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Overview

Distribution

The species occurs naturally in only two locations, both in coastal Monterey County, California, USA. These two disjunct stands are found at Point Lobos and at Cypress Point in the Del Monte Forest, separated by Carmel Bay. Both stands are situated on coastal bluffs at elevations less than 30 meters, and are considered relicts of a broader historical distribution.

  • * Farjon, A., Page C. N., & Brown, M. J. (1999). ''Conifers: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan''. IUCN, 121 pages ISBN 2831704650
  • * Griffin, J. R. & Critchfield, W. B. (1976). ''The Distribution of Forest Trees in California''. USDA Forest Service Research Paper PWS-82.
  • * Hogan, C.M. & Frankis, M.P., ''Monterey Cypress: Cupressus macrocarpa'', GlobalTwitcher,com, ed. N. Stromberg [http://www.globaltwitcher.com/artspec_information.asp?thingid=62524]
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Range Description

This species is found in the USA: California (near Monterey). Although it is widely planted and naturalized even in California, it has a very limited original natural distribution in Monterey County, California. The population occurs close to the coast.
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National Distribution

Puerto Rico

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Native to the Monterey Peninsula, California; cultivated in other parts of northern and central coastal California and elsewhere.

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

3 Southern Pacific Border

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Occurrence in North America

CA HI

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More info for the term: natural

Monterey cypress occurs in two natural stands in Monterey County,
California. One stand is between Point Cypress and Pescadero Point on
the north side of Carmel Bay, Monterey Peninsula. A smaller one is near
Point Lobos on the south side of Carmel Bay [13,33]. Monterey cypress
is widely planted and naturalized on the California coast [13]. It has
been planted in Hawaii, Europe, South America, Australia, and New
Zealand [17].
  • 13. Holland, Robert F. 1986. Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial natural communities of California. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Fish and Game. 156 p. [12756]
  • 17. Little, Elbert L., Jr.; Skomen, Roger G. 1989. Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced). Agric. Handb. 679. Washington, DC: U.S Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 321 p. [9433]
  • 33. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]

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Calif.
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Distribution: Native of California. Cultivated elsewhere.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 25 m; crown generally broadly spreading, especially on exposed headlands, fairly sparse, often composed of few major limbs from near ground, more upright in sheltered locations. Bark rough, fibrous. Branchlets decussate, 1.5--2 mm diam. Leaves without gland or sometimes with inconspicuous, shallow, pitlike, abaxial gland that does not produce drop of resin, not glaucous. Pollen cones 4--6 ´ 2.5--3 mm; pollen sacs 6--10. Seed cones oblong, 2.5--4 cm, grayish brown, not glaucous; scales 4--6 pairs, smooth, umbo nearly flat at maturity. Seeds mostly 5--6 mm, dark brown, not glaucous. 2 n = 22.
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Description

More info for the term: tree

Monterey cypress is a native, evergreen tree. In native groves, trees
on the coastal fringe are severely sculptured and distorted. A short
distance inland, an erect form and light branching are apparent, showing
that this cypress, although capable of enduring wind and salt-blasting,
responds well to shelter [22,34]. Monterey cypress grows to 82 feet (25
m) tall. Mature leaves are 0.08 inch (2 mm) long, although they can be
up to 0.4 inch (10 mm) on vigorous shoots [2,23,34]. Ovulate cones are
solitary, up to 1.4 inches (35 mm) long. Staminate cones are 0.24 (6 mm)
long [12,23,34]. The bark is thick and fibrous, becoming furrowed with
age [23,34]. A well-defined taproot and numerous laterals are formed
the first year [14,34]. Naturalists at the Point Lobos State Reserve
have estimated the maximum age of Monterey cypress at 200 to 300 years
[33].
  • 12. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 14. Johnson, LeRoy C. 1974. Cupressus L. cypress. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 363-369. [7599]
  • 2. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. [21332]
  • 22. Miller, J. T.; Knowles, F. B. 1990. Introduced forest trees in New Zealand: recognition, role and seed source. 9. The cypresses: Cupressus spp. and Chamaecyparis spp. FRI Bulletin 124/9. Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Forest Service. 33 p. [21880]
  • 23. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 33. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]
  • 34. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]

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Description

Similar to C. sempervirens but differing in the larger, more clustered fruits which are darker coloured (fide Parker, I.e.).
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Physical Description

Tree, Shrub, Evergreen, Monoecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Tree with bark rough or scaly, Young shoots 3-dimensional, Buds not resinous, Leaves scale-like, Leaves opposite, Non-needle-like leaf margins entire, Leaf apex acute, Leaf apex obtuse, Leaves < 5 cm long, Leaves < 10 cm long, Leaves not blue-green, Scale leaves without raised glands, Scale leaf glands not ruptured, Scale leaves overlapping, Twigs glabrous, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Berry-like cones orange, Woody seed cones < 5 cm long, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds brown, Seeds winged, Seeds equally winged, Seed wings narrower than body.
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Stephen C. Meyers

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Ecology

Habitat

California Montane Chaparral and Woodlands Habitat

This taxon can be found in the California montane chaparral and woodlands, a near coastal ecoregion in Central and Southern California, USA. This ecoregion is disjunctive, with a major element in Southern California and another along the Monterey County coast. The ecoregion encompasses most of the Transverse Range that includes the San Bernardino Mountains; San Gabriel Mountains; portions of the Santa Ynez and San Rafael Mountains; Topatopa Mountains; San Jacinto Mountains; the Tehachapi, Greenhorn, Piute, and Kiavah Mountains that extend roughly northeast-southwest from the southern Sierra Nevada; and the Santa Lucia Range that parallels the coast southward from Monterey Bay to Morro Bay.

