The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1. Arno, Stephen F.; Hammerly, Ramona P. 1977. Northwest trees. Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers. 222 p. [4208]
  • 11. Filip, Gregory M.; Hoffman, James T. 1991. Root disease management in western-montane forest soils. In: Harvey, Alan E.; Neuenschwander, Leon F., compilers. Proceedings--management and productivity of western-montane forest soils; 1990 April 10-12; Boise, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-280. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 167-170. [15981]
  • 12. Filip, Gregory M.; Schmitt, Craig L. 1990. Rx for Abies: silvicultural options for diseased firs in Oregon and Washington. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-252. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 34 p. [15181]
  • 13. Franklin, Jerry F. 1964. Ecology and silviculture of the true fir-hemlock forests of the Pacific Northwest. In: Proceedings, Society of American Foresters meeting; 1964 September 27 - October 1; Denver, CO. Washington, D.C.: Society of American Foresters: 28-32. [7920]
  • 14. Franklin, Jerry F. 1974. Abies Mill. fir. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 168-183. [7566]
  • 15. Franklin, Jerry F. 1979. Vegetation of the Douglas-fir region. In: Heilman, Paul E.; Anderson, Harry W.; Baumgartner, David M., eds. Forest soils of the Douglas-fir region. Pullman, Wa: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension Service: 93-112. [8207]
  • 16. Franklin, Jerry F. 1982. The true fir resource. In: Oliver, Chadwick Dearing; Kenady, Reid M., eds. Proceedings of the biology and management of true fir in the Pacific Northwest; 1981 February 24-26; Seattle-Tacoma, WA. Contribution No. 45. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, College of Forest Resources: 1-6. [6600]
  • 17. Franklin, Jerry F. 1983. Ecology of noble fir. In: Oliver, Chadwick Dearing; Kenady, Reid M., eds. Proceedings of the biology and management of true fir in the Pacific Northwest symposium; 1981 February 24-26; Seattle-Tacoma, WA. Contribution No. 45. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, College of Forest Resources: 59-69. [7783]
  • 18. Franklin, Jerry F. 1990. Abies procera Rehd. noble fir. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 80-87. [13371]
  • 19. Franklin, Jerry F.; Dyrness, C. T. 1973. Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-8. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 417 p. [961]
  • 2. Arno, Stephen F.; Hammerly, Ramona P. 1984. Timberline: Mountain and arctic forest frontiers. Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers. 304 p. [339]
  • 20. Franklin, Jerry F.; Moir, William H.; Hemstrom, Miles A.; [and others]. 1988. The forest communities of Mount Rainier National Park. Scientific Monograph Series No 19. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 194 p. [12392]
  • 21. Franklin, Jerry F.; Ritchie, Gary A. 1970. Phenology of cone and shoot development of noble fir and some associated true firs. Forest Science. 16: 356-364. [12911]
  • 22. Franklin, J. F.; Sorensen, F. C.; Campbell, R. K. 1978. Summarization of the ecology and genetics of the noble and California red fir complex. In: Proc IUFRO Jt. Meet. Work. Parties; [Date of conference unknown]; Victoria, B.C.. Volume 1. Victoria, B.C.: B.C. Ministry of Forestry, Information Service Branch: 133-139. [7918]
  • 24. Gessel, Stanley P.; Oliver, Chadwick Dearing. 1982. Soil-site relationships and productivity of true firs. In: Oliver, Chadwick Dearing; Kenady, Reid M., eds. Proceedings of the biology and management of true fir in the Pacific Northwest symposium; 1981 February 24-26; Seattle-Tacoma, WA. Contribution No. 45. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, College of Forest Resources: 177-184. [6864]
  • 25. Grier, Charles C.; Lee, Katharine M. 1983. Primary production in Abies amabilis zone ecosystems. In: Oliver, Chadwick Dearing; Kenady, Reid M., eds. Proceedings of the biology and management of true fir in the Pacific Northwest symposium; 1981 February 24-26; Seattle-Tacoma, WA. Contribution No. 45. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, College of Forest Resources: 139-144. [6769]
  • 26. Halverson, Nancy M.; Emmingham, William H. 1982. Reforestation in the Cascades Pacific silver fir zone: A survey of sites and management experiences on the Gifford Pinchot, Mt. Hood and Willamette National Forests. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service R-6 Area Guide R6-ECOL-091-1982. Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, Oregon 37 p. [12491]
  • 27. Harrington, Constance A.; Murray, Marshall D. 1982. Patterns of height growth in western true firs. In: Oliver, Chadwick Dearing; Kenady, Reid M., eds. Proceedings of the biology and management of true fir in the Pacific Northwest symposium; 1981 February 24-26; Seattle-Tacoma, WA. Contribution No. 45. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, College of Forest Resources: 209-214. [6867]
