The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

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  • Engelm. 1863. In: Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 2: 209.
  • Farjon A. (2013). Conifer Database (version Jul 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
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  • Isotype: Engelmann, G. 1863. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis. 2: 209.
  • Kubler H. 1991. Function of spiral grain in trees. Trees-Structure and Function. 5(3): 125-135.
  • Moss, E. H. 1983. Fl. Alberta (ed. 2) i–xii, 1–687. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Traité général des conifères 390. 1867. (Traité Gén. Conif. (ed. 2))
  • Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis 2: 209. 1863. (Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis)
  • Tributsch, H. 1984. How life learned to live. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 218 p.
  • U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2010. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Pinus albicaulis (Whitebark Pine) as Endangered or Threatened with Critical Habitat. Federal Register, vol. 75, no. 138. 42033-42040
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    1. Achuff, P. L. 1989. Old-growth forests of the Canadian Rocky  Mountain national parks. Natural Areas Journal 9(l):12-26.
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    3. American Forestry Association. 1986. National register of big trees.  American Forests 92(4):21-52.
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    5. Arno, S. F. 1970. Ecology of alpine larch (Larix lyallii Parl,) in  the Pacific Northwest. Missoula: University of Montana. 264 p.  Dissertation.
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    7. Arno, S. F. 1980. Forest fire history in the Northern Rockies.  Journal of Forestry 78(8):460-465.
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    9. Arno, S. F. 1981. Unpublished data on file at: USDA Forest Service,  Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT.
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    11. Arno, S. F. 1986. Whitebark pine cone crops-a diminishing source of  wildlife food? Western Journal of Applied Forestry 1(3):92-94.
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    13. Arno, S. F., and R. Hammerly. 1984. Timberline-mountain and arctic  forest frontiers. Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers. 304 p.
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    15. Arno, S. F., and T. Weaver. [In preparation]. Whitebark pine  community types and their patterns on the landscape. In: Proceedings-Whitebark  Pine Ecosystems: Ecology and Management of a High-Mountain Resource.  Montana State University, Bozeman, MT; 1989 March 29-31. Gen. Tech. Rep.  Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.
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    17. Baig, M. N. 1972. Ecology of timberline vegetation in the Rocky  Mountains of Alberta. Calgary: University of Calgary. Dissertation. 
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    19. Bailey, D. K. 1975. Pinus albicaulis. Curtis's Botanical  Magazine 180(111):140-147.
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    21. Baker, F. S. 1944. Mountain climates of the western United States.  Ecological Monographs 14(2):233-254.
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    23. Baker, F. S. 1949. A revised tolerance table. Journal of Forestry  47(3):179-182.
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    25. Bartos, D., and K. E. Gibson. [In preparation]. Insects of whitebark  pine with emphasis on mountain pine beetle. In: Proceedings-Whitebark  Pine Ecosystems: Ecology and Management of a High-Mountain Resource.  Montana State University, Bozeman, MT; 1989 March 29-31. Gen. Tech. Rep.  Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.
    26.  
    27. Bedwell, J. L., and T. W. Childs. 1943. Susceptibility of whitebark  pine to blister rust in the Pacific Northwest. Journal of Forestry  41:904-912.
    28.  
    29. Bingham, R. T. 1972. Taxonomy, crossability, and relative blister  rust resistance of 5-needled white pines. Miscellaneous Publication  1221. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture: 271-280.
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    31. Bingham, R. T.; R. J. Hoff, and R. J. Steinhoff. 1972. Genetics of  western white pine. Res. Pap. WO-12. Washington, DC: USDA Forest  Service. IS p.
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    33. Blankinship, J, W. 1905. Native economic plants of Montana. Bull. No.  56. Bozeman, MT: Agricultural Experiment Station, Montana State College.  38 p.
    34.  
    35. Bright, Donald E., Jr. 1968. Three new species of Pityophthorus  from Canada (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Canadian Entomologist  100:604-608.
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    37. Ciesla, W. M., and M. M. Furniss. 1975. Idaho's haunted forests.  American Forests 81(8):32-35.
    38.  
    39. Clausen, J. 1965. Population studies of alpine and subalpine races of  conifers and willows in the California High Sierra Nevada. Evolution  19(l):56-68.
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    41. Cole, D. N. [In preparation]. Recreation in whitebark pine  ecosystems: Demand, problems and management strategies. In: Proceedings-Whitebark  Pine Ecosystems: Ecology and Management of a High-Mountain Resource.  Montana State University, Bozeman, MT; 1989 March 29-31. Gen. Tech. Rep.  Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.
