The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

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  • 16. Franklin, Jerry F.; Dyrness, C. T. 1973. Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-8. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 417 p. [961]
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  • 19. Hanley, Thomas A.; Robbins, Charles T.; Spalinger, Donald E. 1989. Forest habitats and the nutritional ecology of Sitka black-tailed deer: a research synthesis with implications for forest management. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-230. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 52 p. [7509]
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  • 23. Harris, A. S. 1978. Distribution, genetics, and silvical characteristics of Sitka spruce. In: Proceedings, IUFRO Joint Meeting Workshop Parties; [Date of conference unknown]
  • 24. Harris, A. S. 1990. Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. Sitka spruce. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 260-267. [13389]
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  • 29. Holsten, Edward H; Werner, Richard A. 1990. Comparison of white, Sitka, and Lutz spruce and hosts of the spruce beetle in Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research. 20: 292-297. [11042]
  • 3. Alaback, Paul B.; Herman, F. R. 1988. Long-term response of understory vegetation to stand density in Picea-Tsuga forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 18: 1522-1530. [6227]
  • 30. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p. [3375]
  • 31. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 32. Klinka, K.; Feller, M. C.; Green, R. N.; [and others]
  • 33. Klinka, K.; Krajina, V. J.; Ceska, A.; Scagel, A. M. 1989. Indicator plants of coastal British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press. 288 p. [10703]
  • 34. Krajina, V. J.; Klinka, K.; Worrall, J. 1982. Distribution and ecological characteristics of trees and shrubs of British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia, Department of Botany and Faculty of Forestry. 131 p. [6728]
  • 35. Kruckeberg, A. R. 1982. Gardening with native plants of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 252 p. [9980]
  • 36. Krygier, James T.; Ruth, Robert H. 1961. Effects of herbicides on salmonberry and on Sitka spruce and western hemlock seedlings. Weeds. 9(3): 416-422. [6608]
  • 38. Lester, D. T.; Ying, C. C.; Konishi, J. D. 1990. Genetic control and improvement of planting stock. In: Lavender, D. P.; Parish, R.; Johnson, C. M.; [and others]
  • 4. Alden, John N. 1988. Species selection for forest development in Alaska. In: Slaughter, Charles W.; Gasbarro, Tony, eds. Proceedings of the Alaska forest soil productivity workshop: Proceedings of a workshop; 1987 April 28-30; Anchorage, AK. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-219. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 110-120. [5584]
  • 40. Minore, Don. 1979. Comparative autecological characteristics of northwestern tree species--a literature review. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-87. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 72 p. [1659]
  • 41. Mitchell, Russel G.; Wright, Kenneth H.; Johnson, Norman E. 1990. Damage by the Sitka spruce weevil (Pissodes strobi) and growth patterns for 10 spruce species & hybrids over 26 years in the Pacific Northwest. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-434. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 12 p. [15127]
  • 42. Meehan, William R. 1974. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 4. Wildlife habitats. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-16. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 32 p. [13479]
  • 43. Nyberg, J. Brian; McNay R, Scott; Kirchoff, Matthew D.; [and others]
  • 44. Parminter, John. 1991. Fire history and effects on vegetation in three biogeoclimatic zones of British Columbia. In: Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the environment: ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-69. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 263-272. [16651]
  • 46. Reynolds, Keith M. 1990. Preliminary classification of forest vegetation of the Kenai Penninsula, Alaska. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-424. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 67 p. [14581]
  • 47. Robuck, O. Wayne. 1985. The common plants of the muskegs of southeast Alaska. Miscellaneous Publication/July 1985. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 131 p. [11556]
  • 48. Ruth, Robert H. 1974. Regeneration and growth of west-side mixed conifers. In: Camer, Owen P., ed. Environmental effects of forest residues in the Pacific Northwest: A state-of-knowledge compendium. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-24. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific NorthwestForest and Range Experiment Station: K-1 to K-21. [6381]
  • 49. Ruth, Robert H.; Harris, A. S. 1975. Forest residues in hemlock-spruce forests of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska--a state-of-knowledge review w. recommendations for residue mgmt. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-39. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 52 p. [15125]
  • 5. Arno, Stephen F.; Hammerly, Ramona P. 1977. Northwest trees. Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers. 222 p. [4208]
  • 50. Safford, L. O. 1974. Picea A. Dietr. spruce. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 587-597. [7728]
  • 51. Schoen, John W.; Kirchhoff, Matthew D. 1990. Seasonal habitat use by Sitka black-tailed deer on Admiralty Island, Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management. 54(3): 371-378. [11940]
  • 52. Smith, Kimberly G. 1980. Nongame birds of the Rocky Mountain spruce-fir forests and their management. In: DeGraaf, Richard M., technical coordinator. Management of western forests and grasslands for nongame birds: Workshop proceedings; 1980 February 11-14; Salt Lake City, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-86. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 258-279. [17910]
  • 53. Stednick, John D.; Tripp, Larry N.; McDonald, Robert J. 1982. Slash burning effects on soil and water chemistry in southeastern Alaska. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 37(2): 126-128. [8606]
  • 55. Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. Agric. Handb. 410. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 265 p. [6884]
  • 56. Wiens, John A. 1975. Avian communities, energetics, and functions in coniferous forest habitats. In: Smith, Dixie R, technical coordinator. Proceedings of the symposium on management of forest and range habitats for nongame birds; 1975 May 6-9; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-1. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 226-265. [17773]
  • 57. Worrell, R.; Malcolm, D. C. 1990. Productivity of Sitka spruce in northern Britain. 1. The effects of elevation and climate. Forestry. 63(2): 105-118. [11762]
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  • Carrière. 1855. In: Traité Gén. Conif.: 260.
  • Farjon A. (2013). Conifer Database (version Jul 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Harris, A.S. 1990. Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., Sitka Spruce. In Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, tech. coords. 1990. Silvics of North America: Vol. 1. Conifers. Agriculture Handbook 654. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. Available online from http://na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_1/picea/sitchensis.htm.
  • Hitchcock, C. H., A.J. Cronquist, F. M. Ownbey & J. W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular Cryptogams, Gymnosperms, and Monocotyledons. 1: 1–914. In C. L. Hitchcock Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N.W. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
  • Hultén, E. 1968. Fl. Alaska i–xxi, 1–1008. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
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  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carriere
  • Quine CP; Humphrey JW; Ferris R. 1999. Should the wind disturbance patterns observed in natural forests be mimicked in planted forests in the British uplands?. Forestry. 72(4): 337-358.
  • Traité Général des Conifères 260. 1855. (Traité Gén. Conif.)
  • Welsh, S. L. 1974. Anderson's Fl. Alaska Adj. Parts Canada i–xvi, 1–724. Brigham Young University Press, Provo.
  •    
       
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    3. Cordes, Lawrence D. 1972. An ecological study of the Sitka spruce  forest on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Thesis (Ph.D.), University  of British Columbia, Vancouver. 452 p.
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    5. Coutts, M. P. 1983. Development of the structural root system of  Sitka spruce. Forestry 56MA-16.
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    7. Daubenmire, R. 1968. Some geographic variations in Picea  sitchensis and their ecologic interpretation. Canadian Journal of  Botany 46(6):787-798.
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    9. Day, W. R. 1957. Sitka spruce in British Columbia: a study in forest  relationships. Great Britain Forestry Commission, Bulletin 28. London.  110 p.
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    15. Farr, Wilbur A., and A. S. Harris. 1979. Site index of Sitka spruce  along the Pacific coast related to latitude and temperatures. Forest  Science 25(l):145-153.
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