The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Olivier A.G. 1789. Entomologie, ou histoire naturelle des insectes, avec leurs caractères génériques et spécifiques, leur description, leur synonymie, et leur figure enluminée. Coléoptères. Baudouin. Paris 1:1-190
  • Schoolmeesters P. (2015). Scarabs: World Scarabaeidae Database (version Jul 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.


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