The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1.  Abbott, Herschel G. 1962. Tree seed preferences of mice and voles in the        Northeast. Journal of Forestry. 60: 97-99.  [20402]
  • 10.  Curtis, John T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The        University of Wisconsin Press. 657 p.  [7116]
  • 11.  Dansereau, Pierre. 1959. The principal plant associations of the Saint        Lawrence Valley. No. 75. Montreal, Canada: Contrib. Inst. Bot. Univ.        Montreal. 147 p.  [8925]
  • 12.  DeGraaf, Richard M; Shigo, Alex L. 1985. Managing cavity trees for        wildlife in the Northeast. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-101. Broomall, PA: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest        Experiment Station. 21 p.  [13481]
  • 13.  Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern        United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p.        [12764]
  • 14.  Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and        Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p.  [905]
  • 15.  Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections        supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 17.  Frelich, Lee E.; Lorimer, Craig G. 1985. Current and predicted long-term        effects of deer browsing in hemlock forests in Michigan, USA. Biological        Conservation. 34: 99-120.  [14264]
  • 18.  Frelich, Lee E.; Lorimer, Craig G. 1991. Natural disturbance regimes in        hemlock-hardwood forests of the upper Great Lakes region. Ecological        Monographs. 61(2): 145-164.  [15036]
  • 2.  Allen, Arthur W.; Jordan, Peter A.; Terrell, James W. 1987. Habitat        suitability index models: moose, Lake Superior region. Biol. Rep. 82        (10.155). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and        Wildlife Service. 47 p.  [11710]
  • 20.  Godman, R. M.; Lancaster, Kenneth. 1990. Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.        eastern hemlock. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical        coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric.        Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service: 604-612.  [13421]
  • 21.  Hacker, David; Renfro, James. 1992. Great Smoky Mountain plants studied        for ozone sensitivity. Park Science. 12(1): 6-7.  [17788]
  • 22.  Hemond, Harold F.; Niering, William A.; Goodwin, Richard H. 1983. Two        decades of vegetation change in the Connecticut Arboretum Natural Area.        Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 110(2): 184-194.  [9045]
  • 23.  Henry, J. D.; Swan, J. M. A. 1974. Reconstructing forest history from        live and dead plant material- an approach to the study of forest        succession in southwest New Hampshire. Ecology. 55: 772-783.  [8725]
  • 24.  Hibbs, D. E. 1983. Forty years of forest succession in central New        England. Ecology. 64(6): 1394-1401.  [9613]
  • 25.  Hooper, Robert G. 1978. Cove forests:  bird communities and management        options. In: DeGraaf, Richard M, technical coordinator. Proceedings of        the Workshop Management of Southern Forests for Nongame Birds; 1978        January 24 - January 26; Atlanta, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-14. Asheville,        NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest        Experiment Station: 90-97.  [17951]
  • 26.  Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian        Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p.  [3375]
  • 27.  Hough, A. F.; Forbes, R. D. 1943. The ecology and silvics of forests in        the high plateaus of Pennsylvania. Ecological Monographs. 13(3):        299-320.  [8723]
  • 28.  Kelty, Matthew J. 1987. Shelterwood cutting as an even-aged reproduction        method. In: Nyland, Ralph D., editor. Managing northern hardwoods:        Proceedings of a silvicultural symposium; 1986 June 23-25; Syracuse, NY.        Faculty of Forestry Miscellaneous Publication No. 13 (ESF 87-002);        Society of American Foresters Publication No. 87-03. Syracuse, NY: State        University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry:        128-142.  [10653]
  • 29.  Kelty, Matthew J. 1988. Sources of hardwood regeneration and factors        that influence these sources. In: Smith, H. Clay; Perkey, Arlyn W.;        Kidd, William E., Jr., eds. Guidelines for regenerating Appalachian        hardwood stands: Workshop proceedings; 1988 May 24-26; Morgantown, WV.        SAF Publ. 88-03. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Books: 17-30.        [13931]
  • 3.  Anderson, Roger C.; Loucks, Orie L. 1979. White-tail deer (Odocoileus        virginianus) influence on structure and composition of Tsuga canadensis        forests. Journal of Applied Ecology. 16: 855-861.  [20403]
