The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

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  • 15.  Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections        supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 17.  Frelich, Lee E.; Lorimer, Craig G. 1985. Current and predicted long-term        effects of deer browsing in hemlock forests in Michigan, USA. Biological        Conservation. 34: 99-120.  [14264]
  • 18.  Frelich, Lee E.; Lorimer, Craig G. 1991. Natural disturbance regimes in        hemlock-hardwood forests of the upper Great Lakes region. Ecological        Monographs. 61(2): 145-164.  [15036]
  • 2.  Allen, Arthur W.; Jordan, Peter A.; Terrell, James W. 1987. Habitat        suitability index models: moose, Lake Superior region. Biol. Rep. 82        (10.155). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and        Wildlife Service. 47 p.  [11710]
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  • 21.  Hacker, David; Renfro, James. 1992. Great Smoky Mountain plants studied        for ozone sensitivity. Park Science. 12(1): 6-7.  [17788]
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  • 25.  Hooper, Robert G. 1978. Cove forests:  bird communities and management        options. In: DeGraaf, Richard M, technical coordinator. Proceedings of        the Workshop Management of Southern Forests for Nongame Birds; 1978        January 24 - January 26; Atlanta, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-14. Asheville,        NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest        Experiment Station: 90-97.  [17951]
  • 26.  Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian        Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p.  [3375]
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  • 28.  Kelty, Matthew J. 1987. Shelterwood cutting as an even-aged reproduction        method. In: Nyland, Ralph D., editor. Managing northern hardwoods:        Proceedings of a silvicultural symposium; 1986 June 23-25; Syracuse, NY.        Faculty of Forestry Miscellaneous Publication No. 13 (ESF 87-002);        Society of American Foresters Publication No. 87-03. Syracuse, NY: State        University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry:        128-142.  [10653]
  • 29.  Kelty, Matthew J. 1988. Sources of hardwood regeneration and factors        that influence these sources. In: Smith, H. Clay; Perkey, Arlyn W.;        Kidd, William E., Jr., eds. Guidelines for regenerating Appalachian        hardwood stands: Workshop proceedings; 1988 May 24-26; Morgantown, WV.        SAF Publ. 88-03. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Books: 17-30.        [13931]
  • 3.  Anderson, Roger C.; Loucks, Orie L. 1979. White-tail deer (Odocoileus        virginianus) influence on structure and composition of Tsuga canadensis        forests. Journal of Applied Ecology. 16: 855-861.  [20403]
  • 30.  Kessell, S. R. 1978. Adaptations and dimorphism in eastern hemlock,        Tsuga canadensis (L.)Carr. American Naturalist. 113(3): 333-350.        [20410]
  • 31.  Kittredge, David B.; Ashton, P. Mark S. 1990. Natural regeneration        patterns in even-aged mixed stands in southern New England. Northern        Journal of Applied Forestry. 7: 163-168.  [13323]
  • 32.  Kotar, John; Kovach, Joseph A.; Locey, Craig T. 1988. Field guide to        forest habitat types of northern Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of        Wisconsin, Department of Forestry; Wisconsin Department of Natural        Resources. 217 p.  [11510]
  • 34.  Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological        perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p.  [19376]
  • 35.  Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native        and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p.  [2952]
  • 36.  Martin, S. Clark. 1980. Mesquite. In: Eyre, F. H., ed. Forest cover        types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of        American Foresters: 118.  [9858]
  • 37.  Lorimer, Craig G. 1977. The presettlement forest and natural disturbance        cycle of northeastern Maine. Ecology. 58: 139-148.  [9711]
  • 38.  Marquis, David A. 1975. Seed storage and germination under northern        hardwood forests. Canadian Journal of Forestry Resources. 5: 478-484.        [6684]
  • 39.  Martin, N. D. 1959. An anaylsis of forest succession in Algonquin Park,        Ontario. Ecological Monographs. 29(3): 187-218.  [19930]
  • 4.  Arthur, Stephen M.; Krohn, William B.; Gilbert, James R. 1989. Habitat        use and diet of fishers. Journal of Wildlife Management. 53(3): 680-688.        [8671]
  • 40.  Martin, William H. 1992. Characteristics of old-growth mesophytic        forests. Natural Areas Journal. 12(3): 127-135.  [19371]
