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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution: Afghanistan, Kurram eastward to Kashmir and W. Nepal.
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Afghanistan, Himalaya (Kashmir to W. Nepal).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 60 m tall; trunk to 3 m d.b.h.; bark dark gray, cracking into irregular scales; branches horizontal, slightly tilted or slightly pendulous; long branchlets usually pendulous, pale grayish yellow and densely pubescent with some white powder in 1st year, thereafter grayish; winter bud scales curved outward at base. Leaves radially spreading on long branchlets, in apparent fascicles of 15-20 on short branchlets, initially pale green, aging dark green, linear but broader distally, triangular in cross section, 2.5-5 cm × 1-1.5 mm, hard, stomatal lines 2 or 3 adaxially and 4-6 abaxially, apex acuminate. Seed cones shortly pedunculate, pale green, initially with some white powder, becoming reddish brown when ripe, ovoid or broadly ellipsoid, 7-12 × 5-9 cm. Seed scales flabellate-obtriangular, 2.5-4 × 4-6 cm, margin auriculate into a claw at base, cuneate in central part, incurved distally. Seeds ± triangular, ca. 1 cm; wing ca. 1.5 × 2 cm.
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Description

Trees up to 30 m tall with spreading horizontal branches; branchlets drooping. Leaves acicular, 2.5 cm long, 3‑sided. Male cones solitary at the tips of dwarf shoots, erect, cylindrical, purplish at maturity, 2.5‑4.5(‑7) cm long; microsporophylls spirally arranged, each with 2 oblong sporangia; micropores not winged. Female cones solitary, erect, terminal at the end of shoots; young cones greenish, mature cones brown, barrel‑shaped, 7‑12 x 5‑9 cm; sporophylls fan‑shaped, deciduous, leaving a central woody axis. Seeds obovate, 4‑6 mm (excluding wing), with a large light brown wing.
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Elevation Range

2000-2500 m
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Pinus deodara Roxburgh, Fl. Ind., ed. 1832, 3: 651. 1832; Cedrus libani A. Richard subsp. deodara (Roxburgh) P. D. Sell; C. libani var. deodara (Roxburgh) J. D. Hooker.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Cedrus deodara is a high mountain tree, but it occurs in a wide range of habitats in the Himalaya. It grows in a belt at elevations between 17,00 m and 3,000 m a.s.l. in the western part of its range and between 1,300 m and 3,300 m in the eastern part, where the climate is less dry. It grows on a variety of alpine lithosols. The climate is moist monsoon, but the increasing moisture in the E Himalayas is a limiting factor; towards the west it becomes moderately dry, with annual precipitation less than 750 mm in the most western part of its range. At higher elevations it forms a coniferous forest belt with, among other species, Abies pindrow, A. spectabilis in Nepal, Pinus wallichiana, Picea smithiana, and Cupressus torulosa, but forms often also pure stands. At the highest limits of Cedrus, Juniperus squamata is the only accompanying conifer species. At lower elevations first Quercus spp., then Aesculus indica, Betula sp., Corylus jaquemontii, Acer spp., Prunus spp. and shrubs mark the transition towards a broad-leaved forest.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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The `cedar' is commonly gregarious at altitudes from 2000‑3000 m. The wood is of an excellent quality, and used for construction purposes etc. Cones ripen in October‑November of the second year.
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Habitat & Distribution

Native in extreme SW Xizang; extensively cultivated as an ornamental in Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hebei, Henan, Hubei,
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cedrus deodara

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cedrus deodara

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 12
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P. & Luscombe, D

Contributor/s

Justification

Logging of Cedrus deodara undoubtedly affected the population, presumably removing the bigger trees in those areas most extensively logged. Regeneration has occurred in many areas and there are still many extensive forests left. This species is Least Concern.

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Population

Population
Locally common and dominant. The overall population trend is uncertain as the rate of logging may not be more than the rate of regeneration.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Intensive logging (legal and illegal) in some parts of its range (e.g. Afghanistan) may pose a localized threat. Deforestation and conversion of forests for agriculture may also pose local threats in some parts of Pakistan and India.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is known from several protected areas across its range.
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Wikipedia

Cedrus deodara

Cedrus deodara (deodar cedar, Himalayan cedar, or deodar; Sanskrit देवदारु devadāru, Hindi: देवदार devadār, दारूक dāruk; Urdu: ديودار/دیار deodār; Chinese: 雪松 xuě sōng) is a species of cedar native to the western Himalayas in eastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan (especially in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the regions of Azad Kashmir), north Republic of India (Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand states), southwesternmost Tibet in (China) and western Nepal, occurring at 1,500–3,200 m (4,921–10,499 ft) altitude. It is a large evergreen coniferous tree reaching 40–50 m (131–164 ft) tall, exceptionally 60 m (197 ft) with a trunk up to 3 m (10 ft) in diameter. It has a conic crown with level branches and drooping branchlets.[1]

