Katherine K. Carter and Albert G. Snow, Jr.
Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) has a definite place among trees of commercial importance in spite of once being considered a "forest weed" and called scrub pine. Also known as Jersey pine and spruce pine, it does so well in reforesting abandoned and cutover lands that it has become a principal source of pulpwood and lumber in the southeast. Virginia pine is commonly a small or medium-sized tree but a record tree has been measured with 81 cm (31.8 in) in d.b.h. and 34.7 m (114 ft) in height.
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Occurrence in North America
OH OK PA SC TN VA WV
to Pennsylvania and southern Ohio; south to South Carolina, northern
Georgia, northern Alabama, and northern Mississippi [12,25]. It has
also been planted in east-central Oklahoma .
- The native range of Virginia pine.
height at maturity (50 years of age) is 50 to 75 feet (15-23 m) on
better sites . Its long horizontal branches are irregularly spaced
[5,19]. Open-grown trees have persistent, heavy branches to the ground
. The trunk is relatively short, with an open, flat-topped crown
. The needles are about 2 inches (5 cm) long. The bark of young
stems is smooth; older stems have platy scales with shallow fissures
[14,25]. It is relatively short-lived; senescence usually occurs around
65 to 90 years. It rarely lives beyond 150 years of age [12,14,15]. The
root system is relatively shallow except on deep sands, where the taproot
can be from 6.6 to 10 feet (2-3 m) deep .
Habitat and Ecology
Virginia pine grows soils derived from marine deposits, crystalline
rocks, sandstones and shales, and to a lesser extent, limestone .
Most of these soils are well- to excessively drained, sandy, and weakly
acidic [14,19,27,29]. The best growth of Virginia pine is on clay, loam,
or sandy loam. Growth is poor on serpentine, shallow shale, or very
sandy soils . Soil pH ranges from 4.6 to 7.9. Virginia pine occurs
at elevations from 50 to 2,500 feet (15-760 m), with hilly topography
Tree associates not previously mentioned include scarlet oak (Q.
coccinea), hickories (Carya ovata, C. ovalis, C. glabra), blackgum
(Nyssa sylvatica), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), eastern hemlock
(Tsuga canadensis), and eastern white pine [7,33]. There is usually a
sparse shrub understory .
Habitat: Cover Types
This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):
40 Post oak - blackjack oak
43 Bear oak
45 Pitch pine
46 Eastern redcedar
50 Black locust
51 White pine - chestnut oak
52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak
53 White oak
55 Northern red oak
64 Sassafras - persimmon
69 Sand pine
70 Longleaf pine
71 Longleaf pine - scrub oak
75 Shortleaf pine
78 Virginia pine - oak
79 Virginia pine
80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine
81 Loblolly pine
82 Loblolly pine - hardwood
83 Longleaf pine - slash pine
108 Red maple
110 Black oak
Key Plant Community Associations
pine-hardwood communities, particularly those with oak (Quercus spp.)
. It is associated with pitch pine (P. rigida) and Table Mountain
pine (P. pungens) in the Appalachian Mountains. On the eastern shores
of Virginia and Maryland it is associated with loblolly pine (Pinus
taeda) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua). In the Peidmont region
it is associated with shortleaf pine (P. echinata) and oaks .
Published classifications that include Virginia pine as a dominant or
codominant species include the following:
Classification and evaluation of forest sites in the Cumberland
Classification and evaluation of forest sites on the
northern Cumberland Plateau 
Classification and evaluation of forest sites on the
Natchez Trace State Forest 
Southeastern evergreen and oak-pine region 
Landscape ecosystem classification for South Carolina 
This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):
FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine
FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine
FRES14 Oak - pine
FRES15 Oak - hickory
Habitat: Plant Associations
This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):
K083 Cedar glades
K084 Cross Timbers
K089 Black Belt
K104 Appalachian oak forest
K110 Northeastern oak - pine forest
K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest
K112 Southern mixed forest
Soils and Topography
The species grows best on clay, loam, or sandy loam; it generally does poorly on serpentine soils, shallow shaly soils, and very sandy soils. It thrives only in moderately well drained to well drained soils and is less tolerant of wet sites and impeded drainage than pitch and loblolly pines (Pinus rigida and P. taeda). Virginia pine generally tolerates soil acidities ranging from pH 4.6 to 7.9 (39). Soil beneath a Virginia pine stand was more acidic and contained more organic matter than soil under shortleaf (P. echinata), loblolly, or white (P. strobus) pine stands (30).