The California montane chaparral and woodland ecoregion consists of a complex mosaic of coastal sage scrub, lower chaparral dominated by chamise, upper chaparral dominated by manzanita, desert chaparral, Piñon-juniper woodland, oak woodlands, closed-cone pine forests, yellow pine forests, sugar pine-white fir forests, lodgepole pine forests, and alpine habitats. The prevalence of drought-adapted scrub species in the flora of this ecoregion helps distinguish it from similar communities in the Sierras and other portions of northern California. Many of the shared Sierra Nevadan species typically are adapted to drier habitats in that ecoregion, Jeffrey Pine (Pinus jeffreyi) being a good example.

Oak species are an important component of many chaparral and forest communities throughout the ecoregion. Canyon Live Oak, Interior Live Oak, Tanbark Oak (not a true Quercus species), Engelmann Oak, Golden-cup Oak, and Scrub Oak are some examples. Mixed-conifer forests are found between 1371 to 2896 meters elevation with various combinations and dominance of incense cedar, sugar pine, and white fir, Jeffrey Pine, Ponderosa Pine, and mountain juniper. Subalpine forests consist of groves of Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis), Lodgepole Pine, and Jeffrey Pine. Very old individual trees are commonly observed in these relict subalpine forests. Within this zone are subalpine wet meadows, talus slope herbaceous communities, krumholz woodlands, and a few small aspen groves.

In addition to these general vegetation patterns, this ecoregion is noted for a variety of ecologic islands, communities with specialized conditions that are widely scattered and isolated and typically harbor endemic and relict species. Examples include two localities of Knobcone Pine (Pinus attenuata) on serpentine soils, scattered vernal pools with a number of endemic and relict species, and isolated populations of one of North America’s most diverse cypress floras, including the rare Gowen Cypress (Cupressus goveniana goveniana) restricted to two sites on acidic soils in the northern Santa Lucia Range, Monterey Cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa) found only at two coastal localities near Monterey Bay, and Sargent Cypress (Callitropsis sargentii LR/LC) restricted to serpentine outcrops. Monterey Pine (Pinus radiata) is also restricted to three coastal sites near Monterey Bay.

The ecoregion is also home to a few endemic or near-endemic mammalian vertebrates, such as the White-eared Pocket Mouse (Perognathus alticolus EN), a mammal known only to two disjunct mountain ranges in southern California: San Bernardino Mountains in San Bernardino County (ssp. alticolus), and the Tehachapi Mountains, in Kern, Ventura, and Los Angeles counties. The near-endemic fossorial Agile Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys agilis) is found in the southern disjunctive unit of the ecoregion, and is known only to the Los Angeles Basin and foothills of San Gabriel and San Bernardino mountains in Ventura, Los Angeles, and Riverside counties north to Santa Barbara County and through the southern Sierra Nevada, including Mount Pinos, Tehachapi and San Gabriel mountains, and northern San Fernando Valley. Non-endemic mammals found in the ecoregion include Botta's Pocket Gopher (Thomomys bottae) and Trowbridge's Shrew (Sorex trowbridgii). Some larger vertebrate predators can be found in the ecoregion, including Puma (Puma concolor), Bobcat (Lynx rufus), Coyote (Canis latrans), and Ringtails (Bassariscus astutus).

The ecoregion boasts five endemic and near-endemic amphibians, largely Plethodontid salamanders. Some specific salamander taxa found here are the endemic Tehachapi Slender Salamander (Batrachoseps stebbinsi VU), known from isolated sites in the Caliente Creek drainage, Piute Mountains, and Kern County, California along with scattered populations in the Tehachapi Mountains to Fort Tejon, Kern County; the near-endemic Blackbelly Slender Salamander (Batrachoseps nigriventris); the Monterey Ensatina (Ensatina eschscholtzii); the Channel Islands Slender Salamander (Batrachoseps pacificus), endemic to a narrow range restricted solely on Anacapa, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miguel islands; and the Arboreal Salamander (Aneides lugubris), found only in California and Baja California. A newt found here is the Coast Range Newt (Taricha torosa). Anuran taxa in the ecoregion include the Foothill Yellow-legged Frog (Rana boylii NT); the Southern Mountain Yellow-legged Frog (Rana muscosa EN), a California endemic occurring in several disjunctive populations; and the Northern Red-legged Frog (Rana aurora).

