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Overview

Distribution

Distribution: Native to the Mediterranean region. An adventive pine. Does well in drier areas.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Medium sized trees; bark greyish, deeply grooved. Leaves in clusters of two, 50 ‑100 x 1 mm; resin‑canals submarginal. Cones up to 10 x 3‑4 em, brown, stalked, ± drooping. Seed 6‑7 mm long, winged.
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Physical Description

Tree, Evergreen, Monoecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Tree with bark rough or scaly, Young shoots 3-dimensional, Buds not resinous, Leaves needle-like, Leaves alternate, Needle-like leaf margins finely serrulate (use magnification or slide your finger along the leaf), Leaf apex acute, Leaves > 5 cm long, Leaves < 10 cm long, Leaves grey-green, Leaves not blue-green, Needle-like leaves triangular, Needle-like leaves twisted, Needle-like leaf habit erect, Needle-like leaves per fascicle mostly 2, Needle-like leaf sheath persistent, Twigs glabrous, Twigs viscid, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Berry-like cones orange, Woody seed cones > 5 cm long, Seed cones bearing a scarlike umbo, Umbo with obvious prickle, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds brown, Seeds winged, Seeds unequally winged, Seed wings prominent, Seed wings equal to or broader than body.
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Stephen C. Meyers

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Aleppo Pine grows in the hotter parts of the Mediterranean coast, where brush and forest fires are frequent. Despite this, its seed cones are only semi-serotinous and do open in the absence of fire in the heat of the sun. Although closed stands exist, it is more commonly scattered in maquis or garrigue vegetation on sunny hills and slopes down to the sea shore, most commonly on limestone and dolomite. In stands where fire has been absent for a longer period, oaks (Quercus suber, Q. ilex) invade and will eventually dominate. Presumably increased frequency of fire caused by human activities gives the advantage to Pinus halepensis. Its altitudinal range is from sea level to ca. 1,700 m (in Morocco).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Source: IUCN

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pinus halepensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus halepensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Luscombe, D & Thomas, P.

Contributor/s

Justification
Pinus halepensis has a very extensive extent of occurrence (EOO) and although considered threatened locally (Algarve in Portugal, Costa Brava in Spain) elsewhere it is stable or perhaps expanding as its economic use for timber has at least in its native habitat diminished. The species is listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
The global population is thought to be stable.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Coastal development, especially for tourist accommodation, has reduced the area of occupancy (AOO) locally. Fires commonly destroy stands, but the species is fire adapted and unless fires are too frequent, it will regenerate.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is present in several protected areas.
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Wikipedia

Pinus halepensis

Pinus halepensis, commonly known as the Aleppo Pine, is a pine native to the Mediterranean region. Their range extends from Morocco and Spain north to southern France, Italy and Croatia, and east to Greece, all over Malta and northern Tunisia, with an outlying population (from which it was first described) in Syria, Lebanon, southern Turkey, Jordan, Israel, and Palestinian territories. In Israel it is called Jerusalem Pine.

Distribution[edit]

Pinus halepensis, the Aleppo pine, is generally found at low altitudes, mostly from sea level to 200 metres (660 ft), but can grow at an altitude of up to 1,000 m (3,300 ft) in southern Spain, well over 1,200 m (3,900 ft) on Crete and up to 1,700 m (5,600 ft) in the south, in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.[2][3]

Description[edit]

Pinus halepensis is a small to medium-size tree, 15–25 metres (49–82 ft) tall, with a trunk diameter of up to 60 centimetres (24 in), exceptionally up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in). The bark is orange-red, thick and deeply fissured at the base of the trunk, and thin and flaky in the upper crown. The leaves ("needles") are very slender, 6–12 cm (2.4–4.7 in) long, distinctly yellowish green and produced in pairs (rarely a few in threes). The cones are narrow conic, 5–12 cm (2.0–4.7 in) long and 2–3 cm (0.79–1.18 in) broad at the base when closed, green at first, ripening glossy red-brown when 24 months old. They open slowly over the next few years, a process quickened if they are exposed to heat such as in forest fires. The cones open 5–8 cm (2.0–3.1 in) wide to allow the seeds to disperse. The seeds are 5–6 mm (0.20–0.24 in) long, with a 20 mm (0.79 in) wing, and are wind-dispersed.[2][3][4]


Cones

Foliage

Bark and trunk

Plate from Lambert's 'Description of the Genus Pinus'

Related species[edit]

Aleppo Pine is closely related to the Turkish Pine, Canary Island Pine and Maritime Pine which all share many of its characteristics. Some authors include the Turkish Pine as a subspecies of the Aleppo Pine, as Pinus halepensis subsp. brutia (Ten.) Holmboe,[5] but it is usually regarded as a distinct species.[2][3][4][6] It is a relatively non-variable species, with its morphological characteristics staying constant over the entire range.[2]

Uses[edit]

The resin of the Aleppo Pine is used to flavor the Greek wine retsina.

