The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Britton & et al. 1888. In: Prelim. Cat. Anth. Pter. New York: 71.
  • Cody, W. J. 1996. Fl. Yukon Terr. i–xvii, 1–669. NRC Research Press, Ottawa.
  • Die Harbkesche Wilde Baumzucht 2: 127. 1771. (Harbk. Baumz. (ed. 2))
  • Farjon A. (2015). Conifer Database (version Jan 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Flora Boreali-Americana 2: 206–207. 1803. (Fl. Bor.-Amer.)
  • Hultén, E. 1968. Fl. Alaska i–xxi, 1–1008. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Moss, E. H. 1983. Fl. Alberta (ed. 2) i–xii, 1–687. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  • Porsild, A. E. & W. Cody. 1980. Vasc. Pl. Continental Northw. Terr. Canada i–viii, 1–607. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa.
  • Preliminary Catalogue of Anthophyta and Pteridophyta Reported as Growing Spontaneously within One Hundred Miles of New York 71. 1888. (Prelim. Cat.)
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Welsh, S. L. 1974. Anderson's Fl. Alaska Adj. Parts Canada i–xvi, 1–724. Brigham Young University Press, Provo.
    1. Alban, David H., and Richard F. Watt. 1981. Fertilization of black  spruce on poor site peatland in Minnesota. USDA Forest Service, Research  Paper NC-210. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 10  p.
    3. Armson, K. A. 1975. Establishment and early development of black  spruce. In Black spruce symposium; symposium proceedings O-P-4.  p. 45-56. Canadian Forestry Service, Great Lakes Forest Research Centre,  Sault Ste. Marie, ON.
    5. Armson, K. A., M. Fung, and W. R. Bunting. 1980. Operational rooting  of black spruce cuttings. Journal of Forestry 78(6):341- 343.
    7. Basham, J. T. 1973. Heart rot of black spruce in Ontario. 1. Stem  rot, hidden rot and management considerations. Canadian Journal of  Forest Research 3(l):95-109.
    9. Bickerstaff, A., and S. A. Hostikka. 1977. Growth of forests in  Canada. Part 1: An annotated bibliography. Canadian Forestry Service,  Information Report FMR-X-98. Forest Management Institute, Ottawa, ON.  197 p.
    11. Black, R. Alan, and L. C. Bliss. 1980. Reproductive ecology of Picea  mariana (Mill.) B.S.P., at tree line near Inuvik, Northwest  Territories, Canada. Ecological Monographs 50(3):331- 354.
    13. Cerezke, H. F. 1972. Observations on the distribution of the spruce  bud midge (Rhabdophaga swainei Felt) in black and white spruce  crowns and its effect on height growth. Canadian Journal of Forest  Research 2(2):69-72.
    15. Chrosciewicz, Z. 1976. Burning for black spruce regeneration on a  lowland cutover site in southeastern Manitoba. Canadian Journal of  Forest Research 6(2):179-186.
    17. Crossley, D. 1. 1976. Growth response of spruce and fir to release  from suppression. Forestry Chronicle 52(4):189-193.
    19. Evert, F. 1970. Black spruce growth and yield at various densities in  the Ontario Clay Belt. Forest Science 16(2):183-195.
    21. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    23. Fowells, H. A., comp. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United  States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271.  Washington, DC. 762 p.
    25. Fraser, J. W. 1976. Viability of black spruce seed in or on a boreal  forest seedbed. Forestry Chronicle 52(5):229-231.
    27. Gordon, Alan G. 1976. The taxonomy and genetics of Picea rubens  and its relationships to Picea mariana. Canadian Journal of  Botany 54(9):781-813.
    29. Haavisto, V. F. 1975. Peatland black spruce seed production and  dispersal in northeastern Ontario. In Black spruce symposium;  symposium proceedings O-P-4. p. 250-264. Canadian Forestry Service,  Great Lakes Forest Research Centre, Sault Ste. Marie, ON.
    31. Haavisto, V. F. 1978. Lowland black spruce seedfall: viable seedfall  peaks in mid-April. Forestry Chronicle 54(4):213-215.
