Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species is distributed throughout the Indo-West Pacific region from East Africa to Japan, Hawaii, Melanesia, New Caledonia and Australia (Queensland, New South Wales, West Australia) (Holthuis 1991, DEWHA 2009). It is likely that this species has a wider distribution than is currently known.
The type locality of this species is Mauritius (Holthuis 1991).
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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This nocturnal species inhabits reefs and rocky areas (Holthuis 1991). It shelters during the day, and forages at night where it feeds mainly on bivalves (Chan 1998, Lavalli et al. 2007). It has a maximum total length of 40 cm, although usually only reaches 20 cm (Holthuis 1991, Chan 1998). There are conflicting reports of the depth preferences of this species: Dinardo and Moffit (2007) suggest between 30 -120 m, whereas Holthuis (1991) and Chan (1998) suggest a shallower range of 5-80 m. This is also reflected in the 'most common' ranges, with 50 -70 m and 20-50m, respectively.

This gregarious species attains sexual maturity at a carapace length of 6.6 - 6.7 cm, although variation was found between reefs (Hearn et al. 2007, Lavalli et al. 2007). Ovigerous females occur throughout the year with peak abundance between May and July, and their fecundity ranges from 54,000 - 227,000 eggs per female (DiNardo and Moffitt 2007, Sekiguchi et al. 2007). The phyllosoma of this species remain pelagic for 3 - 6 months prior to transforming into benthic juveniles (DiNardo and Moffitt 2007).


Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 5 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 7.5 - 50000
  Temperature range (°C): 23.011 - 25.015
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.194 - 0.801
  Salinity (PPS): 34.598 - 34.735
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.754 - 4.780
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.090 - 0.133
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.543 - 3.150

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 7.5 - 50000

Temperature range (°C): 23.011 - 25.015

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.194 - 0.801

Salinity (PPS): 34.598 - 34.735

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.754 - 4.780

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.090 - 0.133

Silicate (umol/l): 2.543 - 3.150
 
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Butler, M., Cockcroft, A. & MacDiarmid, A.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Livingstone, S. & Richman, N.

Contributor/s
Batchelor, A., De Silva, R., Dyer, E., Kasthala, G., Lutz, M.L., McGuinness, S., Milligan, H.T., Soulsby, A.-M. & Whitton, F.

Justification
Scyllarides squammosus is listed as Least Concern. This species has a broad distribution and is harvested in only small parts of its range. Ongoing fisheries in Australia have stringent management controls in place.
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Population

Population
There is insufficient population data available for this species. However, Chan (1998) described it as 'apparently nowhere abundant in the Western Central Pacific'. Comparatively, DiNardo and Moffitt (2007) state that it is currently the dominant lobster species in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands populations of this species should be treated as one metapopulation (DiNardo and Moffitt 2007).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats

The Queensland Fisheries Service (QFS) considers that the fishery does not pose a significant threat to the sustainability of this species. The fishery landed less than 5 tonnes of Slipper Lobster each year between 1998 and 2001, and in 2002/2003 no Slipper Lobsters were landed (Sumpton et al. 2004).

The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve was established in 2000 which may prohibit commercial lobster fishing in the NWHI indefinitely, therefore this fishery does not pose a continuing threat to this species (DiNardo and Moffitt 2007).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

A decline in global captures of Scyllaridae has been documented, although information on specific species is lacking (Spanier and Lavalli 2007).

Hawaii

The management plan of the Hawaiian fishery incorporated closed seasons, minimum size limits, no retention of egg bearing females, the incorporation of escape vents in pots, accurate recording of log data, and revised yearly quotas (Pooley and Kawamoto 1998, Sumpton et al. 2004).

Queensland

In the event that the trap fishery in southeast Queensland progresses beyond developmental status, a formal process would be undertaken to develop appropriate management strategies. Within the area of the fishery, a number of closed waters have been declared under the Fisheries Regulations 1995, and no fishing is allowed in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). All commercial fishers in Queensland have a legal obligation to provide information about their fishing activity via daily logbook reporting (Sumpton et al. 2004).

Other regulations implemented would include:

  • The size of the apparatus in waters shallower than 100 m: 1 ­m­3 in overall volume, and in waters 100 m and deeper 195 cm x 120 cm x 120 cm
  • Floats to be at least 15 cm in diameter
  • Floats for traps set in strings - orange in colour
  • Floats for single traps - any colour except orange
  • Floats must have markings showing the owner?s boat name and boat marking
  • Not more than 200 traps per operator
  • Each operator may have 210 traps in possession but those in excess of 200 must be unassembled
  • In waters less than 20 m - traps set singly
  • In waters 20 - 100 m set in strings of up to 25
  • In waters over 100 m set in strings of up to 50
  • It is prohibited to take berried females or setose females (Sumpton et al. 2004).

As the Queensland trap fishery is only operated on a very limited developmental scale (a time frame of only four years), the lobster stocks are not likely to have been seriously affected. The current permit conditions provide the Queensland Fisheries Service (QFS) with extensive powers to ensure the sustainable management of the fishery. It allows them to suspend or cancel permits if a deleterious effect on stocks of Slipper and Spiny Lobster, or any other fish species (including bycatch and byproduct) has been caused, or is imminent, or may reasonably be expected due to activities under the permit' (Sumpton et al. 2004). For a comprehensive report on the Queensland developmental trap fishery, see Sumpton et al. (2004).



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Wikipedia

Scyllarides squammosus

Scyllarides squammosus is a species of slipper lobsters. This species is commonly called the blunt slipper lobster. It is found throughout the Indian Ocean and west Pacific region. Specifically its range is from Australia (Queensland, New South Wales, West Australia), Japan, Hawaii, Melanesia, New Caledonia to East Africa. Scyllarides squammosus has been found at depths from 7.5 m to 71 m.[1][2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ EOL.org Retrieved 3 March 2014
  2. ^ ITIS.com Retrieved 3 March 2014
  • Johnson, Martin W. (1977). "The final phyllosoma larval stage of the slipper lobster Scyllarides squamosus (H. Milne-Edwards) from the Hawaiian Islands (Decapoda, Scyllaridae)". Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 27, no. 2.338-340.
  • DeMartini EE, Kleiber P. (1998). "Estimated body size at sexual maturity of slipper lobster Scyllarides squamosus at Maro Reef and Necker Island (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands)", 1986-97. Southwest Fisheries Science Center Administrative Report H-98-02, 14p.
  • DeMartini EE, Williams HA. (2001). "Fecundity and egg size of Scyllarides squammosus (Decapoda: Scyllaridae) at Maro Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands." Journal of Crustacean Biology 21: 891-896.
  • DeMartini EE, Kleiber P, DiNardo GT. (2002). "Comprehensive (1986-2001) characterization of size at sexual maturity for Hawaiian spiny lobster (Panulirus marginatus) and slipper lobster (Scyllardides squammosus) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands." U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-344, 12 p.
  • DeMartini EE, McCracken ML, Moffitt RB, Wetherall JA. (2005). "Relative pleopod length as an indicator of size at sexual maturity in slipper (Scyllarides squammosus) and spiny Hawaiian (Panulirus marginatus) lobsters." Fishery Bulletin 103(1): 23-33.
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