The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • Bean, W.J. 1980. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles, ed. 8, Vols. 1-4. John Murray, London
  • De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum. . . . 2: 60, pl. 91. 1790. (Fruct. Sem. Pl.)
  • Farjon A. (2013). Conifer Database (version Jul 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Farjon, A. 1990. Pinaceae. [Regnum Vegetabile Vol. 121]. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Sarg. 1899. In: Silva N. Amer. 12: 33.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • The Silva of North America 12: 33, pl. 597. 1898. (Silva)
  •    
       
    1. Abbott, Herschel G., and Arthur C. Hart. 1960. Mice and voles prefer  spruce seeds. USDA Forest Service, Station Paper 153. Northeastern  Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 12 p.
    2.  
    3. Blum, Barton M. 1977. Animal damage to young spruce and fir in  Maine. USDA Forest Service, Research Note NE-231. Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 4 p.
    4.  
    5. Blum, Barton M. 1988. Variation in the phenology of bud flushing in  white and red spruce. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 18:315-319. 
    6.  
    7. Blum, Barton M., David A. McLean. 1984. Chapter 6: Silviculture,  forest management, and the spruce budworm. p. 83-101. In Schmitt, Daniel  M.; David G. Grimble, and Janet L. Searcy, tech. coords. Managing the  spruce budworm in eastern North America. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 620. Washington, DC.
    8.  
    9. Blum, Barton M., and Dale S. Solomon. 1980. Growth trends in pruned  red spruce trees. USDA Forest Service, Research Note NE-294.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 6 p.
    10.  
    11. Bowen, A. Temple, Jr. 1964. The relation of tree and stand  characteristics to basal area growth of red spruce trees in partially  cut stands in eastern Maine. Maine Agricultural Experiment Station,  Bulletin 627. Orono. 34 p.
    12.  
    13. Brix, H. R., and R. van den Driessche. 1977. Use of rooted cuttings  in reforestation: a review of opportunities, problems, and activities.  British Columbia Forest Service/Canadian Forestry Service, Joint Report  6. Ottawa, ON. 16 p.
    14.  
    15. Davis, Ronald B. 1966. Spruce-fir forests of the coast of Maine.  Ecological Monographs 36(2):94.
    16.  
    17. Dancik, B. P. 1980. Forest genetics studies at the University of  Alberta. In Proceedings, Seventeenth Meeting, Canadian Tree Improvement  Association. Pt. 1. p. 201-205.
    18.  
    19. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    20.  
    21. Frank, Robert M., and John S. Bjorkbom. 1973. A silvicultural guide  for spruce-fir in the Northeast. USDA Forest Service, General Technical  Report NE-6. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 29 p. 
    22.  
    23. Frank, Robert M., and Barton M. Blum. 1978. The selection system of  silviculture in spruce-fir stands-procedures, early results, and  comparisons with unmanaged stands. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper  NE-425. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 15 p. 
    24.  
    25. Frank, Robert M., and Lawrence 0. Safford. 1970. Lack of viable seed  in the forest floor after clearcutting. Journal of Forestry  68(12):776-788.
    26.  
    27. Girouard, R. M. 1970. Propagating four species of spruce by stem  cuttings. Canadian Forestry Service, Bi-monthly Research Notes  26(4):29-31.
    28.  
    29. Gordon, Alan G. 1976. The taxonomy and genetics of Picea rubens  and its relationship to Picea mariana. Canadian Journal of  Botany 54(9):781-813.
    30.  
    31. Gordon, Alan G. 1978. Genecology and the contribution of genetic  variation to productivity systems in spruce forest ecosystems. In  Proceedings Sixteenth Meeting, Canadian Tree Improvement  Association, Pt. 1. p. 89-91.
    32.  
    33. Gordon, Alan G. 1979. Productivity and nutrient cycling in natural  forests. In Canada/MAB Report 12, Biomass Strategy Consultation.  p. 34-49. Co-sponsored by the Canadian Committee for the UNESCO Program  on Man and the Biosphere (MAB) and the Science Council of Canada.
    34.  
    35. Gordon, Alan G. 1980. Spruce genetics, Sault Ste. Marie in 1977 and  1978. In Proceedings, Seventeenth Meeting Canadian Tree  Improvement Association, Pt. 1. p. 117-12 1.
    36.  
    37. Gordon, Alan G. 1980. Genetics and genecology of spruce, Sault Ste.  Marie, Ontario, 1979 and 1980. In Proceedings, Eighteenth  Meeting, Canadian Tree Improvement Association, Pt. 1. p. 89-91.
    38.  
    39. Griffen, Ralph H., and James E. Johnson. 1970. Polymorphic site index  curves for spruce and balsam fir growing in even-aged stands in northern  Maine. University of Maine Life Sciences and Agriculture Experiment  Station, Bulletin 765. Orono. 22 p.
    40.  
    41. Hart, Arthur C. 1959. Silvical characteristics of red spruce (Picea  rubens). USDA Forest Service, Station Paper 124. Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 18 P.
    42.  
    43. Hart, Arthur C. 1965. Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) In  Silvics of forest trees of the United States. p. 305-310. H. A.  Fowells, comp. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271.  Washington, DC.
    44.  
