Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Trees to 30 m tall; trunk to 1.3 m d.b.h.; bark reddish brown, scaly and plated when young, finally dark grayish brown, forming irregular, square, thick plates; crown ovoid-conical, broadly ovoid in old trees; branches spreading; 1st-year branchlets shiny yellowish brown, stout; 2nd- and 3rd-year branchlets reddish brown; winter buds dull brown, ovoid-conical, ca. 15 × 6 mm, slightly resinous, scales white fringed at margin, acuminate at apex. Needles persisting for 3 years, usually 2 (or 3) per bundle, straight, slightly twisted, 8-14 cm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, stomatal lines present on all surfaces, resin canals 3 or 4, marginal, occasionally 1 or 2 median, base with persistent sheath initially 5-10 mm, margin finely serrulate, apex acute. Pollen cones yellowish brown, cylindric, 10-18 mm long, 3-4.5 mm wide. Seed cones solitary or in pairs, pendulous, sessile or very shortly pedunculate, shiny chocolate brown at maturity, narrowly ovoid before opening, ovoid or broadly ovoid when open, 4-6 cm long, 4-7 cm wide, persistent. Seed scales with apophyses prominent, rhombic, 4-7 mm thick, sharply transversely keeled; umbo dorsal, with a short prickle. Seeds light grayish brown, ellipsoid-ovoid, 4-6 mm; wing 1.5-2 cm.
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Distribution

S Qinghai, W Sichuan, SE Xizang, Yunnan
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Pinus densata is occurring in S Qinghai, W Sichuan, SE Xizang, Yunnan of China.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 30 m tall; trunk to 1.3 m d.b.h.; bark reddish brown, scaly and plated when young, finally dark grayish brown, forming irregular, square, thick plates; crown ovoid-conical, broadly ovoid in old trees; branches spreading; 1st-year branchlets shiny yellowish brown, stout; 2nd- and 3rd-year branchlets reddish brown; winter buds dull brown, ovoid-conical, ca. 15 × 6 mm, slightly resinous, scales white fringed at margin, acuminate at apex. Needles persisting for 3 years, usually 2(or 3) per bundle, straight, slightly twisted, 8-14 cm × 1-1.5 mm, stomatal lines present on all surfaces, resin canals 3 or 4, marginal, occasionally 1 or 2 median, base with persistent sheath initially 5-10 mm, margin finely serrulate, apex acute. Pollen cones yellowish brown, cylindric, 10-18 × 3-4.5 mm. Seed cones solitary or in pairs, pendulous, sessile or very shortly pedunculate, shiny chocolate brown at maturity, narrowly ovoid before opening, ovoid or broadly ovoid when open, 4-6 × 4-7 cm, persistent. Seed scales with apophyses prominent, rhombic, 4-7 mm thick, sharply transversely keeled; umbo dorsal, with a short prickle. Seeds light grayish brown, ellipsoid-ovoid, 4-6 mm; wing 1.5-2 cm. Pollination May, seed maturity Oct of 2nd year.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Pinus prominens Masters; P. sinensis D. Don var. densata (Masters) Shaw; P. tabuliformis Carriere var. densata (Masters) Rehder; P. wilsonii Shaw (1911), not Roezl (1857).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Pinus densata occurs in high mountains at altitudes from 2,600 m to 4,000 m a.s.l. or even above this line to 4,200 m. It forms open pure stands at the highest elevations, but becomes mixed with other pines, e.g. P. armandii and P. yunnanensis, below 3,000 m a.s.l. It is presumed that its hybrid characters include a greater tolerance to frost than either of its putative parents, P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis, enabling it to colonize right up to the present tree line in western China's great mountain system.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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* Open forests in high mountains, forming pure stands or (below 3000 m) mixed with Pinus armandii and P. yunnanensis; 2600-3500 (-4200) m.
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Growing in open forests in high mountains, forming pure stands or mixed with Pinus armandii and Pinus yunnanensis; 2600-3800 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Pollination in May; seed maturity October of 2nd year.
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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Morphologically intermediate between Pinus yunnanensis of lower elevations and Pinus tabuliformis of more northerly latitudes. Molecular evidence supports the hypothesis that Pinus densata originated as a Tertiary natural hybrid involving the former two species and a third, unknown species (Song et al., 2002).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

The basic chromosomal number of Pinus densata is 2n = 24 (Li and Qian, 1993; Shi and Wang, 1994).
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Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pinus densata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus densata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 20
Specimens with Barcodes: 40
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P.

Contributor/s

Justification
Pinus densata is widespread in the mountains of southwestern China. No declines have been reported so it is assessed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
The population is assumed to be stable in the absence of any evidence of decline.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
No specific threats have been identified for this species.
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Pinus densata is reported be lower risk / least concern (Conifer Specialist Group, 1998).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
A general logging ban imposed by the Chinese Government since 2000 may have had some effect, but this species was not under heavy pressure from exploitation or deforestation generally. It is also known from several protected areas.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Pinus densata can be used for afforestation in the alpine zones of W Sichuan and E Xizang.
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Wikipedia

Pinus densata

Pinus densata, commonly known as the Sikang Pine, is a species of conifer in the Pinaceae family.

It is endemic-found only in China.[1]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]


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Notes

Comments

Morphologically intermediate between Pinus yunnanensis of lower elevations and P. tabuliformis of more northerly latitudes. Molecular evidence supports the hypothesis that P. densata originated as a Tertiary natural hybrid involving the former two species and a third, unknown species. 

 Can be used for afforestation in the alpine zones of W Sichuan and E Xizang.

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