The California montane chaparral and woodlands ecoregions contains a number of reptiles such as the Coast Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma coronatum), who ranges from Northern California to Baja California. Also found here is the Sagebrush Lizard (Sceloporus graciosus); the Western Fence Lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis); the Southern Alligator Lizard (Elgaria multicarinata); and the Side-blotched Lizard (Uta stansburiana). The Two-striped Garter Snake (Thamnophis hammondii) is a restricted range reptile found near-coastally from Monterey County, California southward to Baja California.

The California Condor once inhabited much of the ecoregion, with the western Transverse Range acting today as a refuge for some of the last wild populations, after considerable conservation efforts, especially in the Los Padres National Forest. The Heermann's Gull (Larus heermanni NT) is found in coastal areas of the ecoregion.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This cypress is restricted to a narrow coastal strip on rocky cliffs, slopes and headlands, forming pure stands or associated with Pinus radiata, in loam or sand over granitic rocks or in rock crevices. The climate is of the Mediterranean type, with dry summers cooled by frequent fog, within reach of ocean salt sprays, and winter rain.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: Closed-cone-pine/cypress forests; less than 30 m elevation.

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Habitat characteristics

In native stands, Monterey cypress is confined to rocky, granitic soils
of coastal headlands and bluffs exposed to nearly constant onshore winds
[13,35]. These acidic, sandy soils generally have a pH of 4.5 to 5.5
[33]. Monterey cypress occurs at elevations from sea level to 100 feet
(30 m) [12,24].
  • 12. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 13. Holland, Robert F. 1986. Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial natural communities of California. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Fish and Game. 156 p. [12756]
  • 24. Posey, Clayton E.; Goggans, James F. 1967. Observations on species of cypress indigenous to the United States. Circular 153. Auburn, AL: Auburn University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 19 p. [20384]
  • 33. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]
  • 35. Zedler, Paul H. 1986. Closed-cone conifers of the chaparral. Fremontia. 14(3): 14-17. [18648]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: natural, shrubs

Monterey cypress is the dominant component of the Monterey cypress
forest community [13]. This community is a moderately dense,
fire-maintained forest up to 82 feet (25 m) tall in sheltered areas
[13,31]. Monterey cypress typically grows in pure stands with an
understory of scattered dwarf shrubs and perennial herbs [13]. It
intergrades with northern coastal bluff scrub on exposed seaward edges
and with Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) forest away from the ocean
[13,33]. Monterey cypress is associated with closed-cone coniferous
woodlands and closed-cone pine-cypress forests [23,27,33].

Publications naming Monterey cypress as a community dominant are listed
below.

Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial natural communities of
California [13]
The vascular plant communities of California [31]
The closed-cone pines and cypress [33]

Species not previously mentioned but commonly associated with Monterey
cypress include Gowen cypress (Hesperocyparis goveniana ssp. goveniana),
California sagebrush (Artemisia californica), chamise (Adenostoma
fasciculatum
), Hooker manzanita (Arctostaphylos hookeri), woolyleaf
manzanita (A. tomentosa), chaparral broom (Baccharis pilularis),
coyotebrush (B. pilularis var. consanguinea), blue blossom (Ceanothus
thyrsiflorus
), liveforever (Dudleya farinosa), seaside daisy (Erigeron
glaucus
), golden-yarrow (Eriophyllum confertiflorum), lizard tail (E.
staechidifolium), salal (Gaultheria shallon), Douglas iris (Iris
douglasiana
), bush monkeyflower (Mimulus aurantiacus), Pacific bayberry
(Myrica californica), skunkweed (Navarretia squarrosa), poison-oak
(Toxicodendron diversiloba), and California huckleberry (Vaccinium
ovatum
) [13,19,33].
  • 13. Holland, Robert F. 1986. Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial natural communities of California. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Fish and Game. 156 p. [12756]
  • 19. McDonald, Philip M.; Laacke, Robert J. 1990. Pinus radiata D. Don Monterey pine. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 433-441. [13401]
  • 23. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 27. Smith, James Payne, Jr.; Berg, Ken. 1988. Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 4th ed. Special Publication No. 1. Sacramento, CA: California Native Plant Society. 168 p. [7494]
  • 31. Thorne, Robert F. 1976. The vascular plant communities of California. In: Latting, June, ed. Symposium proceedings: plant communities of southern California; 1974 May 4; Fullerton, CA. Special Publication No. 2. Berkeley, CA: California Native Plant Society: 1-31. [3289]
  • 33. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]

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Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

K009 Pine - cypress forest
K033 Chaparral

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Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub

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Coastal bluffs; of conservation concern; 5--35m.
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The `Monterey Cypress' is reportedly cultivated at Abbottabad. (Parker, Lc.).
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Plant / epiphyte
resupinate fruitbody of Amylostereum laevigatum grows on dead bark of Cupressus macrocarpa

Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Cupressus macrocarpa

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Battarrea phalloides is associated with Cupressus macrocarpa

