The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Carrière. 1855. In: Traité Gén. Conif.: 189.
  • Farjon A. (2015). Conifer Database (version Jan 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • The Gardeners Dictionary: . . . eighth edition no. 6. 1768. (Gard. Dict. (ed. 8))
  • Traité Général des Conifères 189. 1855. (Traité Gén. Conif.)
    1. Abbott, H. G. 1962. Tree seed preferences of mice and voles in the  Northeast. Journal of Forestry 60(2):97-99.
    3. Anderson, R. G., and 0. L. Loucks. 1979. White-tail deer (Odocoileus  virginianus) influence on structure and composition of Tsuga  canadensis forests. Journal of Applied Ecology 16:855-861.
    5. Baker, Frederick S. 1949. A revised tolerance table. Journal of  Forestry 47(3):179-181.
    7. Brander, R. B. 1973. Life-history notes on the porcupine in a  hardwood-hemlock forest in Upper Michigan. Michigan Academy of Sciences  5(4):425-433.
    9. Brisbin, Robert L. 1970. Eastern hemlock. USDA Forest Service,  American Woods FS-239. Washington, DC. 8 p.
    11. Eckstein, R. G. 1980. Eastern hemlock in north central Wisconsin.  Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Report 104. Madison. 20 p. 
    13. Eickmeier, W., M. S. Adams, and D. Lester. 1975. Two physiological  races of Tsuga canadensis in Wisconsin. Canadian Journal of  Botany 53(9):940-951.
    15. Euler, D., and L. Thurston. 1980. Characteristics of hemlock stands  related to deer use in east central Ontario. Journal of Applied Ecology  17:1-6.
    17. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    19. Findell, V. E., R. E. Pfeifer, A. G. Horn, and C. H. Tubbs. 1960.  Michigan's forest resources. USDA Forest Service, Station Paper 82. Lake  States Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 46 p.
    21. Fordham, A. J. 1971. Canadian hemlock variants and their propagation.  Proceedings, International Propagation Society 21:470-475.
    23. Godman, R. M. 1979. The application of shelterwood cuttings in the  Lake States. In The shelterwood regeneration method.  Proceedings, National Silviculture Workshop, Sept. 17-21, 1979.  Charleston, SC. p. 189-200. USDA Forest Service, Timber Management  Staff, Washington, DC.
    25. Godman, Richard M., and Gilbert A. Mattson. 1976. Seed crops and  regeneration problems of 19 species in northeastern Wisconsin. USDA  Forest Service, Research Paper NC-123. North Central Forest Experiment  Station, St. Paul, MN. 5 p.
    27. Godman, Richard M., and Carl H. Tubbs. 1973. Establishing even-age  northern hardwood regeneration by the shelterwood method-a preliminary  guide. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NC-99. North Central Forest  Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 9 p.
    29. Graham, S. A. 1954. Scoring tolerance of forest trees. University of  Michigan Research Note 4. Ann Arbor. 2 p.
    31. Hepting, G. H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the United  States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 386.  Washington, DC. 658 p.
    33. Hett, J. M., and 0. L. Loucks. 1976. Age structure models of balsam  fir and eastern hemlock. Journal of Ecology 64(3):1029-1044.
    35. Hocker, H. W., Jr. 1961. Germination of eastern white pine seed and  early establishment of white pine seedlings on prepared sites.  University of New Hampshire Agriculture Experiment Station, Technical  Bulletin 103. Durham. 15 p.
    37. Hough, Ashbel F. 1960. Silvical characteristics of eastern hemlock.  USDA Forest Service, Station Paper NE-132. Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 23 p.
    39. Jordan, J. S., and W. M. Sharp. 1967. Seeding and planting hemlock  for ruffed grouse cover. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-83.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 17 p.
    41. Jorgensen, R. N., and S. L. Lecznar. 1964. Anatomy of hemlock ring  shake associated with sapsucker injury. USDA Forest Service, Research  Paper NE-21. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 9  p.
    43. Lancaster, Kenneth F. 1985. Managing eastern hemlock-a preliminary  guide. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area, NA-FR-30.
    45. LeMadeleine, Leon. 1980. Seed-borne pathogens of hemlock seed from  the Argonne Experimental Forest. Evaluation Report NA-FB/U-8, January.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Area State  and Private Forestry, St. Paul, MN. 4 p.
    47. Logan, K. T. 1973. Growth of tree seedlings as affected by light  intensity. V. White ash, beech, eastern hemlock, and general  conclusions. Department of the Environment, Canadian Forestry Service,  Publication 1323. Ottawa, ON. 12 p.
    49. Lumis, G. P., G. Hofstra, and R. Hall. 1973. Sensitivity of roadside  trees and shrubs to aerial drift of deicing salt. Horticulture Science  8(6):475-477.
    51. Lutz, R. J., and A. C. Cline. 1956. Results of the first thirty years  of experimentation in silviculture in the Harvard Forest 1908-1938. Part  II. Natural reproduction methods in white pine-hemlock stands on light,  sandy soils. Harvard Forest Bulletin 27. Harvard University, Cambridge,  MA. 70 p.
    53. MacAloney, H. J. 1967. The hemlock borer. USDA Forest Service, Forest  Pest Leaflet 109. Washington, DC. 4 p.
    55. Nienstaedt, H., and H. B. Kriebel. 1955. Controlled pollination of  eastern hemlock. Forest Science 1(2):115-120.
    57. Northern Hardwoods Laboratory. Data on file. USDA Forest Service,  North Central Forest Experiment Station, Marquette, MI.
    59. Rogers, R. S. 1980. Hemlock stands from Wisconsin to Nova Scotia:  transitions in understory composition along a floristic gradient.  Ecology 61(l):178-193.
    61. Secrest, H. C. 1943. The hemlock borer, its biology and a discussion  of the factors concerned in the development of an infestation. Forest  Insect Laboratory Report, Milwaukee, WI.
    63. Smith, David Martyn. 1962. The practice of silviculture. John Wiley,  New York. 578 p.
    65. Stearns, F. 1951. The composition of the sugar maple-hemlock-yellow  birch association in northern Wisconsin. Ecology 32:254-265.
    67. Tubbs, Carl H. 1977. Manager's handbook for northern hardwoods in the  North Central States. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report  NC-39. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 29 p. 
    69. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1965. Silvics of  forest trees of the United States. H. A. Fowells, comp. U.S. Department  of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington, DC. 762 p.
    71. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1974. Seeds of woody  plants in the United States. C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC. 883  p.
    73. Wang, B. S. P. 1974. Tree-seed storage. Department of the  Environment, Canadian Forestry Service, Publication 1335. Ottawa, ON. 32  p.
    75. Westveld, R. H. 1929. Applied silviculture in the United States. John  Wiley, New York. 567 p.
    77. Willis, G. L., and M. S. Coffman. [n.d.] Composition, structure, and  dynamics of climax stands of eastern hemlock and sugar maple in the  Huron Mountains, Michigan. Michigan Technological University, Department  of Forestry, Technical Bulletin 13. Houghton. 43 p.
    79. Wilson, L. F. 1977. A guide to insect injury of conifers in the Lake  States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 501.  Washington, DC. 218 p.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!