    33. Hatcher, R. J. 1963. A study of black spruce forests in northern  Quebec. Canada Department of Forestry, Forest Research Branch,  Publication 1018. Ottawa, ON. 37 p.
    35. Hawksworth, F. G., and D. Wiens. 1972. Biology and classification of  dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium). U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 401. Washington, DC. 234 p.
    37. Heinselman, M. L. 1970. Landscape evolution, peatland types, and the  environment in the Lake Agassiz Peatlands Natural Area, Minnesota.  Ecological Monographs 40(2):235-261.
    39. Heinselman, Miron L. 1973. Fire in the virgin forests of the Boundary  Waters Canoe Area, Minnesota. Quaternary Research 3(3):329-382,
    41. Jarvis, J. M., and J. H. Cayford. 1967. Effects of partial cutting,  clearcutting and seedbed treatment on growth and regeneration in black  spruce stands in Manitoba. Pulp and Paper Magazine of Canada 68(8):WR  362-WR 367.
    43. Jeglum, J. K. 1974. Relative influence of moisture-aeration and  nutrients on vegetation and black spruce growth in northern Ontario.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research 4(l):114-126.
    45. Jeglum, J. K. 1979. Effects of some seedbed types and watering  frequencies on germination and growth of black spruce: a greenhouse  study. Canadian Forestry Service, Report O-X-292. Great Lakes Forest  Research Centre, Sault Ste. Marie, ON. 33 p.
    47. Jeglum, J. K. 1981. Black spruce seedling growth and nutrition on  sphagnum and feather moss peats from a northern Ontario peatland.  Canadian Forestry Service, Report O-X-326. Great Lakes Forest Research  Centre, Sault Ste. Marie, ON. 20 p.
    49. Johnston, William F. 1972. Seeding black spruce on brushy lowland  successful if vegetation density kept low. USDA Forest Service, Research  Note NC-139. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 4 p. 
    51. Johnston, William F. 1977. Manager's handbook for black spruce in the  north central States. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report  NC-34. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 18 p. 
    53. Johnston, William F., and Thomas M. Smith. 1983. Black spruce. In  Silvicultural systems for the major forest types of the United  States. p. 96-98. Russell M. Burns, tech. comp. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 445. Washington, DC.
    55. Little, Elbert L., Jr., and Scott S. Pauley. 1958. A natural hybrid  between black and white spruce in Minnesota. American Midland Naturalist  60(l):202-211.
    57. Losee, S. T. B. 1961. Results of group cutting for black spruce  regeneration at the Abitibi Woodlands Laboratory. Canada Pulp and Paper  Association, Woodland Section Index 2086 (F-2). Pointe Claire, PQ. 7 p. 
    59. Morgenstern, E. K. 1973. Genetic research with black and red spruce  at Petawawa Forest Experiment Station. Petawawa Forest Experiment  Station, Information Report PS-X-45. Chalk River, ON. 35 p.
    61. Morgenstern, E. K. 1978. Range-wide genetic variation of black  spruce. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 8(4):463-473.
    63. Morgenstern, E. K., and J. L. Farrar. 1964. Introgressive  hybridization in red spruce and black spruce. University of Toronto  Faculty of Forestry, Technical Report 4. Toronto, ON. 46 p.
    65. Morrison, I. K., and N. W. Foster. 1979. Five-year growth in two  nitrogen-phosphorus fertilization experiments in spruce and spruce-fir  upland forest in northern Ontario. Canadian Forestry Service, Report  O-X-299. Great Lakes Forest Research Centre, Sault Ste. Marie, ON. 15 p. 
    67. Mullin, R. E. 1978. Plantation performance averages for black spruce.  Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Forest Research Note 19. Ontario  Forest Research Centre, Maple. 2 p.
    69. Mullin, R. E. 1980. Comparison of seedling and transplant performance  following 15 years of growth. Forestry Chronicle 56(5):231-232.
    71. Nichols, H. 1976. Historical aspects of the northern Canadian  treeline. Arctic 29(l):38-47.
    73. Ostry, M. E., and T. H. Nicholls. 1979. Eastern dwarf mistletoe on  black spruce. USDA Forest Service, Forest Insect and Disease Leaflet  158. Washington, DC. 7 p.