Foodplant / sap sucker
Cinara cupressi sucks sap of live foliage of Cupressus macrocarpa
Remarks: season: 5-8
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum floriforme is associated with Cupressus macrocarpa
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum pectinatum is associated with Cupressus macrocarpa

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lindtneria leucobryophila is saprobic on dead, decayed needle of litter of Cupressus macrocarpa

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Litschauerella abietis is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed branch (small) of Cupressus macrocarpa

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmiellus candidus is saprobic on dead wood of Cupressus macrocarpa
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia wakefieldiae is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Cupressus macrocarpa

Foodplant / pathogen
Seiridium cardinale infects and damages cankered trunk of Cupressus macrocarpa
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
epigeous fruitbody of Stephanospora caroticolor is associated with Cupressus macrocarpa
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Subulicium lautum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Cupressus macrocarpa
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
Trisetacus chamaecypari feeds on foliage of Cupressus macrocarpa

Foodplant / saprobe
Tubulicrinis regificus is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Cupressus macrocarpa

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General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

Fires occurring too frequently in groves of California cypress species
may destroy them, as reproduction could be eliminated before trees have
a chance to produce cones [2]. Fire followed by intensive grazing could
eliminate a cypress grove [2,3].
  • 2. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. [21332]
  • 3. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1978. Southern California's vanishing cypresses. Fremontia. 6(2): 24-29. [22295]

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Plant Response to Fire

California cypress species trees release large quantities of seed
after fire [34].
  • 34. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

Most fires probably kill Monterey cypress. Cypress thickets are
conducive to crown fires, which usually kill most trees in the burned
area. Some trees survive when fires are patchy [33]. Large trees might
survive surface fires.

Cones of the California cypress species open as the resin melts and
boils. Rapid charring of the thick cone scales extinguishes the flames,
leaving seeds unburned [2].
  • 2. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. [21332]
  • 33. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: crown residual colonizer, root crown

Tree without adventitious-bud root crown
Crown residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)

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Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: crown fire, frequency, serotinous

Monterey cypress is a fire-adapted species with serotinous cones [33].
Serotiny is less pronounced in Monterey cypress than in other California
cypress species, possibly due to reduced frequency of intense crown
fires near the ocean [20,33]. Monterey cypress is capable of seedling
establishment with or without crown fire, although fire provides optimum
site conditions for regeneration [20]. Some Monterey cypress trees
survive fire; "fire-hollowed" trees were reported on sites containing
both Monterey cypress and pines [34].

When cones of the California cypress species are opened by the heat of a
fire, the seeds fall on exposed mineral soil [16,34]. Most seed falls
in the first few months following fire [35]. Fires that occur in late
summer and fall and are followed by winter rains ensure seed
dissemination on bare mineral substrates and moist conditions for
germination [33]. No information was available on fire-free intervals
for communities dominated by Monterey cypress. Tecate cypress
(Hesperocyparis forbesii), a cypress found in southern
California, has an average interval between fires of 25 years, ranging
from 15 to 63 years [2,33].
  • 16. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1975. Rare and local conifers in the United States. Conservation Research Rep. No. 19. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 25 p. [15691]
  • 2. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. [21332]
  • 20. McMaster, Gregory S.; Zedler, Paul H. 1981. Delayed seed dispersal in Pinus torreyana (Torrey pine). Oecologia. 51: 62-66. [21615]
  • 33. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]
  • 34. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]
  • 35. Zedler, Paul H. 1986. Closed-cone conifers of the chaparral. Fremontia. 14(3): 14-17. [18648]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

Facultative Seral Species

Site requirements for cypress seedlings are typical of those for pioneer
conifers. Seedlings are shade intolerant and survive best in full
sunlight on bare mineral soil [2,33]. According to Armstrong [2],
cypress trees of southern California are very sensitive to lack of
light, losing their foliage when growing in shade.

Although chaparral species inhibit the establishment of cypress
seedlings, few chaparral species are able to compete on infertile soils
where Monterey cypress is found [2,3]. Pines may outcompete Monterey
cypress where they are found together [34].
  • 2. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. [21332]
  • 3. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1978. Southern California's vanishing cypresses. Fremontia. 6(2): 24-29. [22295]
  • 33. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]
  • 34. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]

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Regeneration Processes

Monterey cypress reproduces exclusively from seed. Cone production is
abundant. Staminate cone production begins on trees that are 6 to 7
years old [34]. Ovulate cone production begins on trees that are less
than 10 years of age [5]. The cones require 2 years to mature [2,33]
and can contain 140 seeds [14]. The cones of Monterey cypress remain
closed for only a few years after maturity; seed dispersal is a
continuous process and can occur without fire [20,35]. Seeds maintain
viability for up to 4 years on trees [5]. Seed dispersal is primarily
by wind and rain [8,33].

