The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bean, W.J. 1980. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles, ed. 8, Vols. 1-4. John Murray, London
  • Engelm. 1879. In: Gard. Chron., ser. 2, 11: 334.
  • Farjon A. (2015). Conifer Database (version Jan 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Farjon, A. 1990. Pinaceae. [Regnum Vegetabile Vol. 121]. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • The Gardeners' Chronicle, new series 11: 334. 1879. (Gard. Chron., n.s.,)
    1. Alexander, Billy G., Jr., Frank Ronco, Jr., E. Lee Fitzhugh, and John  A. Ludwig. 1984. A preliminary classification of forest vegetation types  on the Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico. USDA Forest Service, General  Technical Report RM-104. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment  Station, Fort Collins, CO. 29 p.
    3. Alexander, Robert R. 1974. Silviculture of central and southern Rocky  Mountain forests. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper RM-120. Rocky  Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 36 p. 
    5. Bailey, L. H., and E. Z. Bailey. 1976. Hortus third. Macmillan, New  York. 1290 p.
    7. Baker, Frederick S. 1949. A revised tolerance table. Journal of  Forestry 47(3):179-181.
    9. Bates, Carlos C. 1924. Forest types in the central Rocky Mountains as  affected by climate and soils. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin  1233. Washington, DC. 152 p.
    11. Bongarten, B. C. 1978. Genetic and environmental variation in shoot  growth and other traits of blue spruce (Picea pungens). Thesis  (Ph.D.), Department of Forestry, Michigan State University, East  Lansing. 107 p.
    13. Bongarten, Bruce C., and James W. Hanover. 1982. Hybridization among  white, red, blue, and white x blue spruces. Forest Science  28(l):129-134.
    15. Bongarten, B. C., and J. W. Hanover. 1985. Accelerating seedling  growth through photoperiod extension for genetic testing: A case study  with blue spruce. Forest Science 31(3):631-643.
    17. Bongarten, B. C., and J. W. Hanover. 1986a. Genetic parameters of  blue spruce (Picea pungens) at two locations in Michigan. Silvae  Genetica 35(2-3):106-112.
    19. Bongarten, B. C., and J. W. Hanover. 1986b. Provenance variation in  blue spruce (Picea pungens) at eight locations in northern  United States and Canada. Silvae Genetica 35(2-3):67-74.
    21. Cordell, Charles E., and Darroll D. Skilling. 1975. Cylindrocladium  root rot, Cylindrocladiurn scoparium Morgan. In Forest nursery diseases  in the United States. p. 23-26. Glenn W. Peterson and Richard S. Smith,  Jr., eds. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 470.  Washington, DC.
    23. Cram, W. H. 1983a. Albinism and natural selfing in Picea pungens.  Canadian Journal of Plant Science 63:1097- 1098.
    25. Cram, W. H. 1983b. Performance of Picea pungens in southern  Saskatchewan. Forestry Chronicle 59:146-147.
    27. Cram, W. H. 1984a. Some effects of self-, cross-, and  open-pollinations in Picea pungens. Canadian Journal of Botany  62:392-395.
    29. Cram, W. H. 1984b. Needle color and vigor of inbred progenies of Picea  pungens. HortScience 19(l):125-126.
    31. Daubenmire, R. 1972. On the relation between Picea pungens and  Picea engelmannii in the Rocky Mountains. Canadian Journal of  Botany 50 (4):733-742.
    33. Daubenmire, R., and Jean B. Daubenmire. 1968. Forest vegetation of  eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Washington Agricultural  Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 60. Pullman, WA. 104 p.
    35. Dawson, David H., and Paul 0. Rudolf. 1966. Performance of seven seed  sources of blue spruce in central North Dakota. USDA Forest Service,  Research Note NC-5. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul,  MN. 4 p.
    37. den Ouden, P., and B. K. Boom. 1965. Manual of cultivated conifers.  Martinus Nishoff. The Hague, Netherlands. 526 p.
    39. Diebel, Kenneth E., and Gilbert H. Fechner. 1988. Natural variation  among seedlings from Colorado sources of blue spruce. Western Journal of  Applied Forestry 3(4):106-109.