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    43. Critchfield, W. B. 1981. [Personal communication]. USDA Forest  Service, Berkeley, CA:
    44.  
    45. Critchfield, W. B., and G. A. Allenbaugh, 1969. The distribution of  Pinaceae in and near northern Nevada. Madrono 20:12-26.
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    47. Daubenmire, R., and J. B. Daubenmire. 1968. Forest vegetation of  eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Tech. Bull. 60. Pullman, WA:  Washington Agriculture Experiment Station. 104 p.
    48.  
    49. Day, R. J. 1967. Whitebark pine in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta.  Forestry Chronicle 43(3):278-282.
    50.  
    51. Forcella, F. 1978. Flora and chorology of the Pinus  albicaulis-Vaccinium scoparium association. Madrono 25:139-150.
    52.  
    53. Forcella, F., and T. Weaver. 1977. Biomass and productivity of the  subalpine Pinus albicaulis-Vaccinium scoparium association in  Montana, USA. Vegetatio 35(2):95-105.
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    55. Franklin, J. F. 1966. [Personal communication]. USDA Forest Service,  Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Corvallis, OR.
    56.  
    57. Franklin, J. F., and C. T. Dyrness, 1973. Natural vegetation of  Oregon and Washington. General Technical Report PNW-8. Portland, OR,  USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment  Station. 417 p.
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    59. Furnier, Glenn R., Peggy Knowles, Merlise A. Clyde, and Bruce P.  Dancik. 1987. Effects of avian seed dispersal on the genetic structure  of whitebark pine populations. Evolution 41(3):607-612.
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    61. Furniss, R. L., and V. M. Carolin. 1977. Western forest insects. USDA  Forest Service, Miscellaneous Publication 1339. Washington, DC. 654 p.
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    63. Grant, M. C., and J. B. Mitton. 1977. Genetic differentiation among  growth forms of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir at tree line. Arctic  and Alpine Research 9(3):259-263.
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    65. Hawksworth, F. G., and D. Wiens. 1972. Biology and classification of  dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium). Agriculture Handbook 401.  Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service. 234 p.
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    67. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the  United States. Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC: USDA Forest  Service. 658 p.
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    69. Hiratsuka, Y., and A. Funk. 1976. Additional records of Gremmeniella  abietina in western Canada. Plant Disease Reporter 60:631.
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    71. Hitchcock, C. L., A. Cronquist, M. Ownbey, and J. W. Thompson. 1969.  Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest: Part 1. Seattle: University of  Washington Press. 914 p.
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    73. Hoff, R. J. 1980. Unpublished data on file at: USDA Forest Service,  Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forestry Sciences  Laboratory, Moscow, ID.
    74.  
    75. Hoff, R. J., and S. Hagle. In preparation. Diseases of whitebark pine  with special emphasis on white pine blister rust. In: Proceedings-Whitebark  pine Ecosystems: ecology and management of a high-mountain resource.  Montana State University, Bozeman, MT; 1989 March 29-31. Gen. Tech. Rep.  Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.
    76.  
    77. Hoff, R. J., R. T. Bingham, and G. 1. McDonald. 1980. Relative  blister rust resistance of white pines. European Journal of Forest  Pathology 10:307-316.
    78.  
    79. Holzer, Kurt. 1975. Genetics of Pinus cembra. Annales  Forestales 6/5:139-158.
    80.  
    81. Hopkins, W. E. 1979. Plant associations of the Fremont National  Forest. Publ, in Ecology 79-004. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service. 106  p.
    82.  
    83. Hutchins, H. E., and R. M. Lanner. 1982. The central role of Clark's  nutcracker in the dispersal and establishment of whitebark pine.  Oecologia 55:192-201.
    84.  
    85. Jackson, M. T., and A. Faller. 1973. Structural analysis and dynamics  of the plant communities of Wizard Island, Crater Lake National Park.  Ecological Monographs 43:441-461.
    86.  
    87. Johnson, LeRoy. 1981. Personal communication. USDA Forest Service,  Regional Office. Albuquerque, NM.
    88.  
    89. Kasper, J. B., and T. Szabo. 1970. The physical and mechanical  properties of whitebark pine. Forestry Chronicle 46:315-316.
    90.  