Cypress seeds require bare mineral soil for germination and
establishment. Seedling mortality is high on shaded sites with abundant
litter because of damping-off fungi [2,33]. Seedlings are sensitive to
excessive moisture [34].
  • 14. Johnson, LeRoy C. 1974. Cupressus L. cypress. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 363-369. [7599]
  • 2. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. [21332]
  • 20. McMaster, Gregory S.; Zedler, Paul H. 1981. Delayed seed dispersal in Pinus torreyana (Torrey pine). Oecologia. 51: 62-66. [21615]
  • 33. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]
  • 34. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]
  • 35. Zedler, Paul H. 1986. Closed-cone conifers of the chaparral. Fremontia. 14(3): 14-17. [18648]
  • 5. Conkle, M. Thompson. 1987. Electrophoretic analysis of variation in native Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa Hartw.). In: Elias, Thomas S., ed. Conservation and management of rare and endangered plants: Proceedings of a California conference; [Date unknown]
  • 8. Frankie, Gordon W. 1973. Feeding habits and seasonal history of Ernobius conicola in cones of Monterey cypress with notes on cohabiting insects. Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 49(2): 102-109. [22634]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phanerophyte

Phanerophyte

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

In California, growth and development of Monterey cypress cones begins
in January and extends to December of the same year. In the second year
of development, cones are pollinated in February and March [8]. Seeds
mature 15 to 18 months after pollination [14].
  • 14. Johnson, LeRoy C. 1974. Cupressus L. cypress. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 363-369. [7599]
  • 8. Frankie, Gordon W. 1973. Feeding habits and seasonal history of Ernobius conicola in cones of Monterey cypress with notes on cohabiting insects. Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 49(2): 102-109. [22634]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Hesperocyparis macrocarpa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hesperocyparis macrocarpa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cupressus macrocarpa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
D2

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P.

Contributor/s

Justification
The population, although small and with a limited area of occupancy (AOO), appears at present to be stable, with most trees now within protected areas safeguarded from further urban and other development. However, based on its AOO of only 13 km² calculated from herbarium specimen locality data and a grid of one km wide (its true AOO is likely to be less, not more) and the risk of fire, which could increase in future due to climate change, this species meets the criteria for Vulnerable under criterion D2.

History
  • 1998
    Vulnerable
  • 1997
    Endangered
    (Walter and Gillett 1998)
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Puerto Rico

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G1 - Critically Imperiled

Reasons: Small range; native to the Monterey Peninsula, California, though widely planted and naturalized elsewhere.

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The California Native Plant Society lists Monterey cypress in Category
1B: rare or endangered in California [27].
  • 27. Smith, James Payne, Jr.; Berg, Ken. 1988. Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 4th ed. Special Publication No. 1. Sacramento, CA: California Native Plant Society. 168 p. [7494]

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U.S. Federal Legal Status

None [36]
  • 36. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 2013. Endangered Species Program, [Online]

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Population

Population
Only two sub-populations are known to occur in the wild, i.e. in original habitat; both are on the coast in Monterey County: the larger one is at Cypress Point and adjacent rocky strips of coast, the other some distance to the south at Point Lobos.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
The limited distribution of this species in its natural habitat consists of two main 'groves' and a few scattered meta-populations. These are mostly situated in reserves (Del Monte Forest, Point Lobos), but also on private lands in the vicinity of ongoing urban and leisure development. As recreation and tourism are intensive in the area, there is a great risk from fires. If climate change would mean that the fog became less frequent or of shorter daily duration, the incidence of fires could greatly increase. Fires would be put out as soon as possible in urbanized areas, but probably less urgently in the reserves, such as Point Lobos, that are relatively remote from private property.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Nearly all major stands of this species are now within protected areas, but these are often adjacent to urban development, golf courses or (touristic) roads. Management of fires will be the major issue in the future to protect the natural, wild population.
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Management considerations

Monterey cypress is considered rare in its range. Portions of the
Monterey cypress grove on Monterey Peninsula have been destroyed for
housing developments and golf courses [2,3].

Grazing and trampling by livestock are detrimental to cypress seedlings
[2,3].

In Tasmania, ingestion of foliage of Monterey cypress trees has been
associated with abortion in cattle and cerebral leucomalacia of the
aborted fetus [26].

Monterey cypress seedlings are susceptible to damping-off fungi [2,33].
Monterey cypress is highly susceptible to coryneum canker (Coryneum
cardinale
), which can kill trees. Coryneum canker (cypress canker) may
spread naturally by rain, wind, birds, rodents, and bark beetles, which
disseminate fungal spores [7]. Coryneum canker has eliminated some
inland plantations of Monterey cypress [14]. Monterey cypress trees on
the coast seem resistant to coryneum canker possibly because of the
constant spray of salt, which decreases fungal spore viability [33].

One species of bark beetle (Ernobius conicola) infests green and dry
cones of Monterey cypress and dead branches of the same host. It only
infests trees found in the two native populations on Monterey Peninsula.
Two moth species (Laspeyresia cupressana and Henricus macrocarpara) are
associated with the bark beetle in 2-year-old Monterey cypress cones.
The larvae of these insects can cause damage to the seeds [7,8].