The leaves are needle-like, mostly 2.5–5 cm (0.98–1.97 in) long, occasionally up to 7 cm (2.8 in) long, slender (1 mm (0.039 in) thick), borne singly on long shoots, and in dense clusters of 20–30 on short shoots; they vary from bright green to glaucous blue-green in colour. The female cones are barrel-shaped, 7–13 cm (2.8–5.1 in) long and 5–9 cm (2.0–3.5 in) broad, and disintegrate when mature (in 12 months) to release the winged seeds. The male cones are 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4 in) long, and shed their pollen in autumn.[1]

Etymology[edit]

The botanical name, which is also the English common name, derives from the Sanskrit term devadāru, which means "wood of the gods", a compound of deva "god" and dāru "wood, tree".

Cultural importance in the Indian subcontinent[edit]

Among Hindus, as the etymology of deodar suggests, it is worshiped as a divine tree. Deva, the first half of the Sanskrit term, means divine, deity, or deus. Dāru, the second part, is cognate with (related to) the words durum, druid, tree, and true.[2][3]

Several Hindu legends refer to this tree. For example, Valmiki Ramayan – Kishkinda khanda- stanza 4-43-13 reads:[4]

lodhra padmaka khaNDeSu devadaaru vaneSu ca |

raavaNaH saha vaidehyaa maargitavyaa tataH tataH || || 4-43-13

That means “In the stands of Lodhra trees, Padmaka trees and in the woods of Devadaru, or Deodar trees, Ravana is to be searched there and there, together with Sita. [4-43-13]”

Forests full of Deodar or Devadāru trees were the favorite living place of ancient Indian sages and their families who were devoted to the Hindu god Shiva. To please Lord Shiva, the sages used to perform very difficult tapasya (meditation) practices in deodar forests. Also the ancient Hindu epics and Shaivite texts regularly mention Darukavana, meaning a forest of deodars, as a sacred place.

The deodar tree is the national tree of Pakistan.

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Cedrus deodara00.jpg

It is widely grown as an ornamental tree, often planted in parks and large gardens for its drooping foliage. General cultivation is limited to areas with mild winters, with trees frequently killed by temperatures below about −25 °C (−13 °F), limiting it to USDA zone 7 and warmer for reliable growth.[5]

The most cold-tolerant trees originate in the northwest of the species' range in Kashmir and Paktia Province, Afghanistan. Selected cultivars from this region are hardy to USDA zone 7 or even zone 6, tolerating temperatures down to about −30 °C (−22 °F).[5] Named cultivars from this region include 'Eisregen', 'Eiswinter', 'Karl Fuchs', 'Kashmir', 'Polar Winter', and 'Shalimar'.[6][7] Of these, 'Eisregen', 'Eiswinter', 'Karl Fuchs', and 'Polar Winter' were selected in Germany from seed collected in Paktia; 'Kashmir' was a selection of the nursery trade, whereas 'Shalimar' originated from seeds collected in 1964 from Shalimar Gardens, India (in the Kashmir region) and propagated at the Arnold Arboretum.[6]

This plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[8]

Construction material[edit]

Deodar is in great demand as building material because of its durability, rot-resistant character and fine, close grain, which is capable of taking a high polish. Its historical use to construct religious temples and in landscaping around temples is well recorded. Its rot-resistant character also makes it an ideal wood for constructing the well-known houseboats of Srinagar, Kashmir. In Pakistan and India, during the British colonial period, deodar wood was used extensively for construction of barracks, public buildings, bridges, canals and railway cars.[3] Despite its durability, it is not a strong timber, and its brittle nature makes it unsuitable for delicate work where strength is required, such as chair-making.

Herbal Ayurveda[edit]

Cones of Deodar

The use of C. deodara in Ayurvedic medicines is well recorded.[3][9]

The inner wood is aromatic and used to make incense. Inner wood is distilled into essential oil. As insects avoid this tree, the essential oil is used as insect repellent on the feet of horses, cattle and camels. It also has anti-fungal properties[citation needed] and has some potential for control of fungal deterioration of spices during storage. The outer bark and stem are astringent.[10]

Due to its anti fungal and insect repellent properties, rooms made of Deodar wood are used to store meat and food grains like oats and wheat in Shimla, Kullu and Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh. In Himachal people suffering from asthma or other respiratory problems are advised to sit under a Deodar tree early in the morning.