    41. Dixon, Helen. 1935. Ecological studies on the high plateaus of Utah.  Botanical Gazette 97(2):272-320.
    43. Embry, Robert S., and Gerald J. Gottfried. 1971. Basal area growth of  Arizona mixed conifer species. USDA Forest Service, Research Note  RM-198. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort  Collins, CO. 3 p.
    45. Erdman, Kimball S. 1970. Distribution of the native trees of Utah.  Brigham Young University Science Bulletin, Biological Series 9(3).  Provo, UT. 34 p.
    47. Fechner, Gilbert H. 1964. The reproductive cycle of Picea pungens  Engelmann. Thesis (Ph.D.), University of Minnesota, St. Paul. 199 p. 
    49. Fechner, Gilbert H. 1973. The microsporangium and microsporogenesis  in Picea pungens. Department of Forest and Wood Sciences,  Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. 12 p.
    51. Fechner, Gilbert H. 1974. Maturation of blue spruce cones. Forest  Science 20(l):47-50.
    53. Fechner, Gilbert H. 1980. Blue spruce-216. In Forest cover  types of the United States and Canada. p. 95-96. F. H, Eyre, ed. Society  of American Foresters, Washington, DC.
    55. Fechner, Gilbert H. 1985. Silvical characteristics of blue spruce.  USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-117. Rocky Mountain  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 19 p.
    57. Fechner, Gilbert H., and Roger W. Clark. 1969. Preliminary  observations on hybridization of Rocky Mountain spruces. In Proceedings  of the Committee on Forest Tree Breeding in Canada. 11:237-247.  Department of Fisheries and Forestry of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. 290 p. 
    59. Ferris, J. M., and A. T. Leiser. 1965. Control of nematodes  associated with blue spruce. Plant Disease Reporter 49(l):69-71.
    61. Fowler, D. P. 1966. A new spruce hybrid-Picea schrenkiana x P.  glauca. In Proceedings, Lake States Forest Tree Improvement  Conference 7:44-47. USDA Forest Service Research Paper NC-6. North  Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 110 p.
    63. Frohlich, H. J. 1957. Die autovegetative Vermehrung durch  Luftablegerverfehren. Silvae Genetica 6:143-147.
    65. Funsch, R. W. 1975. Spruce variation in north central Colorado.  Thesis (Ph.D.), Colorado State University, Fort Collins. 79 p.
    67. Furniss, R. L., and V. M. Carolin. 1977. Western forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1339. Washington,  DC. 654 p.
    69. Gilgut, C. J., and 0. C. Boyd. 1933. Cytospora canker of Picea  spp. Phytopathology 23(l): 11.
    71. Goor, A. Y., and C. W. Barney. 1976. Forest tree planting in and  zones. Ronald Press, New York. 504 p.
    73. Griffin, G. D., and A. H. Epstein. 1964. Association of dagger  nemotade, Xiphinema americanum, with stunting and winter-kill of  ornamental spruce. Phytopathology 54(2):177-180.
    75. Hanover, James W. 1966. Inheritance of 3-carene concentration in Pinus  monticola. Forest Science 12(4):447-450.
    77. Hanover, James W. 1974. Biochemical analysis of tree speciation. In  Proceedings of the Third North American Forest Biology Workshop.  [Fort Collins, CO. September 9-12, 19741 p. 106-131. C. P. P. Reid, and  G. H. Fechner, eds. Colorado State University, College of Forestry and  Natural Resources, Fort Collins. 388 p.
    79. Hanover, J. W. 1975. Genetics of blue spruce. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper WO-38. Washington, DC. 12 p.
    81. Hanover, J. W., and D. A. Reicosky. 1972. Accelerated growth for  early testing of spruce seedlings. Forest Science 18:92-94.
    83. Hanover, James W., and Ronald C. Wilkinson. 1969. A new hybrid  between blue spruce and white spruce. Canadian Journal of Botany  47:1693-1700.
    85. Hantsbarger, William, and J. W. Brewer. 1970. Insect pests of  landscape plants. Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin 472A. Colorado  State University, Fort Collins. 65 p.
    87. Hawksworth, Frank G., and John M. Staley. 1968. Rhizosphaera  kalkhoffii on spruce in Arizona. Plant Disease Reporter  53(l):804-805.
    89. Hedlin, Alan F., Harry 0. Yates 111, David Cibrian Tovar, Bernard H.  Ebel, Thomas W. Koerber, and Edward P. Merkel. 1980. Cone and seed  insects of North American conifers. Canadian Forestry Service, Victoria,  British Columbia. 122 p.