In park plantings in San Francisco, Monterey cypress trees grow rapidly
and are overmature by 70 years of age. Many have root rot, excessive
lean, large dead branches, and a small proportion of live crown [5].

Methods for establishing Monterey cypress in New Zealand are described
by Glass {10].
  • 14. Johnson, LeRoy C. 1974. Cupressus L. cypress. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 363-369. [7599]
  • 2. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. [21332]
  • 26. Sloss, V.; Brady, J. W. 1983. Abnormal births in cattle following ingestion of Cupressus macrocarpa foliage. Australian Veterinary Journal. 60(7): 223. [22633]
  • 3. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1978. Southern California's vanishing cypresses. Fremontia. 6(2): 24-29. [22295]
  • 33. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]
  • 5. Conkle, M. Thompson. 1987. Electrophoretic analysis of variation in native Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa Hartw.). In: Elias, Thomas S., ed. Conservation and management of rare and endangered plants: Proceedings of a California conference; [Date unknown]
  • 7. Frankie, Gordon W.; Parmeter, J. R., Jr. 1972. A preliminary study of the relationship between Coryneum cardinale (Fungi imperfecti) & Laspeyresia cupressana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Plant Disease Reporter. 56(11): 992-994. [22636]
  • 8. Frankie, Gordon W. 1973. Feeding habits and seasonal history of Ernobius conicola in cones of Monterey cypress with notes on cohabiting insects. Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 49(2): 102-109. [22634]

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Other uses and values

Monterey cypress has been planted widely for ornament, hedges, and
windbreaks in the Pacific States, Europe, South America, Australia, New
Zealand, and the Falkland Islands [17,18,22].
  • 17. Little, Elbert L., Jr.; Skomen, Roger G. 1989. Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced). Agric. Handb. 679. Washington, DC: U.S Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 321 p. [9433]
  • 18. Low, Alan J. 1986. Tree planting in the Falkland Islands. Forestry. 59(1): 59-84. [9755]
  • 22. Miller, J. T.; Knowles, F. B. 1990. Introduced forest trees in New Zealand: recognition, role and seed source. 9. The cypresses: Cupressus spp. and Chamaecyparis spp. FRI Bulletin 124/9. Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Forest Service. 33 p. [21880]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

Rodents and deer consume cypress seedlings. Cypress are considered
undesirable forage for livestock, although young plants are occasionally
browsed [34].
  • 34. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]

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Wood Products Value

More info for the terms: density, natural

Monterey cypress wood is durable [10,11,22]. Natural durability of
heartwood of Monterey cypress is high, 10 to 15 years' ground life and
over 15 years above ground [22]. It is suitable for a wide range of
exterior uses including joinery, shingles, and boats. Possible interior
uses include moulding and panelling [11,22]. Cypress shelterbelts
provide good firewood. Most cypress species develop a large proportion
of heartwood, which splits well, dries quickly, and is clean burning.
Monterey cypress wood is moderately fast burning because of its low to
medium density [11,22]. As cypress woods are prone to sparking, they
are recommended only for enclosed fires [22].

Monterey cypress is planted in Africa and New Zealand for lumber and
pulp production [14].
  • 10. Glass, Bruce P.; Hay, A. E.; Andrew, I. A. 1991. Establishment of Cupressus lusitanica Miller and C. macrocarpa Hartweg on two sites in New Zealand. In: FRI Bulletin 156. Rotorua, New Zealand: Forest Research Institute: 72-80. [22635]
  • 11. Haslett, A. N. 1986. Properties and utilisation of exotic speciality timbers grown in New Zealand. Part III: Cypresses: Cahmaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Parl. X Cupressocyparis leylandii (Jacks et Dall.) Dall.; Cupressus lusitanica Mill.; Cupressus macrocarpa Hartw. FRI Bulletin No. 119. Rotorua, New Zealand: New Zealand Forest Service, Forest Research Institute. 12 p. [22537]
  • 14. Johnson, LeRoy C. 1974. Cupressus L. cypress. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 363-369. [7599]
  • 22. Miller, J. T.; Knowles, F. B. 1990. Introduced forest trees in New Zealand: recognition, role and seed source. 9. The cypresses: Cupressus spp. and Chamaecyparis spp. FRI Bulletin 124/9. Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Forest Service. 33 p. [21880]

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Wikipedia

Cupressus macrocarpa

"Macrocarpa" redirects here. For other uses, see Macrocarpa (disambiguation).

Cupressus macrocarpa, commonly known as Monterey cypress, is a species of cypress native to the Central Coast of California. The native range of the species was confined to two small relict populations, at Cypress Point in Pebble Beach and at Point Lobos near Carmel, California.[2]

Description[edit]

Trees showing typical wind-sculptured habit in its native area

Cupressus macrocarpa is a medium-sized coniferous evergreen tree, which often becomes irregular and flat-topped as a result of the strong winds that are typical of its native area. It grows to heights of up to 40 m in perfect growing conditions, and its trunk diameter can reach 2.5 m. The foliage grows in dense sprays which are bright green in color and release a deep lemony aroma when crushed. The leaves are scale-like, 2–5 mm long, and produced on rounded (not flattened) shoots; seedlings up to a year old have needle-like leaves 4–8 mm long.

