Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Trees to 25 m or more; crown moderately open, not twiggy; branches spreading, drooping, sinuous; 1st-year branchlets conspicuously whitish bloomed, glandular pubescent; 2nd-year branchlets with thin, pale gray-green bark. Needles shed in 2nd year, 5 per bundle, pendulous, very slender, curved, triangular in cross section, 15-24 cm, adaxial surface grass green with no stomata, 2 abaxial surfaces conspicuously whitish bloomed, each with 4-7 stomatal lines, resin canals 3 or 4, adaxial 2 marginal or submarginal, abaxial 1 or 2 marginal or submarginal and always asymmetrically placed. Seed cones pedunculate 4.5-6 cm, elongate-cylindric, 12-20 cm long, 3-4 cm wide (5-7 cm wide when open). Seed scales rather elongate, thinly woody, base cuneate; apophyses rhombic, 1-1.5 cm long, 1.5-2.5 cm wide, keeled, apex subacute. Seeds brown, obovoid, compressed, 6-8 mm long, 4-5 mm wide; wing persistent, ca. 2 cm long, 0.7-1 cm wide.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 4.0 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

Recorded from Bhutan; NE India: Arunachal Pradesh (Kameng district); and SW China: NW Yunnan, SE Xizang [Tibet]. The species occurs mixed with Pinus wallichiana in west Bhutan (Tinleygang) where the distinctions are very obvious between adjacent trees. Further east in Bhutan it occurs on small stands away from P. wallichiana. In Arunachal Pradesh, both species occur in West Kameng, but by Anjaw district in the east only P. bhutanica is recorded. In the lower Rong Chu valley near the confluence with the Yarlung Tsangpo (Yaluzangpo) it forms pure forests on steep cliff faces. It is also recorded from the Dulong (Taron or Kiukiang) valley of NW Yunnan. There is no formal identification from northern Kachin State in Myanmar [Burma] but it would be surprising, given the above distribution, if it were not present there. The extent of occurrence is beyond the threatened thresholds but the area of occupancy is estimated to be at least 700 km2.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Pinus bhutanica is occurring in SE Xizang, NW Yunnan of China, NE India, Bhutan.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 25 m or more; crown moderately open, not twiggy; branches spreading, drooping, sinuous; 1st-year branchlets conspicuously whitish bloomed, glandular pubescent; 2nd-year branchlets with thin, pale gray-green bark. Needles shed in 2nd year, 5 per bundle, pendulous, very slender, curved, triangular in cross section, 15-24 cm, adaxial surface grass green with no stomata, 2 abaxial surfaces conspicuously whitish bloomed, each with 4-7 stomatal lines, resin canals 3(or 4), adaxial 2 marginal or submarginal, abaxial 1(or 2) marginal or submarginal and always asymmetrically placed. Seed cones pedunculate (peduncle (1-) 4.5-6 cm), elongate-cylindric, 12-20 × 3-4 cm (5-7 cm wide when open). Seed scales rather elongate, thinly woody, base cuneate; apophyses rhombic, 1-1.5 × 1.5-2.5 cm, keeled, apex subacute. Seeds brown, obovoid, compressed, 6-8 × 4-5 mm; wing persistent, ca. 2 × 0.7-1 cm.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 4.0 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The species occurs in a warm temperate zone, from circa 1,000 m a.s.l. in the Lohit valley in Anjaw district of Arunachal Pradesh to 2,300 m a.s.l. in the Rong Chu Valley in SE Xizang [Tibet], with reports down to 750 m and up to 2,750 m. Associated species can include Pinus wallichiana (in the west), Pinus roxburghii (dry inner valleys) and various broadleaved trees. It has been reported from a variety of forest types, including secondary forest where logging has occurred.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growing in forest; 1000-2500 m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat & Distribution

SE Xizang [Bhutan]
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

A new classification for the Pinus was proposed based on the cpDNA sequences (matK and rbcL), nuclear ribosomal DNA and morphology (Gernandt et al., 2005). In there, Pinus bhutanica belong to subgenus Strobus, section Strobus, subsection Strobus.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pinus bhutanica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus bhutanica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Zhang, D, Katsuki, T. & Rushforth, K.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P. & Luscombe, D

Contributor/s

Justification
From observation of the species in Bhutan, India and Tibet (Xizang) there appears to be no significant decline in area of occupancy nor in population size or structure. Accordingly the species is listed as Least Concern.

History
  • 2007
    Least Concern
  • 1998
    Data Deficient
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
In Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and Xizang [Tibet] the species occurs in small forest groups, with no evidence of any significant decline within the past three generations.

Population Trend
Stable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
This species is thought to be relatively widespread. It is reported to be harvested as part of a mixed timber resource, but there is no evidence of decline and new localities have recently been found in China (Yunnan, Gaoligong Mts.).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Pinus bhutanica is reported be least concern (Bachman et al., 2007).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Some subpopulations occur (partly) within protected areas such as the Khaling and Bumdeling Wildlife Sanctuaries (Bhutan).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Pinus bhutanica

Pinus bhutanica, which may be called the Bhutan white pine, is a tree restricted to Bhutan and adjacent parts of northeast India and southwest China. Along with the related Pinus wallichiana it is a constituent of lower altitude blue pine forests. This pine reaches a height of 25 meters. Note that P. wallichiana is sometimes called by the common name 'Bhutan pine'.

The needles are in bundles of five, up to 25 cm long. The cones are 12–20 cm in length, with thin scales; the seeds are 5–6 mm long, with a 20–25 mm wing. It differs from P. wallichiana in the much longer, strongly drooping needles, and the cones being slightly smaller and red-brown, rather than yellow-buff, when mature. It is also adapted to generally warmer, wetter climates at lower altitudes, with an intense summer monsoon. Despite the two being closely related and at least occasionally growing together, no hybrids or intermediates have ever been reported.

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Grierson, A. J. C., D. G. Long, and C. N. Page. "Notes relating to the flora of Bhutan:(III). Pinus bhutanica: a new 5-needle pine from Bhutan and India." Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh 38.2 (1980): 297-310.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!