    91. Heit, C. E. 1961. Laboratory germination and recommended testing  methods for 16 spruce (Picea) species. Proceedings of the  Association of Official Seed Analysts 51:165-171. (Graphic Publishing,  Lake Mills, IA)
    93. Heit, C. E. 1968. Propagation from seed: some western and exotic  spruce species. American Nurseryman 127(8):12-13; 51-57;60-63.
    95. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the  United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 386.  Washington, DC. 658 p.
    97. Hess, Karl, IV. 1981. Phyto-edaphic study of habitat types of the  Arapahoe-Roosevelt National Forest, Colorado. Thesis (Ph.D.). Colorado  State University, Department of Range Science, Fort Collins. 558 p. 
    99. Jones, John R. 1973. Southwestern mixed conifers. In Silvicultural  systems for the major forest types of the United States. p. 47-49. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 445. Washington, DC. 
    101. Jones, John R. 1974. A spot seeding trial with southwestern white  pine and blue spruce. USDA Forest Service, Research Note RM-265. Rocky  Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 7 p. 
    103. Jones, John R. 1974. Silviculture of the southwestern mixed conifers  and aspen: the status of our knowledge. USDA Forest Service, Research  Paper RM-122. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort  Collins, CO. 44 p.
    105. Jones, John R. 1975. A southwestern mixed conifer plantation . . .  case history and observations. USDA Forest Service, Research Note  RM-148. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort  Collins, CO. 8 p.
    107. Keen, F. P. 1952. (revised). Insect enemies of western forests. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication No. 273.  Washington, DC. 280 p.
    109. Keen, F. P. 1958. Cone and seed insects of western forest trees.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 1169. Washington, DC.  168 p.
    111. Kirkpatrick, Henry, Jr. 1940. Rooting evergreens with chemical.  American Nurseryman 71(8):9-12.
    113. Kossuth, Susan V., and Gilbert H. Fechner. 1973. Incompatibility  between Picea pungens Engelm. and Picea engelmannii Parry.  Forest Science 19(l):50-60.
    115. Layser, Earle F., and Gilbert H. Schubert. 1979. Preliminary  classification for the coniferous forest and woodland series of Arizona  and New Mexico. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper RM-206. Rocky  Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 27 p. 
    117. Leatherman, Dave. 1979. The western spruce budworm. Insects and  Diseases Information Series No. 37, 2 p. Colorado State Forest Service,  Fort Collins.
    119. Lyon, Lance. 1983. Winter grafting of cedar, spruce, and ornamental  cherry. The International Plant Propagators' Society Proceedings  33:54-55.
    121. Mathiason, Robert L., Frank G. Hawksworth, and Carleton B.  Edminster. 1986. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on spruce in the White  Mountains, Arizona. Great Basin Naturalist 46(4):685-689.
    123. Mauk, Ronald L., and Jan A. Henderson. 1984. Forest habitat types of  northern Utah. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report INT-170.  Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 89 p. 
    125. Mergen, Francois. 1958. Air-layering of Norway spruce and blue  spruce. In Proceedings, Fifth Northeastern Forest Tree  Improvement Conference. p. 52-54.
    127. Mogren, E. W. 1981. Personal communication.
    129. Moir, William H., and John A. Ludwig. 1979. A classification of  spruce-fir mixed conifer habitat types of Arizona and New Mexico. USDA  Forest Service, Research Paper RM-207. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 47 p.
    131. Moore, P. P., and J. W. Hanover. 1987. Variation in yield of blue  spruce monoterpenes associated with crown position and frequency of  resin canals. Forest Science 33(4):1081-1088.
    133. Nelson, D. L., and R. G. Krebill. 1970. Effect of Chrysomyxa  pirolata cone rust on dispersal and viability of Picea pungens  seeds. Phytopathology 600:1305.
    135. Nicholls, Thomas H., Allen J. Prey, and Darroll D. Skilling. 1974.  Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii damages blue spruce Christmas tree  plantations. Plant Disease Reporter 58(12):1094- 1096.
    137. Pearson, G. A. 1931. Forest types in the Southwest as determined by  climate and soil. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin  247. Washington, DC. 144 p.