The seed cones are globose to oblong, 20–40 mm long, with 6–14 scales, green at first, maturing brown about 20–24 months after pollination. The pollen cones are 3–5 mm long, and release their pollen in late winter or early spring.[3][4][5]

It has been widely reported that individual C. macrocarpa trees may be up to 2,000 years old, but this is disputed by botanists, and the longest-lived report based on physical evidence is of a tree 284 years old.[6] The renowned Californian botanist Willis Linn Jepson wrote that "the advertisement of [C. macrocarpa trees] in seaside literature as 1,000 to 2,000 years old does not ... rest upon any actual data, and probably represents a desire to minister to a popular craving for superlatives".[7]

Along with other New World Cupressus species, it has recently been transferred to the genus Hesperocyparis, on genetic evidence that the New World Cupressus are not very closely related to the Old World Cupressus species.[8][9]

Distribution[edit]

The two native cypress forest stands are protected, within Point Lobos State Reserve and Del Monte Forest. The natural habitat is noted for its cool, moist summers, almost constantly bathed by sea fog.[3][4]

This species has been widely planted outside its native range, particularly along the coasts of California and Oregon. Its European distribution includes Great Britain (including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands), France, Ireland, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Sicily.[10] In New Zealand, plantings have naturalized, finding conditions there more favorable than in its native range. It has also been grown experimentally as a timber crop in Kenya.[3][5]

Cupressus macrocarpa is also found in South Africa. Very close to the Cape of Good Hope is a planted copse of this tree. They were planted to commemorate South African infantry men who lost their lives in the allied cause in Italy and North Africa during WW2. Like their Californian counterparts, the Cape trees are gnarled and wind-sculpted, and very beautiful.

Cultivation[edit]

Monterey cypress has been widely cultivated away from its native range, both elsewhere along the California coast, and in other areas with similar cool summer, mild winter oceanic climates. It is a popular private garden and public landscape tree in California.

When planted in areas with hot summers, for example in interior California away from the coastal fog belt, Monterey cypress has proved highly susceptible to cypress canker, caused by the fungus Seiridium cardinale and rarely survives more than a few years. This disease is not a problem where summers are cool.[11]

A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use, including 'Goldcrest', with yellow-green, semi-juvenile foliage (with spreading scale-leaf tips) and 'Lutea' with yellow-green foliage. 'Goldcrest' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[12]

Monterey cypress is one of the parents of the fast-growing cultivated hybrid Leyland cypress, the other parent being Nootka cypress.[5]

The foliage is slightly toxic to livestock and can cause miscarriages in cattle.[13] Sawn logs are used, by many craftspeople, some boat builders and small manufacturers, as a furniture structural material and a decorative wood because of its fine colours. It is also a fast, hot burning, albeit sparky (therefore not suited to open fires), firewood.

In Australia and New Zealand, it is most frequently grown as a windbreak tree on farms, usually in rows or shelter belts. It is also planted in New Zealand as an ornamental tree and, occasionally, as a timber tree. There, finding more favorable growing conditions than in its native range, and in the absence of many native pathogens, it often grows much larger, with trees recorded at over 40 m tall and 3 m in trunk diameter.[3][5] The timber was used for fence posts on New Zealand farms before electric fencing became popular.

Macrocarpa cultivars grown in New Zealand are:[14]

  • Aurea Saligna—long cascades of weeping, golden-yellow, thread-like foliage on a pyramidal tree
  • Brunniana Aurea—pillar or conical form with soft rich-golden foliage
  • Gold Rocket—narrow erect form with golden colouring, slow-growing
  • Golden Pillar—compact conical tree with dense yellow shoots and foliage
  • Greenstead Magnificent—dwarf form with blue-green foliage
  • Lambertiana Aurea—hardy upright form tolerating poor soil and climate conditions
Seedling showing needle-like juvenile leaves
Semi-juvenile foliage of cultivar 'Goldcrest'

Chemistry[edit]

