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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 30 m tall; trunk to 1.5 m d.b.h.; crown pyramidal when young; branchlets horizontal or tilted upward distally; branchlets many 2-ranked, opposite or alternate, usually not pendulous, pale yellow-brown, pubescent in 1st year, thereafter dark gray; winter buds conical. Leaves on short branchlets in apparent fascicles of 19-28, dark green, linear, ± quadrangular in cross section, 15-35 cm × ca. 1 mm, stomatal lines 2-5 along both surfaces, apex acuminate. Seed cones tinged purple before fertilization, pale brown at maturity, ovoid-columnar to columnar, ca. 7 × 4 cm. Seed scales flabellate or obtriangular, ca. 3.5 mm wide. Seeds ± triangular, ca. 1.2 cm; wing cuneate, 1.3-1.5 cm.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Pinus atlantica Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 137. 1847; Cedrus libani A. Richard subsp. atlantica (Endlicher) Battandier & Trabut; C. libani var. atlantica (Endlicher) J. D. Hooker.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated as an ornamental. Jiangsu (Nanjing Shi) [native to NW Africa (Algeria, Morocco)]
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Amanita singeri is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Cedrus atlantica
Remarks: Other: uncertain

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cedrus atlantica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cedrus atlantica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Cedrus atlantica

Cedrus atlantica, the Atlas cedar, is a cedar native to the Atlas Mountains of Algeria (Tell Atlas, Saharan Atlas) and Morocco (in the Rif and Middle Atlas, and locally in the High Atlas).[2] A majority of the modern sources[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] treat it as a distinct species Cedrus atlantica, but some sources[11][12] consider it a subspecies of Lebanon cedar (C. libani subsp. atlantica).

Description[edit]

Fully grown, Atlas cedar is a large coniferous evergreen tree, 30–35 m (rarely 40m) tall, with a trunk diameter of 1.5–2 m.It is very similar in all characters to the other varieties of Lebanon cedar; differences are hard to discern. The mean cone size tends to be somewhat smaller (although recorded to 12 cm,[2] only rarely over 9 cm long, compared to up to 10 cm in C. brevifolia, and 12 cm in C. libani, though with considerable overlap (all can be as short as 6 cm). The Cedrus atlantica leaf length (10–25 mm) is similar that of C. libani subsp. stenocoma, on average longer than C. brevifolia and shorter than C. libani subsp. libani, but again with considerable overlap.[2][8][13]

Ecology[edit]

Atlas cedar forms forests on mountain sides at 1,370 to 2,200 m, often in pure forests, or mixed with Algerian Fir - Abies numidica, Juniperus oxycedrus, Holm oak - Quercus ilex, and Acer opalus. These forests can provide habitat for the endangered Barbary Macaque, Macaca sylvanus, a primate that had a prehistorically much wider distribution in northern Morocco and Algeria.[14]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Cedrus atlantica: Foliage and mature female cone

Landscape[edit]

Cedrus atlantica (Atlas cedar) is common in cultivation as an ornamental tree in temperate climates. In garden settings, often the glaucous forms are planted as ornamental trees, distinguished as the Glauca Group, a Cultivar Group. There are also fastigiate, pendulous, and golden-leaf forms in cultivation. The Atlas cedar is useful in cultivation because it is more tolerant of dry and hot conditions than most conifers.

Many (but far from all) of the cultivated trees have glaucous (bluish) foliage, more downy shoots, and can have more leaves in each whorl; young trees in cultivation often have more ascending branches than many cultivated Cedrus atlantica.[15]

An Atlas cedar is planted at the White House South Lawn in Washington, DC. President Carter ordered a tree house built within the cedar for his daughter Amy. The wooden structure was designed by the President himself, and is self-supporting so as not to cause damage to the tree.[16]

Forestry[edit]

Male cones beginning to shed pollen

Cedar plantations, mainly with Cedrus atlantica, have been established in southern France for timber production.

Cultural references[edit]

George Harrison references the species in his song "Beware of Darkness."

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thomas, P. 2013. Cedrus atlantica. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 13 July 2013.
  2. ^ a b c Gaussen, H. (1964). Genre Cedrus. Les Formes Actuelles. Trav. Lab. For. Toulouse T2 V1 11: 295-320
  3. ^ Gymnosperm database Cedrus.
  4. ^ GRIN Taxonomy for Plants Cedrus.
  5. ^ NCBI Taxonomy Browser Cedrus.
  6. ^ Flora of China vol. 4
  7. ^ Qiao, C.-Y., Jin-Hua Ran, Yan Li and Xiao-Quan Wang (2007): Phylogeny and Biogeography of Cedrus (Pinaceae) Inferred from Sequences of Seven Paternal Chloroplast and Maternal Mitochondrial DNA Regions. Annals of Botany 100(3):573-580. Available online
  8. ^ a b Farjon, A. (1990). Pinaceae. Drawings and Descriptions of the Genera. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3-87429-298-3.
  9. ^ Farjon, A. (2008). A Natural History of Conifers. Timber Press ISBN 0-88192-869-0.
  10. ^ Christou, K. A. (1991). The genetic and taxonomic status of Cyprus cedar, Cedrus brevifolia (Hook.) Henry. Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania, Greece.
  11. ^ Güner, A., Özhatay, N., Ekim, T., & Başer, K. H. C. (ed.). 2000. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 11 (Supplement 2): 5–6. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1409-5
  12. ^ Eckenwalder, J. E. (2009). Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference. Timber Press ISBN 0-88192-974-3.
  13. ^ Schwarz, O. (1944). Anatolica. Feddes Repertorium 54: 26-34.
  14. ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2008. Barbary Macaque: Macaca sylvanus, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg
  15. ^ Walters, W. M. (1986). European Garden Flora Vol 1. ISBN 0-521-24859-0.
  16. ^ http://www.whitehousehistory.org/04/subs_pph/PresidentDetail.aspx?ID=39&imageID=4232
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