    139. Peterson, R. S. 1969. Spruce broom rust. In Internationally  dangerous forest tree diseases. p. 91-92. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 939. Washington, DC.
    141. Pfister, Robert Dean. 1972. Vegetation and soils in the subalpine  forests of Utah. Thesis (Ph.D.). Washington State University, Pullman.  98 p.
    143. Phillips, Thomas W., and Gerald N. Lanier. 1983. White pine weevil,  Pissodes strobi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attack on various  conifers in New York. Canadian Entomologist 115(12):1637-1640.
    145. Proffer, T. J., and J. H. Hart. 1988. Vegetative compatibility  groups in Leucocytospora kunzei. Phytopathology 78(3):256-260. 
    147. Ravenstein, John. 1957. Our method of grafting blue spruce. Plant  Propagation Society Proceedings 7:38-40.
    149. Reicosky, David A. 1974. Development and physiological effects of  surface waxes on blue spruce. In Proceedings, Third North American  Forest Biology Workshop. p. 374-375. C. P. P. Reid and G. H. Fechner,  eds. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. 388 p.
    151. Reicosky, David A., and James W. Hanover. 1976. Seasonal changes in  leaf surface waxes of Picea pungens. American Journal of Botany  63(4):449-456.
    153. Safford, L. 0. 1974. Picea A. Dietr. Spruce. In Seeds of woody plants  in the United States. p. 587-597. C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC. 
    155. Sanderson, Peter G., and Gayle L. Worf. 1986. Phomopsis shoot blight  of Colorado blue spruce. Journal of Environmental Horticulture  4(4):134-138.
    157. Savella, Leonard. 1965. Propagation of Picea pungens glauca  cultivars. The International Plant Propagators' Society Proceedings  15:199-202.
    159. Schaeffer, Peter R., and James W. Hanover. 1986. Taxonomic  implications of monoterpene compounds of blue and Engelmann spruces.  Forest Science 32(3):725-734.
    161. Sherwood, Duane. 1968. Rooting of blue spruce from cuttings. The  International Plant Propagators' Society Proceedings 18:187-188.
    163. Skilling, Darroll D. 1975. Snow blight of conifers. In Forest  nursery diseases in the United States. p. 85-87. Glenn W. Peterson, and  Richard S. Smith, Jr., eds. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture  Handbook 470. Washington, DC. 125 p.
    165. Strong, W. L. 1978. Evidence of Picea pungens in north-central  Montana and its significance. Canadian Journal of Botany  56(9):1118-1121.
    167. Sudworth, George B. 1916. The spruce and balsam fir trees of the  Rocky Mountain region. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 327.  Washington, DC. 43 p.
    169. Tinus, R. W. 1970. Response of Pinus ponderosa Laws. and  Picea pungens Engelm. seedlings to extension of photoperiod with  continuous and intermittent light. Plant Physiology 46(suppl.):25.
    171. Tinus, Richard W. 1974. Response of several tree species to day and  night temperatures. In Proceedings, Third North American Forest  Biology Workshop. p. 365-388. Colorado State University, College of  Forestry and Natural Resources, Fort Collins.
    173. Van Haverbeke, D. F. 1984. Genetic variation in blue spruce. A test  of populations in Nebraska. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper RM-253.  Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 6  p.
    175. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs and woody vines of the  Southwest. University of Texas Press, Austin. 1104 p.
    177. Waterman, Alma M. 1947. Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii associated  with needle cast of Picea pungens. Phytopathology 37(7):507-511. 
    179. Watson, Gary W., and T. Davis Sydnor. 1987. The effect of root  pruning on the root system of nursery trees. Journal of Arboriculture  13(5):126-130.
    181. Wells, James S. 1953. Propagating Koster spruce. American Nurseryman  98:13, 48-53.
    183. Westveld, R. H. 1939. Applied silviculture in the United States. John  Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY. 567 p.
    185. White, David A. 1975. Vegetative propagation of paired blue spruce  cuttings in a liquid medium. Thesis (M.S.), Colorado State University,  Fort Collins. 57 p.
    187. Young, Eric, and James W. Hanover. 1977. Effects of quality,  intensity, and duration of light breaks during a long night dormancy in  blue spruce (Picea pungens Engelm.) seedlings. Plant Physiology  60(2):271-273.


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