The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bailey, L.H. & E.Z. Bailey. 1976. Hortus Third i–xiv, 1–1290. MacMillan, New York.
  • Encyclopédie Méthodique. Botanique ... Supplément 5(1): 35. 1817. (Encycl., Suppl.)
  • Farjon A. (2015). Conifer Database (version Jan 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Poir. 1817. In: Lamarck, Encycl. Suppl. 5: 35.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Plant Taxa for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species. Federal Register, vol. 58, no. 188. 51144-51190
    1. Aldrich, R. C., and A. T. Drooz. 1967. Estimated Fraser fir  mortality and balsam woolly aphid infestation trend using aerial color  photography. Forest Science 13:300-313.
    3. Amman, Gene D. 1966. Some new infestations of the balsam woolly  aphid in North Carolina, with possible modes of dispersal. Journal of  Economic Entomology 59:508-511.
    5. Amman, Gene D., and Charles F. Speers. 1965. Balsam woolly aphid in  the southern Appalachians. Journal of Forestry 63(l):18-20.
    7. Amman, Gene D., and Robert L. Talerico. 1967. Symptoms of  infestation by the balsam woolly aphid displayed by Fraser fir and  bracted balsam fir. USDA Forest Service, Research Note SE-85.  Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, NC. 7 p.
    9. Boner, R. R. 1979. Effects of Fraser fir death on population  dynamics in southern Appalachian boreal ecosystems. Thesis (M.S.),  University of Tennessee, Knoxville. 105 p.
    11. Brown, Dalton Milford. 1941. Vegetation of Roan Mountain: a  phytosociological and successional study. Ecological Monographs  11(l):61-97.
    13. Crandall, Dorothy L. 1958. Ground vegetation patterns of the  spruce-fir area of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Ecological  Monographs 28(4):337-360.
    15. Davis, John H., Jr. 1930. Vegetation of the Black Mountains of North  Carolina: an ecological study. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific  Society May:291-319.
    17. Eagar, C. C. 1978. Distribution and characteristics of balsam woolly  aphid infestations in the Great Smoky Mountains. Thesis (M.S.),  University of Tennessee, Knoxville. 72 p.
    19. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    21. Fedde, G. F. 1973. Impact of the balsam woolly aphid on cones and  seed produced by infested Fraser fir. Canadian Entomologist 105:673-680. 
    23. Fedde, G. F. 1974. A bark fungus for identifying Fraser fir  irreversibly damaged by the balsam woolly aphid. Adelges piceae.  Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 9:64-68.
    25. Harshberger, John W. 1903. An ecological study of the flora of  mountainous North Carolina. Botanical Gazette 36:241-258, 368-383.
    27. Hastings, F. L., P. J. Barry, and 1. R. Ragenovich. 1979. Laboratory  screening and field bioassays of insecticides for controlling the balsam  woolly adelgid in southern Appalachia. USDA Forest Service, Research  Note SE-279. Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, NC. 3 p.
    29. Hinsley, L. E., and F. A. Blazich. 1980. Propagation of Fraser fir by  stem cuttings. American Christmas Tree Journal 24(2):39-40.
    31. Holmes, J. S. 1911. Forest conditions in western North Carolina. The  North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey Bulletin 23. North  Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, Raleigh. 116 p.
    33. Johnson, K. D. 1977. Balsam woolly aphid infestation of Fraser fir in  the Great Smoky Mountains. Thesis (M.S.), University of Tennessee,  Knoxville. 64 p.
    35. Klaehn, F. U., and J. A. Winieski. 1962. Interspecific hybridization  in the genus Abies. Silvae Genetica 11(5/6):130-142.
    37. Korstian, Clarence F. 1937. Perpetuation of spruce on cut-over and  burned lands in the higher southern Appalachian Mountains. Ecological  Monographs 7(l):125-167.
    39. Lui, Tang-Shui. 1971. A monograph of the genus Abies. National  Taiwan University, College of Agriculture, Department of Forestry,  Taipei, Taiwan, China. 608 p.
    41. Mark. A. F., 1958. The ecology of the southern Appalachian grass  balds. Ecological Monographs 28(4):293-336.
    43. Myers, Oval, Jr., and F. H. Bormann. 1963. Phenotypic variation in  Abies balsamea in response to altitudinal and geographic  gradients. Ecology 44(3):429-436.
    45. Oosting, H. J., and W. D. Billings. 1951. A comparison of virgin  spruce fir forest in the northern and southern Appalachian system.  Ecology 32(l):84-103.
    47. Reed, Franklin W. 1905. Examination of a forest tract in western  North Carolina. U.S. Department of Agriculture Bureau of Forestry,  Bulletin 60. Washington, DC. 32 p.
    49. Robinson, John F., and Eyvind Thor. 1969. Natural variation in Abies  of the southern Appalachians. Forest Science 15(3):238-245.
    51. Speers, Charles F. 1962. Fraser fir seed collection, stratification,  and germination. Tree Planters' Notes 53(2):7-8.
    53. Speers, Charles F. 1967. Insect infestation distorts Fraser fir seed  tests. Tree Planters' Notes 18(l):19-2 1.
    55. Speers, Charles F. 1968. Balsam fir chalcid causes loss of Fraser fir  seed. Tree Planters' Notes 19(2):18-20.
    57. Thor, E. 1966. Christmas tree research in Tennessee. American  Christmas Tree Journal 10(3):7-12.
    59. Thor, E., and P. E. Barnett. 1974. Taxonomy of Abies in the  southern Appalachians: variation in balsam monoterpenes and wood  properties. Forest Science 20(l):32-40.
    61. Whittaker, R. H. 1956. Vegetation of the Great Smoky Mountains.  Ecological Monographs 26(l):1-80.
    63. Williams, W. K. 1958. Fraser fir as a Christmas tree. USDA Forest  Service in cooperation with the Extension Service, Washington, DC. 9 p.
    65. Zavarin, E., and K. Snajberk. 1972. Geographic variability of  monoterpenes from Abies balsamea and A. fraseri. Phytochemistry  11:1407-1421.


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