colloquially known as quenk.

Although somewhat related to the pigs and frequently referred to as one, this species and the other peccaries are no longer classified in the pig family, Suidae.

Description[edit]

Dentition, as illustrated in Knight's Sketches in Natural History

The collared peccary stands around 510–610 millimetres (20–24 in) tall at the shoulder and about 1.0–1.5 m (3 ft 3 in–4 ft 11 in) long. It weighs between 16 and 27 kg (35 and 60 lb).[2]

Range and habitat[edit]

A herd of collared peccaries seen by a fixed camera in Scottsdale, Arizona.

The collared peccary is a widespread creature found throughout much of the tropical and subtropical Americas, ranging from the Southwestern United States to northern Argentina in South America. The only Caribbean island where it is native, however, is Trinidad, although introduced populations exist in Cuba. It inhabits deserts and xeric shrublands, tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands, flooded grasslands and savannas, tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests, and several other habitats, as well. In addition, it is well adapted to habitats shared by humans, merely requiring sufficient cover; they can be found in cities and agricultural land throughout their range, where they consume garden plants. Notable populations are known to exist in the suburbs of Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona.[3][4]

Diet[edit]

Collared peccaries normally feed on fruits, roots, tubers, palm nuts, grasses, invertebrates, and small vertebrates. In areas inhabited by humans, they will also consume cultivated crops and ornamental plants, such as tulip bulbs.[3][4]

Behavior[edit]

Running collared peccary

Collared peccaries are diurnal creatures that live in groups of one to 20 individuals, averaging between six and 9 members. They frequently sleep at night in burrows, often under the roots of trees. The collared peccary (javelina) are not totally diurnal. In central Arizona they are often active at night but less so during daytime.

Although they usually ignore humans, they will react if they feel threatened. They defend themselves with their long tusks, which can sharpen themselves whenever their mouths open or close. A collared peccary will also release a strong musk if it is alarmed.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gongora, J., Reyna-Hurtado, R., Beck, H., Taber, A., Altrichter, M. & Keuroghlian, A. (2011). "Pecari tajacu". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 18 January 2012.  Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern.
  2. ^ "Collared Peccary: Javelina ~ Tayaussa ~ Musk Hog". Digital West Media Inc. Retrieved 8 January 2012. 
  3. ^ a b Friederici, Peter (August–September 1998). "Winners and Losers". National Wildlife Magazine (National Wildlife Federation) 36 (5). 
  4. ^ a b Sowls, Lyle K. (1997). Javelinas and Other Peccaries: Their Biology, Management, and Use (2 ed.). Texas A&M University Press. pp. 61–68. ISBN 978-0-89096-717-1. 
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Giant peccary

The giant peccary (Pecari maximus) is a possible fourth species of peccary, discovered in Brazil in 2000 by Dutch naturalist Marc van Roosmalen. In 2003, he and German natural history filmmaker Lothar Frenz succeeded in filming a group and gathering material, which later would serve as the type. Though recently reported, it has been known to locals as caitetu munde, which means "great peccary which lives in pairs". It was formally described in 2007,[2] but the scientific evidence for its species status has later been questioned,[3][4] which also is one of the reasons for it being evaluated as data deficient by IUCN.[1]

Its assumed range encompass the south-central Amazon between the Madeira and the Tapajós Rivers. It is restricted to Terra Firme forest. Unlike other peccaries in its range, the giant peccary appears to mainly occur in pairs or small family groups.[2]

According to its original description, the giant peccary is larger, longer-legged, and proportionally smaller-headed than the only other member of the genus, the collared peccary (P. tajacu).[2] Compared to the sympatric populations of the collared peccary, the giant peccary also has thinner fur that is grizzled in brown and white, blacker legs, and a relatively faint collar. Five skins of the giant peccary had a total length of 120–137 cm (47–54 in), while local hunters have estimated a weight of 40–50 kg (88–110 lb). Based on mtDNA, the collared and the giant peccaries are estimated to have diverged 1.0–1.2 million years ago,[2] but these results have been considered questionable due to the low bootstrap support, small sample size, and the absence of nDNA and cytogenetic results.[1][4] Furthermore,extensive intraspecific variations (both individual and locality-based) are known in the morphology of the collared peccary.[1][4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Gongora, J. (2008). Pecari maximus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 25 November 2008.[dead link]
  2. ^ a b c d Roosmalen, M.G.M.; Frenz, L.; Hooft, W.F. van; Iongh, H.H. de; Leirs, H. 2007. A New Species of Living Peccary (Mammalia: Tayassuidae) from the Brazilian Amazon. Bonner zoologische Beitrage 55(2): 105–112.
  3. ^ Trials of a Primatologist. – smithsonianmag.com. Accessed March 15, 2008
  4. ^ a b c Gongora, J., Taber, A., Keuroghlian, A., Altrichter, M., Bodmer, R.E., Mayor, P., Moran, C., Damayanti, C.S., González S. (2007). Re-examining the evidence for a ‘new’ peccary species, ‘Pecari maximus’, from the Brazilian Amazon. Newsletter of the Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos Specialist Group of the IUCN/SSC. 7(2): 19–26.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Placed in family Dicotylidae by Jones et al. (1992), in Tayassuidae by Grubb (in Wilson and Reeder 2005).

Appropriate generic name has been debated. Placed in genus Dicotyles by some authors, genus Pecari by Grubb (in Wilson and Reeder 1993, 2005), and genus Tayassu by Jones et al. (1992). MtDNA data support the recognition of three genera of extant peccaries: Catagonus, Pecari, and Tayassu, with this species in the genus Pecari (Theimer and Keim 1998).

In Arizona, Theimer and Keim (1994) found three mtDNA haplotypes, the frequencies of which varied significantly across geographic regions, probably related to founding events.

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