    45. Hart, Arthur C., Hershel G. Abbott, and Edward R. Ladd. 1968. Do  small mammals and birds affect reproduction of spruce and fir? USDA  Forest Service, Research Paper NE-110. Northeastern Forest Experiment  Station, Broomall, PA. 8 p.
    46.  
    47. Hawksworth, F. G., and A. L. Shigo. 1980. Dwarf mistletoe on red  spruce in New Hampshire. Plant Disease Reporter 64:880- 882.
    48.  
    49. Hertel, Gerard D. 1987. Spruce-fir research cooperative: a program  description. Spruce-fir research cooperative, USDA Forest Service,  Broomall, PA. 22 p.
    50.  
    51. Leak, W. B. 1976. Relation of tolerant species to habitat in the  White Mountains of New Hampshire. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper  NE-351. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 10 p. 
    52.  
    53. Leak, William B., and Raymond E. Graber. 1974. Forest vegetation  related to elevation in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. USDA  Forest Service, Research Paper NE-299. Northeastern Forest Experiment  Station, Broomall, PA. 7 p.
    54.  
    55. Lull, Howard W. 1968. A forest atlas of the Northeast. USDA Forest  Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 46 p. 
    56.  
    57. MacKenzie, James J., and Mohammed T. El-Ashry. 1988. 111 winds:  airborne pollution's toll on trees and crops. World Resources Institute.  74 p.
    58.  
    59. Manley, S. A. M. 1972. The occurrence of hybrid swarms of red and  black spruces in central New Brunswick. Canadian Journal of Forest  Research 2(4):381-391.
    60.  
    61. Manley, S. A. M., and F. Thomas Ledig. 1979. Photosynthesis in black  and red spruce and their hybrid derivatives: ecological isolation and  hybrid adaptive inferiority. Canadian Journal of Botany 57(4):305-314. 
    62.  
    63. McLintock, Thomas F. 1948. Evaluation of tree risk in the spruce-fir  region of the Northeast. USDA Forest Service, Station Paper NE-16.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 7 p.
    64.  
    65. Meyer, Walter H. 1929. Yields of second-growth spruce and fir in the  northeast. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 142.  Washington, DC. 52 p.
    66.  
    67. Morgenstern, E. K. 1969. Survival and growth of red spruce  provenances in three experiments in Ontario. In Proceedings,  Eleventh Commonwealth Forest Tree Breeding Meeting. p. 206-211.
    68.  
    69. Morgenstern, E. K., A. G. Corriveau, and D. P. Fowler. 1981. A  provenance test of red spruce in nine environments in eastern Canada.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research 11(l):124-131.
    70.  
    71. Ostrander, M. D. 1974. Eastern spruce ... an American wood. USDA  Forest Service, FS-263. Washington, DC. 10 p.
    72.  
    73. Randall, Arthur G. 1974. Seed dispersal into two spruce-fir clearcuts  in eastern Maine. University of Maine Life Sciences and Agriculture  Experiment Station, Research in the Life Sciences 21(8):15.
    74.  
    75. Rauter, R. M. 1980. Genetic improvement of spruce and larch for  Ontario, 1977-78. In Proceedings, Seventeenth Meeting, Canadian  Tree Improvement Association, Pt. 1. p. 123-128,
    76.  
    77. Safford, Lawrence 0. 1968. Evaluation of growth characteristics of  individual free-growing red spruce trees as a means of estimating forest  productivity. Thesis (Ph.D.), University of Maine, Orono. 148 p.
    78.  
    79. Safford, Lawrence 0. 1968. Ten year average growth rates in the  spruce-fir region of northern New England. USDA Forest Service, Research  Paper NE-93. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 20  p.
    80.  
    81. Safford, L. 0. 1974. Picea A. Dietr. Spruce. In Seeds of woody plants  in the United States. p. 587-597. C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC. 
    82.  
    83. Sanders, C. J., R. W. Stark, E. J. Mullins, J. Murphy, eds. 1985.  Recent advances in spruce budworm research: Proceedings, CANUSA Spruce  Budworms Research Symposium, September 16-20, 1985, Bangor, ME. Canadian  Forestry Service, Ottawa, ON. 527 p.
    84.  
    85. Solomon, Dale S., Richard A. Hosmer, and Homer T. Hayslett, Jr. 1987.  FIBER handbook: a growth model for spruce-fir and northern hardwood  types. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NE-602. Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 19 p.
    86.  
    87. Society of American Foresters (Maine Chapter). 1977. Improvement,  maintenance, and protection of fish and wildlife habitat. The Maine  Forest Review 11:2-8.
    88.  
    89. Stanek, W. 1967. Natural layering of red spruce in Quebec. Canadian  Forestry Service, Bi-monthly Research Notes 23(6):42.
    90.  
    91. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1979. A guide to  common insects and diseases of forest trees in the northeastern United  States. USDA Forest Service, NA-FR-4. Northeastern Area State and  Private Forestry, Broomall, PA. 123 p.
    92.  
    93. Walter, Lawrence C. 1967. Silviculture of the minor southern  conifers. p. 56-62. Stephen F. Austin State College School of Forestry,  Bulletin 15. Nacogdoches, TX.
    94.  
    95. Westveld, M. 1953. Empirical yield tables for spruce-fir  cutover-lands in the Northeast. USDA Forest Service, Station Paper 55.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 64 p.
    96.  
     

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