Overview

Distribution

E and S Heilongjiang, NE Jiangsu, SE Jilin, Liaoning, E and N Shandong [Japan, Korea, E Russia]
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 30 m tall; trunk to 1.5 m d.b.h.; bark orange-red, red-brown, or brown-yellow, flaking and scaly; crown umbrellalike; 1st-year branchlets pale yellow or red-yellow, slightly glaucous, glabrous, white powdery or not; vegetative buds dark red-brown, oblong-ovoid, slightly resinous; scales slightly reflexed at apex. Needles 2 per bundle, twisted or not, semiorbicular in cross section, 5-15 cm × ca. 1 mm, vascular bundles 2, resin canals 3-9, marginal, margin inflexed or not. Seed cones erect or pendulous, shortly pedunculate, dark yellow-brown or brownish yellow, ovoid or ovoid-conical, 3-5.5 × 2.5-4.5 cm, dehiscent at maturity. Seed scales usually thin; apophyses usually appressed, broadly rhombic, flat or recurved at apex, rarely pyramidal and slightly ridged; umbo flat or slightly protruding into a minute spine. Seeds obovoid-ellipsoid or ovoid, 3-7 × ca. 3 mm; wing 1-2 cm × 5-7 mm. Pollination Apr-Jun, seed maturity Sep-Oct of 2nd year.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Pinus densiflora occurs in extensive pure stands in many parts of its range and is one of the most dominant conifers in Japan and Korea. It grows in a variety of acidic soils, from dry sandy or rocky sites to peaty soils. In Japan it reaches from near sea level (and close to the shore) up to 2,300 m in the mountains, but on mainland Asia its altitudinal range is more restricted and extends upward to only 900 m a.s.l. in NE China and 1,300 m in Korea. In areas where broad-leaved forest dominates, P. densiflora is restricted to poorer sites such as rock outcrops on south-facing slopes and edges of moors or mountain lakes. Here it mixes with the angiosperms and can quickly recolonize ahead of them after forest fires.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Coastal regions to mountains, lakesides, rocky hillsides; near sea level to 900 m.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pinus densiflora

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus densiflora

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 21
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P. & Page, C.

Contributor/s

Justification
Due its very large extent of occurrence, Pinus densiflora is assessed as Least Concern despite continued exploitation in some parts of its range.
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Population

Population
The population is thought to be stable.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Exploitation of this species is not thought to have led to decline over its huge extent of occurrence.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is present in several protected areas across it range.
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Wikipedia

Pinus densiflora

Pinus densiflora,[1] or Japanese red pine, has a home range that includes Japan, Korea, northeastern China (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong) and the extreme southeast of Russia (southern Primorsky Krai). This pine has become a popular ornamental and has several cultivars, but in the winter it becomes yellowish. The height of this tree is 20–35 m. The Japanese red pine prefers full sun on well-drained, slightly acidic soil.

The leaves are needle-like, 8–12 cm long, with two per fascicle. The cones are 4–7 cm long. It is closely related to Scots pine, differing in the longer, slenderer leaves which are mid green without the glaucous-blue tone of Scots pine.

In Japan it is known as Akamatsu (赤松 literally "red pine"?) and Mematsu. It is widely cultivated in Japan both for timber production and as an ornamental tree, and plays an important part in the classic Japanese garden. Numerous cultivars have been selected, including the variegated semi-dwarf 'Oculus Draconis', the pendulous, often contorted 'Pendula' and the multi-trunked 'Umbraculifera' (Japanese 多形松,Tagyoushou, sometimes spelled as 'Tanyosho').

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

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Notes

Comments

The timber is used for construction, poles, and furniture; the trunk can be used as a source of resin.
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