Isocupressic acid, a labdane diterpenoid, is an abortifacient component of C. macrocarpa.[15] Monoterpenes (α- and γ-terpinene and terpinolene) are constituents of the foliage volatile oil.[16] The oil exact composition is : α-pinene (20.2%), sabinene (12.0%), p-cymene (7.0%) and terpinen-4-ol (29.6%).[17] Unusual sesquiterpenes can be found in the foliage.[18] Longiborneol (also known as juniperol or macrocarpol) can also be isolated from Monterey cypresses.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Conifer Specialist Group (1998). "Cupressus macrocarpa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved November 28, 2013. 
  2. ^ C. Michael Hogan & Michael P. Frankis. 2009. Monterey Cypress: Cupressus macrocarpa, GlobalTwitcher.com ed. N. Stromberg
  3. ^ a b c d Farjon, A. (2005). Monograph of Cupressaceae and Sciadopitys. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 1-84246-068-4
  4. ^ a b Flora of North America: Cupressus macrocarpa
  5. ^ a b c d K. Rushforth (1987). Conifers. Helm. ISBN 0-7470-2801-X. 
  6. ^ Willis Linn Jepson (1923). The Trees of California (2nd ed.). University of California Press. p. 75. 
  7. ^ Willis Linn Jepson (1919). "Appendix I: scientific notes on the Monterey cypress". In Joseph H. Engbeck. Point Lobos Reserve State Park, California: Interpretation of a Primitive Landscape. University of California. pp. 86–87. 
  8. ^ Damon P. Little (2006). "Evolution and circumscription of the true cypresses (Cupressaceae: Cupressus)". Systematic Botany 31 (3): 461–480. doi:10.1043/05-33.1. JSTOR 25064176. 
  9. ^ Robert P. Adams, Jim A. Bartel & Robert A. Price (2009). "A new genus, Hesperocyparis, for the cypresses of the Western Hemisphere" (PDF). Phytologia 91 (1): 160–185. 
  10. ^ Flora Europaea
  11. ^ W. W. Wagener (1948). "Diseases of Cypresses". El Aliso 1: 253–321. 
  12. ^ "Cupressus macropcarpa 'Goldcrest'". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 22 July 2013. 
  13. ^ V. Sloss & J. W. Brady (1983). "Abnormal births in cattle following ingestion of Cupressus macrocarpa foliage". Australian Veterinary Journal 60 (7): 223. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1983.tb09593.x. PMID 6639522. 
  14. ^ Staney J. Palmer (1990). Palmer's Manual of Trees, Shrubs and Climbers. Lancewood Publishing. ISBN 0-7316-9415-5. 
  15. ^ K. Parton, D. Gardner & N. B. Williamson (1996). "Isocupressic acid, an abortifacient component of Cupressus macrocarpa". New Zealand Veterinary Journal 44 (3). doi:10.1080/00480169.1996.35946. 
  16. ^ Eugene Zavarin, Lorraine Lawrence & Mary C. Thomas (1971). "Compositional variations of leaf monoterpenes in Cupressus macrocarpa, C. pygmaea, C. goveniana, C. abramsiana and C. sargentii". Phytochemistry 10 (2): 379–393. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)94053-6. 
  17. ^ Rubén A. Malizia, Daniel A. Cardell, José S. Molli, Silvia González, Pedro E. Guerra & Ricardo J. Grau (2000). "Volatile constituents of leaf oils from the Cupressaceae family: Part I. Cupressus macrocarpa Hartw., C. arizonica Greene and C. torulosa Don species growing in Argentina". Journal of Essential Oil Research 12 (1): 59–63. doi:10.1080/10412905.2000.9712042. 
  18. ^ Laurence G. Cool (2005). "Sesquiterpenes from Cupressus macrocarpa foliage". Phytochemistry 66 (2): 249–260. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.11.002. 
  19. ^ Steven C. Welch & Roland L. Walters (1973). "Total syntheses of (+)-longicamphor and (+)-longiborneol". Synthetic Communications 3 (6): 419–423. doi:10.1080/00397917308065935. 
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Notes

Comments

The geographically most restricted taxon recognized here, Cupressus macrocarpa is confined today to two picturesque groves near Monterey, but it is also known from fossils to have been in other regions. It is much planted and commonly naturalized near the coast from central California north to Washington and in warm temperate and subtropical regions worldwide.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: As a native species, known only from the Monterey area of coastal California, but widely cultivated as an ornamental (Little, 1979).

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Common Names

Monterey cypress

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Synonyms

Callitropsis macrocarpa (Hartw.) D.P. Little [40]
Cupressus macrocarpa Gordon [12,39]
Neocupressus macrocarpa (Hartw.) de Laub. [38]
  • 12. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 38. de Laubenfels, D. J. 2009. Nomenclatural actions for the New World cypresses (Cupressaceae). Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature. 19(3): 300-306. [87295]
  • 39. Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 2013. Flora of North America north of Mexico, [Online]
  • 40. Little, Damon P. 2006. Evolution and circumscription of the true cypresses (Cupressaceae: Cupressus). Systematic Botany. 31(3): 461-480. [87294]

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The currently accepted scientific name of Monterey cypress is Hesperocyparis
macrocarpa (Hartw.) Bartel (Cupressaceae) [32,37].

In New Zealand, interspecific hybrids and backcrosses between Monterey
cypress and Mexican cypress (H. lusitanica), and Monterey cypress
and Arizona cypress (H. arizonica), occur in cultivation. These species
have also been crossed artificially [22].
  • 22. Miller, J. T.; Knowles, F. B. 1990. Introduced forest trees in New Zealand: recognition, role and seed source. 9. The cypresses: Cupressus spp. and Chamaecyparis spp. FRI Bulletin 124/9. Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Forest Service. 33 p. [21880]
  • 32. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2013. PLANTS Database, [Online]
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