    91. Keane, R., S. Arno, J. Brown, and D. Tomback. [In preparation].  Modeling disturbances and conifer succession in whitebark pine forests.  In: Proceedings-Whitebark pine Ecosystems: ecology and  management of a high-mountain resource. Montana State University,  Bozeman, MT; 1989 March 29-31. General Technical Report, Ogden, UT: USDA  Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.
    92.  
    93. Kendall, K. C. 1981. Bear use of pine nuts. Bozeman, MT: Montana  State University. 25 p. Thesis.
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    95. Kendall, K. C., and S. F. Arno. [In preparation]. Whitebark pine-An  important but endangered wildlife resource. In: Proceedings-Whitebark  pine Ecosystems: ecology and management of a high-mountain resource.  Montana State University, Bozeman, MT; 1989 March 29-31. General  Technical Report, Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research  Station.
    96.  
    97. Lanner, R. M. 1980. Avian seed dispersal as a factor in ecology and  evolution of limber and whitebark pines. In: Proceedings, Sixth North  American Forest Biology Workshop. Edmonton: University of Alberta. 48 p.
    98.  
    99. Lanner, R. M. 1981. Personal communication. Utah State University,  Logan.
    100.  
    101. Lanner, R. M., and S. B. Vander Wall. 1980. Dispersal of limber pine  seed by Clark's nutcracker. Journal of Forestry 78(10):637-639.
    102.  
    103. Linhart, Y. B., and D. F. Tomback. 1985. Seed dispersal by  nutcrackers causes multi-trunk growth form in pines. Oecologia  67:107-110.
    104.  
    105. Little, E. L., Jr. 1971. Atlas of United States trees: Vol. 1,  Conifers and important hardwoods. Misc. Publ. 1146. Washington, DC: USDA  Forest Service. (Pages not numbered.)
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    107. Malouf, Carling. 1969. The coniferous forests and their uses in the  northern Rocky Mountains through 9,000 years of prehistory. In:  Proceedings, 1968 Symposium, Coniferous Forests of the Northern Rocky  Mountains. Missoula: University of Montana, Center for Natural  Resources: 271-280.
    108.  
    109. Marr, J. W. 1977. The development and movement of tree islands near  the upper limit of tree growth in the southern Rocky Mountains. Ecology  58(5):1159-1164.
    110.  
    111. Mathiasen, R. L., and F. G. Hawksworth. 1988. Dwarf mistletoes on  western white pine and whitebark pine in northern California and  southern Oregon. Forest Science 34(2):429-440.
    112.  
    113. Mattson, D., and C. Jonkel. [In preparation]. Whitebark pine and  bears: Life on the edge. In: Proceedings-Whitebark pine  Ecosystems: ecology and management of a high-mountain resource. Montana  State University, Bozeman, MT; 1989 March 29-31. Gen. Tech. Rep. Ogden,  UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.
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    115. McAvoy, B. 1931. Ecology survey of the Bella Coola region. Botanical  Gazette 92:141-171.
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    117. McCaughey, W. W. 1988. Determining what factors limit whitebark pine  germination and seedling survival in high elevation subalpine forests.  Unpublished paper, Study No. INT-4151-020, on file at: USDA Forest  Service, Intermountain Research Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory,  Bozeman, MT.
    118.  
    119. McCaughey, W., and W. Schmidt. [In Preparation]. Autecology of  whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.). In: Proceedings-Whitebark  pine Ecosystems: ecology and management of a high-mountain resource.  Montana State University, Bozeman, MT; 1989 March 29-31. Gen. Tech. Rep.  Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.
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    121. Mealey, S. P. 1980. The natural food habits of grizzly bears in  Yellowstone National Park, 1973-1974. In: Bears-Their Biology and  Management. Proceedings, Fourth International Conference on Bear  Research and Management. Martinka, C. J., and K. L. McArthur, eds. Conf.  Ser. 3. Kalispell, MT: Bear Biology Association: 281-292.
    122.  
    123. Mehringer, P. J., Jr., S. Arno, and K. Petersen. 1977. Postglacial  history of Lost Trail Pass Bog, Bitterroot Mountains, Montana. Arctic  and Alpine Research 9(4):345-368.
    124.  
    125. Morgan, P., and S. Bunting. [In preparation]. Fire effects in  whitebark pine forests. In: Proceedings-Whitebark pine Ecosystems:  ecology and management of a high-mountain resource. Montana State  University, Bozeman, MT; 1989 March 29-31. Gen. Tech. Rep. Ogden, UT:  USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.
