IUCN threat status:

Not evaluated

Comprehensive Description

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Biology

Macrohabitat: Lowlands, 40-244 meters altitude. Microhabitat: On shaded moderately moist ground in deciduous forests and orchards (e.g. apple). Dispersal abilities: Macropterous, capable of flight. Adults are larvae are frequent climbers on trees and shrubs. Seasonal occurrence: Adults have been found in January- December but rarely after July, copulating pairs in June- July; gravid females in May. Behavior: Diurnal and nocturnal (Adult and larvae), adults are active on trees and shrubs (e.g. climbing Quercus trees), or on the ground. Females spend more time eating on the ground than males do. Adults and larvae are gregarious. Eggs are laid in the ground. Adults have been found overwintering in cavities in the ground (5-50 cm deep); some individuals remain dormant for almost 2 years. Life span is at least 2-4 years. Adults are predaceous on caterpillars and pupae (e.g. Lymantriidae, Thaumatopoeidae) and on coccinellids. Larvae are predaceous on caterpillars and pupae. Members of this species play an important economic role as a specific predator, in the control of the Gypsy Moth and Browntail Moth. This species is favored by Gypsy Moth outbreaks, human activities, and spring floods along large rivers. Adults frequently found at lights at night particularly in the spring. (Erwin, 2001; Gidaspow, 1959; Larochelle & Lariviere, 2003; Data from NMNH collection)

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© Erwin, Terry

Source: Western Hemisphere Caraboidea

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