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Stephen F. Arno and Raymond J. Hoff
Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) is a slow-growing, long-lived tree of the high mountains of southwestern Canada and western United States. It is of limited commercial use, but it is valued for watershed protection and esthetics. Its seeds are an important food for grizzly bears and other wildlife of the high mountains. Concern about the species has arisen because in some areas whitebark pine cone crops have diminished as a result of successional replacement and insect and disease epidemics (6,48).