  • 28. Hemstrom, Miles A.; Emmingham, W. H.; Halverson, Nancy M.; [and others]. 1982. Plant association and management guide for the Pacific silver fir zone, Mt. Hood and Willamette National Forests. R6-Ecol 100-1982a. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 104 p. [5784]
  • 29. Hemstrom, Miles A.; Logan, Sheila E. 1986. Plant association and management guide: Siuslaw National Forest. R6-Ecol 220-1986a. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 121 p. [10321]
  • 31. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 32. Holland, Robert F. 1986. Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial natural communities of California. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Fish and Game. 156 p. [12756]
  • 34. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 35. Minore, Don. 1979. Comparative autecological characteristics of northwestern tree species--a literature review. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-87. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 72 p. [1659]
  • 36. Neiland, Bonita J. 1958. Forest and adjacent burn in the Tillamook Burn area of northwestern Oregon. Ecology. 39(4): 660-671. [8879]
  • 37. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]
  • 39. Sawyer, John O.; Thornburgh, Dale A. 1977. Montane and subalpine vegetation of the Klamath Mountains. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley & Sons: 699-732. [685]
  • 4. Brockway, Dale G.; Topik, Christopher; Hemstrom, Miles A.; Emmingham, William H. 1985. Plant association and management guide for the Pacific silver fir zone: Gifford Pinchot National Forest. R6-Ecol-130a. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 122 p. [525]
  • 40. Scagel, Rob; Green, Bob; Von Hahn, Helmar; Evans, Richard. 1989. Exploratory high elevation regeneration trials in the Vancouver forest region: 10-year species performance of planted stock. FRDA Report 098. Victoria, BC: BC Ministry of Forests, Research Branch. 40 p. [1477]
  • 41. Scharpf, Robert F. 1982. Problems of dwarf mistletoe in advance regeneration of true firs. In: Jacob, William R., ed. Proceedings of the 13th Western International Forest Disease Work Conference; 1982 September 12-16; Fallen Leaf Lake, CA. Vernon, BC: Western International Forest Disease Work Conference: 33-36. [7922]
  • 42. Smith, Ramsay. 1982. Utilization of true firs. In: Oliver, Chadwick Dearing; Kenady, Reid M., eds. Proceedings of the biology and management of true fir in the Pacific Northwest symposium; 1981 February 24-26; Seattle-Tacoma, WA. Contribution No. 45. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, College of Forest Resources: 239-242. [6869]
  • 43. Stewart, Glenn H. 1986. Population dynamics of a montane conifer forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon, USA. Ecology. 67(2): 534-544. [7505]
  • 45. Tanaka, Yasuomi. 1982. Biology of Abies seed production. In: Oliver, Chadwick Dearing; Kenady, Reid M., eds. Proceedings of the biology and management of true fir in the Pacific Northwest symposium; 1981 February 24-26; Seattle-Tacoma, WA. Contribution No. 45. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, College of Forest Resources: 103-111. [6768]
  • 46. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573]
  • 47. White, Diane E.; Newton, Michael. 1990. Herbaceous weed control in young conifer plantations with formulations of nitrogen and simazine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20: 1685-1689. [13283]
  • 49. Houston, C. Stuart; Scott, Frank. 1992. The effect of man-made platforms on osprey reproduction at Loon Lake, Saskatchewan. Journal of Raptor Research. 26(3): 152-158. [18439]
  • 50. St. John, Harold. 1973. List and summary of the flowering plants in the Hawaiian islands. Hong Kong: Cathay Press Limited. 519 p. [25354]
  • 6. Dale, Virginia H.; Hemstrom, Miles A.; Franklin, Jerry F. 1984. The effect of disturbance frequency on forest succession in the Pacific Northwest. In: New forests for a changing world: Proceedings of the 1983 convention of The Society of American Foresters; 1983 October 16-20; Portland, OR. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters: 300-304. [4781]
  • 7. Edwards, D. G. W. 1982. Collection, processing, testing, and storage of true fir seeds--a review. In: Oliver, Chadwick Dearing; Kenady, Reid M., eds. Proceedings of the biology and management of true fir in the Pacific Northwest symposium; 1981 February 24-26; Seattle-Tacoma, WA. Contribution No. 45. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, College of Forest Resources; Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 113-137. [11894]
  • 9. Fahnestock, George Reeder. 1977. Interactions of forest fire, flora, and fuels in two Cascade Range wilderness Areas. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. 179 p. Thesis. [10431]
  • A Description of the Genus Pinus, ed. 3 pp. 144 & 145. 1832. (Descr. Pinus (ed. 3))
  • AGMRC. 2011. Burden, D. Christmas Tree Profile. Ag Marketing Resource Center: A national information resource for value-added agriculture. Iowa State University online resource. http://www.agmrc.org/commodities__products/forestry/christmas_tree_profile.cfm.