Cedar oil is often used for its aromatic properties, especially in aromatherapy. It has a characteristic woody odour which may change somewhat in the course of drying out. The crude oils are often yellowish or darker in colour. Its applications cover soap perfumes, household sprays, floor polishes and insecticides and is also used in microscope work as a clearing oil.[10]

Chemistry[edit]

The bark of Cedrus deodara contains large amounts of taxifolin.[11] The wood contains cedeodarin (6-methyltaxifolin), dihydromyricetin (ampelopsin), cedrin (6-methyldihydromyricetin), cedrinoside[12] and deodarin (3′,4′,5,6-tetrahydroxy-8-methyl dihydroflavonol).[13] The main components of the needle essential oil include α-terpineol (30.2%), linalool (24.47%), limonene (17.01%), anethole (14.57%), caryophyllene (3.14%) and eugenol (2.14%).[14] The deodar cedar also contains lignans[15] and the phenolic sesquiterpene himasecolone together with isopimaric acid.[16] Other compounds have been identified as (-)-matairesinol, (-)-nortrachelogenin and a dibenzylbutyrolactollignan (4,4',9-trihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-9,9'-epoxylignan).[17]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Aljos, Farjon (1990). Pinaceae: drawings and descriptions of the genera Abies, Cedrus, Pseudolarix, Keteleeria, Nothotsuga, Tsuga, Cathaya, Pseudotsuga, Larix and Picea. Koenigstein: Koeltz Scientific Books. ISBN 978-3-87429-298-6. [page needed]
  2. ^ Palermo, Gregory (June 29, 2007). "Cedars, gods, and Gilgamesh". Plainfield Trees. [self-published source?]
  3. ^ a b c McGowan, Chris (March 5, 2008). "The Deodar Tree: the Himalayan 'Tree of God'". [self-published source?]
  4. ^ "ValmikiRamayan". [non-primary source needed]
  5. ^ a b Ødum, S. (1985). Report on frost damage to trees in Denmark after the severe 1981/82 and 1984/85 winters. Denmark: Hørsholm Arboretum. [page needed]
  6. ^ a b Humphrey James, Welch (1993). Haddows, Gordon, ed. The World Checklist of Conifers. Bromyard: Landsman's Bookshop. ISBN 978-0-900513-09-1. 
  7. ^ Gerd, Krüssmann (1983). Handbuch der Nadelgehölze (in German) (2nd ed.). Berlin: Parey. ISBN 978-3-489-62622-0. [page needed]
  8. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Cedrus deodara". Retrieved 27 June 2013. 
  9. ^ "Devadaru". Dr. Eddy's Clinic and Ayurveda School. March 13, 2008. Retrieved September 24, 2013. [unreliable source?]
  10. ^ a b "Cedarwood Oils". Flavours and fragances of plant origin. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1995. ISBN 92-5-103648-9. 
  11. ^ Willför, Stefan; Ali, Mumtaz; Karonen, Maarit; Reunanen, Markku; Arfan, Mohammad; Harlamow, Reija (2009). "Extractives in bark of different conifer species growing in Pakistan". Holzforschung 63 (5): 551–8. doi:10.1515/HF.2009.095. 
  12. ^ Agrawal, P.K.; Agarwal, S.K.; Rastogi, R.P. (1980). "Dihydroflavonols from Cedrus deodara". Phytochemistry 19 (5): 893–6. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(80)85133-8. 
  13. ^ Adinarayana, D.; Seshadri, T.R. (1965). "Chemical investigation of the stem-bark of Cedrus deodara". Tetrahedron 21 (12): 3727–30. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)96989-3. 
  14. ^ Zeng, Wei-Cai; Zhang, Zeng; Gao, Hong; Jia, Li-Rong; He, Qiang (2012). "Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil from Pine Needle (Cedrus deodara)". Journal of Food Science 77 (7): C824–9. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02767.x. PMID 22757704. 
  15. ^ Agrawal, P.K.; Rastogi, R.P. (1982). "Two lignans from Cedrus deodara". Phytochemistry 21 (6): 1459. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(82)80172-6. 
  16. ^ Agarwal, P.K.; Rastogi, R.P. (1981). "Terpenoids from Cedrus deodara". Phytochemistry 20 (6): 1319–21. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(81)80031-3. 
  17. ^ Tiwari, AK; Srinivas, PV; Kumar, SP; Rao, JM (2001). "Free radical scavenging active components from Cedrus deodara". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 49 (10): 4642–5. doi:10.1021/jf010573a. PMID 11600001. 
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Notes

Comments

The timber is utilized in shipbuilding, furniture, bridges, and construction.
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