  • 30.  Kessell, S. R. 1978. Adaptations and dimorphism in eastern hemlock,        Tsuga canadensis (L.)Carr. American Naturalist. 113(3): 333-350.        [20410]
  • 31.  Kittredge, David B.; Ashton, P. Mark S. 1990. Natural regeneration        patterns in even-aged mixed stands in southern New England. Northern        Journal of Applied Forestry. 7: 163-168.  [13323]
  • 32.  Kotar, John; Kovach, Joseph A.; Locey, Craig T. 1988. Field guide to        forest habitat types of northern Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of        Wisconsin, Department of Forestry; Wisconsin Department of Natural        Resources. 217 p.  [11510]
  • 34.  Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological        perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p.  [19376]
  • 35.  Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native        and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p.  [2952]
  • 36.  Martin, S. Clark. 1980. Mesquite. In: Eyre, F. H., ed. Forest cover        types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of        American Foresters: 118.  [9858]
  • 37.  Lorimer, Craig G. 1977. The presettlement forest and natural disturbance        cycle of northeastern Maine. Ecology. 58: 139-148.  [9711]
  • 38.  Marquis, David A. 1975. Seed storage and germination under northern        hardwood forests. Canadian Journal of Forestry Resources. 5: 478-484.        [6684]
  • 39.  Martin, N. D. 1959. An anaylsis of forest succession in Algonquin Park,        Ontario. Ecological Monographs. 29(3): 187-218.  [19930]
  • 4.  Arthur, Stephen M.; Krohn, William B.; Gilbert, James R. 1989. Habitat        use and diet of fishers. Journal of Wildlife Management. 53(3): 680-688.        [8671]
  • 40.  Martin, William H. 1992. Characteristics of old-growth mesophytic        forests. Natural Areas Journal. 12(3): 127-135.  [19371]
  • 41.  McIntosh, Robert P. 1972. Forests of the Catskill Mountains, New York.        Ecological Monographs. 42: 143-161.  [8857]
  • 42.  Monk, Carl D.; Imm, Donald W.; Potter, Robert L.; Parker, Geoffrey G.        1989. A classification of the deciduous forest of eastern North America.        Vegetatio. 80: 167-181.  [9297]
  • 43.  Jones, Steven M. 1989. Application of landscape ecosystem classification        in identifying productive potential of pine-hardwood stands. In:        Waldrop, Thomas A., ed. Proceedings of pine-hardwood mixtures: a        symposium on management and ecology of the type; 1989 April 18-19;        Atlanta, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-58. Asheville, SC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station:        64-69.  [10259]
  • 44.  Moore, William H.; Johnson, Frank M. 1967. Nature of deer browsing on        hardwood seedlings and sprouts. Journal of Wildlife Management. 31(2):        351-353.  [16394]
  • 45.  Nelson, John B. 1986. The natural communities of South Carolina.        Columbia, SC: South Carolina Wildlife & Marine Resources Department. 54        p.  [15578]
  • 49.  Rogers, Lynn L.; Allen, Arthur W. 1987. Habitat suitability index        models: Black bear, upper Great Lakes region. Biol. Rep. 82 (10.144).        Washingtion D. C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife        Service. 54 p.  [11711]
  • 5.  Baker, Frederick S. 1949. A revised tolerance table. Journal of        Forestry. 47: 179-181.  [20404]
  • 50.  Rogers, Lynn L.; Wilker, Gregory A.; Scott, Sally S. 1990. Managing        natural populations of black bears in wilderness. In: Lime, David W.,        ed. Managing America's enduring wilderness resource: Proceedings of the        conference; 1989 September 11-17; Minneapolis, MN. St. Paul, MN:        University of Minnesota, Minnesota Extension Service; Minnesota        Agricultural Experiment Station: 363-366.  [15409]
  • 51.  Rogers, R. S. 1978. Forests dominated by hemlock (Tsuga canadensis):        distribution as related to site and postsettlement history. Canadian        Journal of Botany. 56: 843-854.  [20408]
  • 52.  Rudnicky, James L.; McDonnell, Mark J. 1989. Forty-eight years of canopy        change in a hardwood-hemlock forest in New York City. Bulletin of the        Torrey Botanical Club. 116(1): 52-64.  [12567]
  • 53.  Runkle, James R. 1990. Eight years change in an old Tsuga canadensis        woods affected by beech bark disease. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical        Club. 117(4): 409-419.  [13759]
  • 54.  Ruth, Robert H. 1974. Tsuga (Endl.) Carr. hemlock. In: Schopmeyer, C.        S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450.        Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 819-827.        [7770]
