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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Dark coniferous and mixed forests made up of Oriental Spruce are vertically spread from 600 to 2,100 m a.s.l. This shade-enduring and moisture-loving tree usually grows on brown forest soils but can often be found also on stony and rocky slopes from the Black Sea coast to the Central Greater Caucasus and the eastern ends of the Trialeti ridge on the Lesser Caucasus. It forms pure stands or is associated with Abies nordmanniana, Pinus kochiana, Fagus orientalis. Oriental Spruce dominated forest may have various types of undergrowth, of which the Colchic type made up of evergreen shrubs and dwarf trees such as Laurocerasus officinalis, Ilex colchica, Buxus colchica, Taxus baccata, Rhododendron spp. is worth special mentioning.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Source: IUCN

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Associations

Foodplant / false gall
Adelges nordmannianae causes swelling of live Picea orientalis

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Picea orientalis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Picea orientalis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P. & Luscombe, D

Contributor/s

Justification
P. orientalis is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a threatened category but population monitoring as well as control over logging are necessary conservation actions to avoid future decline.
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Population

Population
The species makes up coniferous and mixed forests in upper montane zone covering large areas within the distribution range.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Selective logging, agricultural land development and insect damage are the major threats to the species although these are not thought to be causing an overall decline.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
P. orientalis occurs in a number of protected areas throughout its range, e.g. Meryemana Forest (Pontic Mts., Turkey), Kintrishi, Ritsa, Algeti Protected Areas (Georgia), Teberda Nature Reserve (Russian Caucasus). Population monitoring; species based actions such as selective logging and trade management are needed.
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Wikipedia

Picea orientalis

Seedlings

Picea orientalis, commonly known as the Caucasian Spruce or Oriental Spruce, is a species of spruce native to the Caucasus and adjacent northeast Turkey.

Description[edit]

It is a large coniferous evergreen tree growing to 30–45 m tall or 98-145 feet(exceptionally to 57 m), and with a trunk diameter of up to 1.5 m (exceptionally up to 4 m). The Caucasian Spruce can also be found in Northern Iran, though its numbers have decreased due to deforestation.

The shoots are buff-brown, and moderately pubescent (hairy). The leaves are needle-like, the shortest of any spruce, 6-8 mm long, rhombic in cross-section, dark green with inconspicuous stomatal lines. The cones are slender cylindric-conic, 5-9 cm long and 1.5 cm broad, red to purple when young, maturing dark brown 5–7 months after pollination, and have stiff, smoothly rounded scales.

It is a popular ornamental tree in large gardens, valued in northern Europe and the USA for its attractive foliage and ability to grow on a wide range of soils. It is also grown to a small extent in forestry for Christmas trees, timber and paper production, though its slower growth compared to Norway Spruce reduces its importance outside of its native range. This plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[2] A frequently seen ornamental cultivar is Picea orientalis 'Aureospicata', which has gold-coloured young foliage in the spring.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Conifer Specialist Group (1998). Picea orientalis. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 12 May 2006.
  2. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Picea orientalis". Retrieved 30 June 2013. 
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