The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • C. Frick. 1937. Horned ruminants of North America. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 69:1-669
  • Fernández, M.H. and E.S. Vrba. 2005. A complete estimate of the phylogenetic relationships in Ruminantia: a dated species-level supertree of the extant ruminants. Biological Reviews 80: 269-302.
  • Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego.
  • Leslie, D.M., Jr. 2011. Genus Taurotragus. Pp. 617-618 in: Wilson, D.E. and Mittermeier, R.A., eds. Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Volume 2. Hoofed Mammals. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
  • Rubes, J., S. Kubickova, E. Pagacova, H. Cernohorska, D. Di Berardino, M. Antoninova, J. Vahala, and T.J. Robinson. 2008. Phylogenomic study of spiral-horned antelope by cross-species chromosome painting. Chromosome Research 16(7): 935-947.
  • Willows-Munro, S., T.J. Robinson, and C.A. Matthee. 2005. Utility of nuclear DNA intron markers at lower taxonomic levels: Phylogenetic resolution among nine Tragelaphus spp. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35: 624-636.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and Sue Ruff, eds. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. xxv + 750


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