  • 55.  Spurr, Stephen H. 1956. Forest associations in the Harvard Forest.        Ecological Monographs. 26(3): 245-262.  [7451]
  • 56.  Stearns, Forest. 1951. The composition of the sugar maple-hemlock-yellow        birch association in northern Wisconsin. Ecology. 32(2): 245-265.        [10588]
  • 58.  Swan, Frederick R., Jr. 1970. Post-fire response of four plant        communities in south-central New York state. Ecology. 51(6): 1074-1082.        [3446]
  • 59.  Telfer, Edmund S. 1972. Browse selection by deer and hares. Journal of        Wildlife Management. 36(4): 1344-1349.  [12455]
  • 6.  Brown, James H., Jr.; Castaneda, Cesar A.; Hindle, Robinson J. 1982.        Floristic relationships anddynamics of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)        communities in Rhode Island. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club.        109(3): 385-391.  [20407]
  • 61.  Vogl, Richard J. 1977. Fire: a destructive menace or a natural process?.        In: Cairns, J., Jr.; Dickson, K. L.; Herricks, E. E., eds. Recovery and        restoration of damaged ecosystems: Proceedings of the international        symposium; 1975 March 23-25; Blacksburg, VA. Charlottesvile, VA:        University Press of Virginia: 261-289.  [10055]
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  • 8.  Busing, Richard T. 1989. A half century of change in a Great Smoky        Mountains cove forest. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 116(3):        283-288.  [10901]
  • 9.  Callaway, Ragan M.; Clebsch, Edward E. C.; White, Peter S. 1987. A        multivariate analysis of forest communities in the western Great Smoky        Mountains National Park. American Midland Naturalist. 118(1): 107-120.        [15604]
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  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. External link.
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  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, e. 1993. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. 2: i–xvi, 1–475. In Fl. N. Amer. Oxford University Press, New York. External link.
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  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. External link.
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    1. Abbott, H. G. 1962. Tree seed preferences of mice and voles in the  Northeast. Journal of Forestry 60(2):97-99.
    3. Anderson, R. G., and 0. L. Loucks. 1979. White-tail deer (Odocoileus  virginianus) influence on structure and composition of Tsuga  canadensis forests. Journal of Applied Ecology 16:855-861.
    5. Baker, Frederick S. 1949. A revised tolerance table. Journal of  Forestry 47(3):179-181.
    7. Brander, R. B. 1973. Life-history notes on the porcupine in a  hardwood-hemlock forest in Upper Michigan. Michigan Academy of Sciences  5(4):425-433.
    9. Brisbin, Robert L. 1970. Eastern hemlock. USDA Forest Service,  American Woods FS-239. Washington, DC. 8 p.
    11. Eckstein, R. G. 1980. Eastern hemlock in north central Wisconsin.  Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Report 104. Madison. 20 p. 
    13. Eickmeier, W., M. S. Adams, and D. Lester. 1975. Two physiological  races of Tsuga canadensis in Wisconsin. Canadian Journal of  Botany 53(9):940-951.
    15. Euler, D., and L. Thurston. 1980. Characteristics of hemlock stands  related to deer use in east central Ontario. Journal of Applied Ecology  17:1-6.
    17. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    19. Findell, V. E., R. E. Pfeifer, A. G. Horn, and C. H. Tubbs. 1960.  Michigan's forest resources. USDA Forest Service, Station Paper 82. Lake  States Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 46 p.
    21. Fordham, A. J. 1971. Canadian hemlock variants and their propagation.  Proceedings, International Propagation Society 21:470-475.
    23. Godman, R. M. 1979. The application of shelterwood cuttings in the  Lake States. In The shelterwood regeneration method.  Proceedings, National Silviculture Workshop, Sept. 17-21, 1979.  Charleston, SC. p. 189-200. USDA Forest Service, Timber Management  Staff, Washington, DC.
    25. Godman, Richard M., and Gilbert A. Mattson. 1976. Seed crops and  regeneration problems of 19 species in northeastern Wisconsin. USDA  Forest Service, Research Paper NC-123. North Central Forest Experiment  Station, St. Paul, MN. 5 p.
    27. Godman, Richard M., and Carl H. Tubbs. 1973. Establishing even-age  northern hardwood regeneration by the shelterwood method-a preliminary  guide. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NC-99. North Central Forest  Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 9 p.