  • 41.  McIntosh, Robert P. 1972. Forests of the Catskill Mountains, New York.        Ecological Monographs. 42: 143-161.  [8857]
  • 42.  Monk, Carl D.; Imm, Donald W.; Potter, Robert L.; Parker, Geoffrey G.        1989. A classification of the deciduous forest of eastern North America.        Vegetatio. 80: 167-181.  [9297]
  • 43.  Jones, Steven M. 1989. Application of landscape ecosystem classification        in identifying productive potential of pine-hardwood stands. In:        Waldrop, Thomas A., ed. Proceedings of pine-hardwood mixtures: a        symposium on management and ecology of the type; 1989 April 18-19;        Atlanta, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-58. Asheville, SC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station:        64-69.  [10259]
  • 44.  Moore, William H.; Johnson, Frank M. 1967. Nature of deer browsing on        hardwood seedlings and sprouts. Journal of Wildlife Management. 31(2):        351-353.  [16394]
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  • 49.  Rogers, Lynn L.; Allen, Arthur W. 1987. Habitat suitability index        models: Black bear, upper Great Lakes region. Biol. Rep. 82 (10.144).        Washingtion D. C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife        Service. 54 p.  [11711]
  • 5.  Baker, Frederick S. 1949. A revised tolerance table. Journal of        Forestry. 47: 179-181.  [20404]
  • 50.  Rogers, Lynn L.; Wilker, Gregory A.; Scott, Sally S. 1990. Managing        natural populations of black bears in wilderness. In: Lime, David W.,        ed. Managing America's enduring wilderness resource: Proceedings of the        conference; 1989 September 11-17; Minneapolis, MN. St. Paul, MN:        University of Minnesota, Minnesota Extension Service; Minnesota        Agricultural Experiment Station: 363-366.  [15409]
  • 51.  Rogers, R. S. 1978. Forests dominated by hemlock (Tsuga canadensis):        distribution as related to site and postsettlement history. Canadian        Journal of Botany. 56: 843-854.  [20408]
  • 52.  Rudnicky, James L.; McDonnell, Mark J. 1989. Forty-eight years of canopy        change in a hardwood-hemlock forest in New York City. Bulletin of the        Torrey Botanical Club. 116(1): 52-64.  [12567]
  • 53.  Runkle, James R. 1990. Eight years change in an old Tsuga canadensis        woods affected by beech bark disease. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical        Club. 117(4): 409-419.  [13759]
  • 54.  Ruth, Robert H. 1974. Tsuga (Endl.) Carr. hemlock. In: Schopmeyer, C.        S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450.        Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 819-827.        [7770]
  • 55.  Spurr, Stephen H. 1956. Forest associations in the Harvard Forest.        Ecological Monographs. 26(3): 245-262.  [7451]
  • 56.  Stearns, Forest. 1951. The composition of the sugar maple-hemlock-yellow        birch association in northern Wisconsin. Ecology. 32(2): 245-265.        [10588]
  • 58.  Swan, Frederick R., Jr. 1970. Post-fire response of four plant        communities in south-central New York state. Ecology. 51(6): 1074-1082.        [3446]
  • 59.  Telfer, Edmund S. 1972. Browse selection by deer and hares. Journal of        Wildlife Management. 36(4): 1344-1349.  [12455]
  • 6.  Brown, James H., Jr.; Castaneda, Cesar A.; Hindle, Robinson J. 1982.        Floristic relationships anddynamics of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)        communities in Rhode Island. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club.        109(3): 385-391.  [20407]
  • 61.  Vogl, Richard J. 1977. Fire: a destructive menace or a natural process?.        In: Cairns, J., Jr.; Dickson, K. L.; Herricks, E. E., eds. Recovery and        restoration of damaged ecosystems: Proceedings of the international        symposium; 1975 March 23-25; Blacksburg, VA. Charlottesvile, VA:        University Press of Virginia: 261-289.  [10055]
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  • 8.  Busing, Richard T. 1989. A half century of change in a Great Smoky        Mountains cove forest. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 116(3):        283-288.  [10901]
  • 9.  Callaway, Ragan M.; Clebsch, Edward E. C.; White, Peter S. 1987. A        multivariate analysis of forest communities in the western Great Smoky        Mountains National Park. American Midland Naturalist. 118(1): 107-120.        [15604]
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  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2013. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication. flowervisitors.info, version 06/2013.
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