    75. Payandeh, Bijan. 1978. A site index formula for peatland black spruce  in Ontario. Forestry Chronicle 54(l):39-41.
    77. Perala, Donald A. 1971. Growth and Yield of black spruce on organic  soils in Minnesota. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NC-56. North  Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 16 p.
    79. Richardson, J. 1979. Releasing softwood regeneration from overtopping  alders. Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report N-X-169.  Newfoundland Forest Research Centre, St. John's. 24 p.
    81. Roche, L. 1969. A genecological study of the genus Picea in  British Columbia. New Phytologist 68(2):505-554.
    83. Safford, L. 0. 1974. Picea A. Dietr. Spruce. In Seeds  of woody plants in the United States. p. 587-597. C. S. Schopmeyer,  tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450.  Washington, DC.
    85. Schlaegel, Bryce E. 1975. Yields of four 40-year-old conifers and  aspen in adjacent stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  5(2):278-280.
    87. Schooley, H. 0., J. P. Hall, and W. Burry. 1979. Quantity of viable  seed retained in old black spruce cones. Canadian Forestry Service,  Bi-monthly Research Notes 35(6):32.
    89. Stanek, W. 1975. The role of layerings in black spruce forests on  peatlands in the Clay Belt of northern Ontario. In Black spruce  symposium; symposium proceedings O-P-4. p. 242-249. Canadian Forestry  Service, Great Lakes Forest Research Centre, Sault Ste. Marie, ON.
    91. Van Cleve, Keith, and John C. Zasada. 1970. Snow breakage in black  spruce and white spruce stands in interior Alaska. Journal of Forestry  68(2):82-83.
    93. van Nostrand, R. S. 1973. Commercial thinning of 60-year-old black  spruce in Newfoundland. Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report  N-X-104. Newfoundland Forest Research Centre, St. John's. 13 p.
    95. van Nostrand, R. S. 1979. Growth response of black spruce in  Newfoundland to N, P and K fertilization. Forestry Chronicle  55(5):189-193.
    97. Viereck, L. A., and C. T. Dyrness, tech. eds. 1979. Ecological  effects of the Wickersham Dome fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. USDA Forest  Service, General Technical Report PNW-90. Pacific Northwest Forest and  Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 71 p.
    99. Vincent, A. B. 1965. Black spruce: a review of its silvics, ecology  and silviculture. Canada Department of Forestry Forest Research Branch,  Publication 1100. Ottawa, ON. 79 p.
    101. Weetman, G. F. 1975. Ten-year growth response of black spruce to  thinning and fertilization treatments. Canadian Journal of Forest  Research 5(2):302-309.
    103. Weetman, G. F., and B. Webber. 1972. The influence of wood harvesting  on the nutrient status of two spruce stands. Canadian Journal of Forest  Research 2(3):351-369.
    105. Weetman, G. F., H. H. Krause, and E. Koller. 1976. Interprovincial  forest fertilization program. Results of five-year growth remeasurements  in thirty installations: fertilized in 1969, remeasured in 1974.  Canadian Forestry Service, Forestry Technical Report 16. Ottawa, ON. 34  p.
    107. Whitney, R. D. 1976. Root rot of spruce and balsam fir in  northwestern Ontario. 1. Damage and implications for forest management.  Canadian Forestry Service, Report O-X-241. Great Lakes Forest Research  Centre, Sault Ste. Marie, ON. 49 p.
    109. Wilton, W. C. 1963. Black spruce seedfall immediately following a  fire. Forestry Chronicle 39(4):477-478.
    111. Winston, D. A. 1975. Black spruce seeding experiments in the central  plateau section B.8, Manitouwadge, Ontario. In Black spruce symposium;  symposium proceedings O-P-4. p. 125-139. Canadian Forestry Service,  Great Lakes Forest Research Centre, Sault Ste. Marie, ON.
    113. Zoltai, S. C., and W. W. Pettipiece. 1974. Tree distribution on  perennially frozen earth hummocks. Arctic and Alpine Research  6(4):403-411.


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