    29. Graham, S. A. 1954. Scoring tolerance of forest trees. University of  Michigan Research Note 4. Ann Arbor. 2 p.
    31. Hepting, G. H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the United  States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 386.  Washington, DC. 658 p.
    33. Hett, J. M., and 0. L. Loucks. 1976. Age structure models of balsam  fir and eastern hemlock. Journal of Ecology 64(3):1029-1044.
    35. Hocker, H. W., Jr. 1961. Germination of eastern white pine seed and  early establishment of white pine seedlings on prepared sites.  University of New Hampshire Agriculture Experiment Station, Technical  Bulletin 103. Durham. 15 p.
    37. Hough, Ashbel F. 1960. Silvical characteristics of eastern hemlock.  USDA Forest Service, Station Paper NE-132. Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 23 p.
    39. Jordan, J. S., and W. M. Sharp. 1967. Seeding and planting hemlock  for ruffed grouse cover. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-83.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 17 p.
    41. Jorgensen, R. N., and S. L. Lecznar. 1964. Anatomy of hemlock ring  shake associated with sapsucker injury. USDA Forest Service, Research  Paper NE-21. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 9  p.
    43. Lancaster, Kenneth F. 1985. Managing eastern hemlock-a preliminary  guide. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area, NA-FR-30.
    45. LeMadeleine, Leon. 1980. Seed-borne pathogens of hemlock seed from  the Argonne Experimental Forest. Evaluation Report NA-FB/U-8, January.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Area State  and Private Forestry, St. Paul, MN. 4 p.
    47. Logan, K. T. 1973. Growth of tree seedlings as affected by light  intensity. V. White ash, beech, eastern hemlock, and general  conclusions. Department of the Environment, Canadian Forestry Service,  Publication 1323. Ottawa, ON. 12 p.
    49. Lumis, G. P., G. Hofstra, and R. Hall. 1973. Sensitivity of roadside  trees and shrubs to aerial drift of deicing salt. Horticulture Science  8(6):475-477.
    51. Lutz, R. J., and A. C. Cline. 1956. Results of the first thirty years  of experimentation in silviculture in the Harvard Forest 1908-1938. Part  II. Natural reproduction methods in white pine-hemlock stands on light,  sandy soils. Harvard Forest Bulletin 27. Harvard University, Cambridge,  MA. 70 p.
    53. MacAloney, H. J. 1967. The hemlock borer. USDA Forest Service, Forest  Pest Leaflet 109. Washington, DC. 4 p.
    55. Nienstaedt, H., and H. B. Kriebel. 1955. Controlled pollination of  eastern hemlock. Forest Science 1(2):115-120.
    57. Northern Hardwoods Laboratory. Data on file. USDA Forest Service,  North Central Forest Experiment Station, Marquette, MI.
    59. Rogers, R. S. 1980. Hemlock stands from Wisconsin to Nova Scotia:  transitions in understory composition along a floristic gradient.  Ecology 61(l):178-193.
    61. Secrest, H. C. 1943. The hemlock borer, its biology and a discussion  of the factors concerned in the development of an infestation. Forest  Insect Laboratory Report, Milwaukee, WI.
    63. Smith, David Martyn. 1962. The practice of silviculture. John Wiley,  New York. 578 p.
    65. Stearns, F. 1951. The composition of the sugar maple-hemlock-yellow  birch association in northern Wisconsin. Ecology 32:254-265.
    67. Tubbs, Carl H. 1977. Manager's handbook for northern hardwoods in the  North Central States. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report  NC-39. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 29 p. 
    69. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1965. Silvics of  forest trees of the United States. H. A. Fowells, comp. U.S. Department  of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington, DC. 762 p.
    71. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1974. Seeds of woody  plants in the United States. C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC. 883  p.
    73. Wang, B. S. P. 1974. Tree-seed storage. Department of the  Environment, Canadian Forestry Service, Publication 1335. Ottawa, ON. 32  p.
    75. Westveld, R. H. 1929. Applied silviculture in the United States. John  Wiley, New York. 567 p.
    77. Willis, G. L., and M. S. Coffman. [n.d.] Composition, structure, and  dynamics of climax stands of eastern hemlock and sugar maple in the  Huron Mountains, Michigan. Michigan Technological University, Department  of Forestry, Technical Bulletin 13. Houghton. 43 p.
    79. Wilson, L. F. 1977. A guide to insect injury of conifers in the Lake  States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 501.  Washington, DC. 218 p.


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