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    127. Nimlos, T. J. 1963. Zonal great soil groups in western Montana.  Montana Academy of Sciences 23:3-13.
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    129. Ogilvie, R. T. [In preparation]. The distribution and ecology of  whitebark pine in western Canada. In: Proceedings-Whitebark pine  Ecosystems: ecology and management of a high-mountain resource. Montana  State University, Bozeman, MT; 1989 March 29-31. General Technical  Report, Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.
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    131. Pfister, R. D., B. L. Kovalchik, S. Arno, and R. Presby. 1977. Forest  habitat types of Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-34. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest  Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 174 p.
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    133. Pitel, J. A. 1981. Personal communication. Canadian Forestry Service,  Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Chalk River, ON.
    134.  
    135. Pitel, J. A., and B. S. P. Wang. 1980. A preliminary study of  dormancy in Pinus albicaulis seeds. Canadian Forestry Service,  Bi-monthly Research Notes. Jan-Feb: 4-5.
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    137. Smith, Richard S. Jr. 1956. Needle casts of high-altitude white pines  in California. Plant Disease Reporter 56:102-103.
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    139. Society of American Foresters. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Eyre, F. H., ed. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
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    141. Steele, Robert, Stephen V. Cooper, David M.. Ondov, and others. 1983.  Forest habitat types of eastern Idaho - western Wyoming. General  Technical Report INT-144. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain  Forest and Range Experiment Station. 122 p.
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    143. Steele, Robert, Robert D. Pfister, Russell A. Ryker, and others.  1981. Forest habitat types of central Idaho. General Technical Report  INT- 114. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range  Experiment Station. 138 p,
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    145. Thompson, L. S., and J. Kuijt. 1976. Montane and subalpine plants of  the Sweetgrass Hills, Montana, and their relationship to early  post-glacial environments of the Northern Great Plains. Canadian Field  Naturalist 90(4):432-448.
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    147. Tomback, D. F. 1978. Foraging strategies of Clark's nutcracker.  Living Bird 16(1977):123-160.
    148.  
    149. Tomback, D. F. 1981. Notes on cones and vertebrate-mediated seed  dispersal of Pinus albicaulis (Pinaceae). Madrono 280:91-94.
    150.  
    151. Tomback, D. F, 1982. Dispersal of whitebark pine seeds by Clark's  Nutcracker: a mutualism hypothesis. Journal of Animal Ecology  51:451-467.
    152.  
    153. Tomback, D. F. 1986. Post-fire regeneration of krummholz whitebark  pine: a consequence of nutcracker seed caching. Madrono 33: 100-110.
    154.  
    155. Tomback, D. F., L. A. Hoffman, and S. K. Sund. [In preparation].  Coevolution of whitebark pine and nutcrackers: implications for forest  regeneration. In: Proceedings-Whitebark pine Ecosystems: ecology and  management of a high-mountain resource. Montana State University,  Bozeman, MT; 1989 March 29-31. Gen. Tech. Rep. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest  Service, Intermountain Research Station.
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    157. Tranquillini, W. 1979. Physiological ecology of the alpine  timberline. Springer-Verlag, New York. 137 p.
    158.  
    159. Trappe, J. M. 1962. Fungus associates of ectotrophic mycorrhizae.  Botanical Review 28:538-606.
    160.  
    161. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1974. Seeds of woody  plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC:  USDA Forest Service. 883 p.
    162.  
    163. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1975. Soil  taxonomy. Agriculture Handbook 436. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 754 p. (Note: Soil was  classified in consultation with R. Cline, H. Holdorf, and A. Martinson  of the USDA Forest Service, Region 1, Missoula MT, and T. Nimlos of the  University of Montana, Missoula.)
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    165. Weaver, T., and D. Dale. 1974. Pinus albicaulis in central Montana,  environment, vegetation and production. American Midland Naturalist  92:222-230.
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    167. Weaver, T., and F. Forcella. 1986. Cone production in Pin us  albicaulis forests. Proceedings-conifer tree seed in the Inland Mountain  West symposium; 68-76 Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-203. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest  Service. Intermountain Research Station.
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    169. Wilson, George R. 1981. Personal communication. Columbia Falls, MT:  USDA Forest Service.
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    171. Wood, S. L. 1981. Personal communication. Provo, UT: Brigham Young  University. (Supplied by M. Furniss.)
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