The pine nuts of the Aleppo pine tree, from which a pudding is derived and called “ Asidet Zgougou” in the Tunisian dialect is served in bowls, covered with cream, and topped with almonds and small candies.

Forestry[edit]

A dead Aleppo Pine in front of the Étang de Thau.

The Pinus halepensis is widely planted for its fine timber in its native area, being one of the most important trees in forestry in Algeria and Morocco.[4] In Israel, the Aleppo Pine has been planted extensively, along with Pinus brutia, by the JNF. It proved very successful in Yatir Forest in the northern Negev (on the edge of the desert), where foresters had not expected it to survive. Many Aleppo pine forests exist today in Israel and are used for recreational purposes. Although it is a local species, the replacement of natural oak Maquis and garrigue with tall stands of pine has created "ecological deserts" and has significantly changed the species assemblage of these regions.[7] Natural patches of Aleppo pine forests can be found in the Carmel and Galilee regions.[8] The species produces timber which is valued for its hardness, density and unproblematic seasoning. Seasoned timber is inclined to tear out with planing, but this can be avoided by using sharp blades or adjusting the sharpening angle of tools.[9]

The Aleppo Pine is considered an invasive species but useful species in South Africa, and in South Australia, where a control program is in place on Eyre Peninsula.

Landscape[edit]

A grove of Aleppo Pines in Pinet, France

Pinus halepensis is a popular ornamental tree, extensively planted in gardens, parks, and private and agency landscapes in hot dry areas such as Southern California, where the Aleppo Pine's considerable heat and drought tolerance, fast growth, and aesthetic qualities, are highly valued.

Landmarks[edit]

The "Lone Pine", a prominent landmark tree at an ANZAC First World War battle at Gallipoli, was a related species, Pinus brutia (Turkish pine). Cones from the battlefield from both species were taken home to Australia, and plants sourced from the seeds were planted as living memorials.[10]

Further the pines were common on Lemnos when an ANZAC First World War hospital was there - they were planted in a namesake Lemnos Hospital site in Shenton Park, Western Australia [11] [12][13] They were unfortunately severely damaged in the 22 March 2010 Perth Hailstorm

Cultural references[edit]

Paul Cézanne had an Aleppo Pine in his garden at Aix-en-Provence; this tree was the inspiration and model for his painting, The Big Trees. As of 2005, the tree is still growing in Cézanne's garden.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Conifer Specialist Group (1998). Pinus halepensis. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 12 May 2006.
  2. ^ a b c d Farjon, A. (2005). Pines. Drawings and Descriptions of the genus Pinus. Brill, Leiden. ISBN 90-04-13916-8.
  3. ^ a b c Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  4. ^ a b c Nahal, I. (1962). Le Pin d'Alep (Pinus halepensis Miller). Étude taxonomique, phytogéographique, écologique et sylvicole. Ann. Éc. Nat. Eaux Forêts (Nancy) 19: 1–207.
  5. ^ Christensen, K. I. (1997). Gymnospermae. Pp. 1–17 in Strid, A., & Tan, K., eds., Flora Hellenica 1. Königstein.
  6. ^ Richardson, D. M., ed. (1998). Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-55176-5.
  7. ^ Are Pinus halepensis plantations useful as a restoration tool in semiarid Mediterranean areas? FT Maestre, J Cortina - Forest Ecology and Management, 2004 - Elsevier
  8. ^ Newman Information Center for Desert Research and Development, Aleppo pine
  9. ^ Reducing Tear Out when Wood Planing
  10. ^ Wilcox, Mike; Spencer David (May 2007). "Stand up for the real Anzac Lone Pine Of Gallipoli". New Zealand Journal of Forestry: 3–9. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  11. ^ Register of Heritage Places - Permanent Entry Lemnos Hospital, Heritage Council of Western Australia, 1999-08-27, 1833, retrieved 2013-09-22 
  12. ^ "Lemnos Hospital in Shenton Park to be placed on the State's register of Heritage places". Ministerial Media Statements, WA Government. 
  13. ^ "Lemnos Hospital and Pine Trees". ANZAC - A Grateful State Remembers, WA Government. 
  14. ^ Cézanne, P. Visions. In Architectural Digest December 2005: 117.
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