  • Bailey, L.H. & E.Z. Bailey. 1976. Hortus Third i–xiv, 1–1290. MacMillan, New York.
  • Bean, W.J. 1980. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles, ed. 8, Vols. 1-4. John Murray, London
  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
  • Farjon A. (2013). Conifer Database (version Jul 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Farjon, A. 1990. Pinaceae. [Regnum Vegetabile Vol. 121]. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein
  • Flora der Gegend um Berlin 2: 793. 1824. (Flora der Gegend um Berlin)
  • Franklin, Jerry E. 1990. Abies procera Rehd. Noble Fir. In Burns, R. M., and B. H. Honkala, tech. coords. Silvics of North America. Vol 1. Conifers. Agriculture Handbook 654. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. Available online from http://na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_1/abies/procera.htm.
  • Hitchcock, C. H., A.J. Cronquist, F. M. Ownbey & J. W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular Cryptogams, Gymnosperms, and Monocotyledons. 1: 1–914. In C. L. Hitchcock Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N.W. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Rehd. 1940. In: Rhodora 42: 522.
  • Rhodora 42(504): 522. 1940. (Rhodora)
  • With additional information from
  •    
       
    1. Carkin, Richard E., Jerry F. Franklin, Jack Booth, and Clark E.  Smith. 1978. Seeding habits of upper-slope tree species. IV. Seed flight  of noble fir and Pacific silver fir. USDA Forest Service, Research Note  PNW-312. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station,  Portland, OR. 10 p.
    2.  
    3. Christie, J. M., and R. E. A. Lewis. 1961. Provisional yield tables  for Abies grandis and Abies nobilis. [British] Forestry  Commission Forest Record 47. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London. 48  p.
    4.  
    5. Dyrness, C. T., Jerry F. Franklin, and W. H. Moir. 1974. A  preliminary classification of forest communities in the central portion  of the western Cascades in Oregon. Coniferous Forest Biome Bulletin 4.  University of Washington, College of Forest Resources, Seattle. 123 p. 
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    7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
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    9. Filip, Gregory M., James S. Hadfield, and Craig Schmitt. 1979. Branch  mortality of true firs in west-central Oregon associated with dwarf  mistletoe and canker fungi. Plant Disease Reporter 63(3):189-193.
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    11. Fowells, H. A., comp. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United  States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271.  Washington, DC. 762 p.
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    13. Franklin, Jerry F. 1983. Ecology of noble fir. In Proceedings,  Symposium on the biology and management of true fir in the Pacific  Northwest. p. 53-69. Chadwick Dearing Oliver and Reid M. Kenady, eds.  University of Washington, College of Forest Resources, Seattle.
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    15. Franklin, Jerry F. 1964. Some notes on the distribution and ecology  of noble fir. Northwest Science 38(l):1-13.
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    17. Franklin, Jerry Forest. 1966. Vegetation and soils in the subalpine  forests of the southern Washington Cascade Range. Thesis (Ph.D.),  Washington State University, Pullman. 132 p.
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    19. Franklin, Jerry F., and C. T. Dyrness. 1973. Natural vegetation of  Oregon and Washington. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report  PNW-8. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland,  OR. 417 p.
