The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bean, W.J. 1980. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles, ed. 8, Vols. 1-4. John Murray, London
  • Douglas ex D. Don. 1832. In: Lambert, Descr. Pinus, ed. 8°, 2: p. s.n. inter 144 et 145, t. 80.
  • Farjon A. (2015). Conifer Database (version Jan 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
    1. Bega, Robert V. 1962. Tree killing by Fomes annosus in a  genetics arboretum. Plant Disease Reporter 46(2):107-110.
    3. Critchfield, William B. 1966. Crossability and relationships of the  California big-cone pines. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NC-6. p.  36-44. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN.
    5. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    7. Farris, Glenn J. 1983. California pignolia: seeds of Pinus  sabiniana. Economic Botany 37(2):201-206.
    9. Furniss, R. L., and V. M. Carolin. 1977. Western forest insects.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1339.  Washington, DC. 654 p.
    11. Griffin, James R. 1962. Intraspecific variation in Pinus  sabiniana Dougl. Thesis (Ph.D.), University of California, Berkeley.  274 p.
    13. Griffin, James R. 1964. Cone morphology in Pinus sabiniana. Journal  of the Arnold Arboretum 45(2):260-273.
    15. Griffin, James R. 1965. Digger pine seedling response to  serpentinite and non-serpentinite soil. Ecology 46(6):801-807.
    17. Griffin, James R. 1971. Variability of germination in Digger pine in  California. USDA Forest Service, Research Note PSW-248. Pacific  Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA. 5 p.
    19. Griffin, James R., and William B. Critchfield. 1972. The distribution  of forest trees in California. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper  PSW-82 (reprinted with supplement, 1976). Pacific Southwest Forest and  Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA. 118 p.
    21. Hawksworth, Frank G. 1969. Rapid intensification and upward spread of  dwarf mistletoe in inoculated Digger pines. Plant Disease Reporter  53(8):615-617.
    23. Hawksworth, Frank G., and Delbert Wiens. 1972. Biology and  classification of dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium). U.S. Department  of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 401. Washington, DC. 234 p.
    25. Hermann, Richard K. 1970. Germination of Digger pine. Tree Planters'  Notes 21(2):12.
    27. Jenkinson, James L. 1974. Ponderosa pine progenies: differential  response to ultramafic and granitic soils. USDA Forest Service, Research  Paper PSW-101. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station,  Berkeley, CA. 14 p.
    29. Jepson, Willis Linn. 1909. Trees of California. Cunningham, Curtis,  and Welch, San Francisco, CA. 228 p.
    31. Krugman, Stanley L., and James L. Jenkinson. 1974. Pinus L.  Pine. In Seeds of woody plants in the United States. p. 598-638.  C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC.
    33. Lance, Arthur E., President, Lance Logging. 1981. Personal  communication. Redding, CA.
    35. Launchbaugh, J. L., H. H. Biswell, and A. M. Schultz. 1958. The  control of Digger pine with herbicides placed in basal cuts. Journal of  Range Management 11(l):14-18.
    37. Laundrie, J. F. 1967. Kraft pulping of Digger and knobcone pine. USDA  Forest Service, Research Note FPL-0181. Forest Products Laboratory,  Madison, Wl. 3 p.
    39. Mirov, N. T. 1967. The genus Pinus. Ronald Press, New York.  602 p.
    41. Neal, Donald L. 1980. Blue oak-Digger pine. In Forest cover  types of the United States and Canada. p. 126-127. F. H. Eyre, ed.  Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC.
    43. Pardo, Richard. 1978. National register of big trees. American  Forests 84(4):18-47.
    45. Peattie, Donald Culross. 1953. A natural history of western trees.  Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA. 751 p.
    47. Powers, Robert F. 1981. Nutritional ecology of ponderosa pine (Pinus  ponderosa Laws.) and associated species. Thesis (Ph.D,), University  of California, Berkeley. 234 p.
    49. Powers, Robert F. Data on file. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Redding, CA.
    51. Scharpf, Robert F. 1972. Light affects penetration and infection of  pines by dwarf mistletoe. Phytopathology 62(11):1271-1273.
    53. Schniewind, Arna P., and Barry Gammon. 1978. Some strength properties  of Digger pine (Pinus sabiniana). Wood and Fiber 9(4):289-294. 
    55. Smith, Richard H. 1963. Toxicity of pine resin vapors to three  species of Dendroctonus bark beetles. Journal of Economic Entomology  56(6):827-831,
    57. Smola, Norm. 1980. Digger pine (Pinus sabiniana) for  windbreaks in Oklahoma. Tree Planters' Notes 31(l):38.
    59. Watts, David. 1959. Human occupance as a factor in the distribution  of the California Digger pine. Thesis (M.S.), University of California,  Berkeley. 222 p.
    61. Williamson, J. 1969. (Damage by hail to conifers cultivated in the  Pampas.] Revista Forestal Argentina 13(3):98-101. (Buenos Aires)
    63. Yeaton, Richard I., 1983. The effect of predation on the elevational  replacement of digger pine by ponderosa pine on the western slopes of  the Sierra Nevada. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 110(l):31-38. 
    65. Yeaton, Richard I., Robin W. Yeaton, and Julie E. Horenstein. 1980.  The altitudinal replacement of digger pine by ponderosa pine on the  western slopes of the Sierra Nevada. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical  Club 107(4):487-495.
    67. Zinke, Paul J. 1982. Personal communication. University of  California, Berkeley.


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