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    21. Franklin, Jerry F., and Thomas E. Greathouse. 1968. Identifying noble  fir source from the seed itself: a progress report. Western  Reforestation Coordinating Council Proceedings 1968:13-16. (Western  Forestry and Conservation Association, Portland, OR.)
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    23. Franklin, Jerry F., and Gary A. Ritchie. 1970. Phenology of cone and  shoot development of noble fir and some associated true firs. Forest  Science 16(3):356-364.
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    25. Franklin, Jerry F., Richard Carkin, and Jack Booth. 1974. Seeding  habits of upper-slope tree species. 1. A 12-year record of cone  production. USDA Forest Service, Research Note PNW-213. Pacific  Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 12 p.
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    27. Fujimori, Takao, Saburo Kawanabe, Hideki Saito, and others. 1976.  Biomass and primary production in forests of three major vegetation  zones of the Northwestern United States. Journal of the Japanese  Forestry Society 58(10):360-373.
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    29. Furniss, R. L., and V. M. Carolin. 1977. Western forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1339. Washington,  DC. 654 p.
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    31. Hanzlik, E. J. 1925. A preliminary study of the growth of noble fir.  Journal of Agricultural Research 31(10):929-934.
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    33. Harrington, Constance A., and Marshall D. Murray. 1983. Patterns of  height growth in western true firs. In Proceedings, Symposium on  the biology and management of true fir in the Pacific Northwest. p.  209-214. Chadwick Dearing Oliver and Reid M. Kenady, eds. University of  Washington, College of Forest Resources, Seattle.
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    35. Hemstrom, Miles A. 1979. A recent disturbance history of forest  ecosystems at Mount Rainier National Park. Thesis. (Ph.D.). Oregon State  University, Corvallis. 67 p.
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    37. Hepting, George H. 1973. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the  United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 386,  Washington, DC. 658 p.
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    39. Herman, Francis R., Robert 0. Curtis, and Donald J. DeMars. 1978.  Height growth and site index estimates for noble fir in high elevation  forests of the Oregon-Washington Cascades. USDA Forest Service, Research  Paper PNW-243. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station,  Portland, OR. 15 p.
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    41. Hofmann, J. V. 1917. Natural reproduction from seed stored in the  forest floor. Journal of Agricultural Research 11(l):1-26.
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    43. Isaac, Leo A. 1930. Seed flight in the Douglas-fir region. Journal of  Forestry 28(4):492-499.
    44.  
    45. Murray, Marshall Dale. 1973. True firs or Douglas-fir for timber  production on upper slopes in western Washington. Thesis (M.S.),  University of Idaho, Moscow. 58 p.
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    47. Owens, John N., and Marje Molder. 1977. Sexual reproduction of Abies  amabilis. Canadian Journal of Botany 55(21):2653-2667.
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    49. Schopmeyer, C. S., tech. coord. 1974. Seeds of woody plants in the  United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450.  Washington, DC. 883 p.
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    51. Scurlock, John H. 1978. A study estimating seed potential of noble  fir (Abies procera Rehd.), and several factors affecting its seed  production. Thesis (M.S.), Oregon State University, Corvallis. 59 p. 
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    53. Sorensen, Frank C., Jerry F. Franklin, and Robert Woollard. 1976.  Self-pollination effect on seed and seedling traits in noble fir. Forest  Science 22(2):155-159.
    54.  
    55. Sullivan, Michael J. 1978. Regeneration of tree seedlings after  clearcutting on some upper-slope habitat types in the Oregon Cascade  Range. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper PNW-245. Pacific Northwest  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 17 p.
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    57. Thornburgh, Dale Alden. 1967. Dynamics of true fir-hemlock forests of  western Washington. Thesis (Ph.D.), University of Washington, Seattle.  192 p.
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    59. Wilcox, Hugh. 1954. Primary organization of active and dormant roots  of noble fir. American Journal of Botany 41(10):812-820.
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    61. Williams, Carroll B., Jr. 1968. Juvenile height growth of four  upper-slope conifers in the Washington and northern Oregon Cascade  Range. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper PNW-70. Pacific Northwest  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 13 p.
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    63. Zavarin, Eugene, William B. Critchfield, and Karel Snajberk. 1978.  Geographic differentiation of monoterpenes from Abies procera and Abies  magnifica. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 6:267-278.
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