Virginia pine usually is found at elevations of 15 to 760 m (50 to 2,500 ft). It comes in freely on abandoned farmland throughout its range.
Summer temperatures average about 21° to 24° C (70° to 75° F); winter temperatures range from -4° to 4° C (25° to 40° F); and the average number of frost-free days varies from more than 225 on the eastern and southern edge of the Piedmont to 160 days on the more mountainous areas to the west and north.
Habitat & Distribution
Habitat & Distribution
Associated Forest Cover
Other than those named in the types, species that commonly grow with Virginia pine in various parts of its range are white oak Quercus alba), southern red oak (Q. falcata), red maple (Acer rubrum), hickories (Carya spp.), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens), and eastern white pine (P. strobus).
In central Pennsylvania, two ground-cover types serve as indicators of site quality for Virginia pine. The flowering dogwood/clubmoss (Cornus florida / Lycopodium) type indicates the better site indexes ranging from 15.2 to 21.3 m (50 to 70 ft); the bear oak/reindeer moss (Quercus ilicifolia / Cladonia) type indicates average and poor site indexes between 9.1 to 15.2 m (30 and 50 ft) (39).
Diseases and Parasites
The other serious disease of Virginia pine is pitch canker (Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans), which enters twigs or stems through small wounds and causes a heavy exudation of pitch. The canker enlarges rapidly and eventually girdles the twig or stem. Seedlings infected with pitch canker have a mortality rate of about 90 percent (15). Some variation in susceptibility to pitch canker appears to have a genetic basis (2).
Other diseases usually cause little loss of growth in Virginia pine. Stem cankers (Atropellis tingens), eastern gall rust (Cronartium quercuum), a stem rust (C. comptoniae), root rot (Heterobasidion annosum), and butt rots (Poria subacida, Phaeolus schweinitizii) occasionally infest Virginia pine.
The principal forest insects that cause significant damage to Virginia pine are the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis), Ips spp., and pine sawflies, the Virginia pine sawfly (Neodiprion pratti pratti) and the redheaded pine sawfly (N. lecontei). Trees under stress of lightning, fire, or logging injury are more susceptible to insect attack than sound healthy trees (39).
The pales weevil (Hylobius pales), which feeds on and often kills small seedlings of several pine species, can greatly reduce the regeneration of Virginia pine. Attacks are most likely on recently cutover areas where pine roots provide the food needed to build up a large larval population.
Girdling by meadow mice can cause considerable damage in young trees. In Tennessee, they have reportedly caused heavy mortality in 8- or 9-year-old plantations (26). In Maryland and Iowa, they have shown a strong preference for Virginia pine over other pine species (39).
Young Virginia pines are particularly vulnerable to fire because of their thin bark and their lack of long-lived dormant buds at the base, along the bole, and in the crown. Fire reduces the Virginia pine component in stands where this species is mixed with pitch, shortleaf, or loblolly pines.
The species also is sensitive to several air pollutants. Of 18 pine species tested, Virginia pine was most sensitive to ozone; 69 percent of the seedlings suffered foliar damage. Polluted air containing sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen also reduced terminal growth, with most damage occurring between the 4th and 13th weeks after budbreak. Dormant seedlings are resistant to ozone pollution (14,33).
Fire Management Considerations
Approximately one-half of the standing crop of Virginia pine needles is
shed annually. Leaf litter produced by a 17-year-old stand was
calculated to be similar to the amount produced by longleaf pine (Pinus
Strip-clearcutting followed by broadcast burning of slash prior to
seedfall favors Virginia pine regeneration .
Crown fires in pine or pine-hardwood forests in which Virginia pine
occurs remove enough of the canopy for good Virginia pine regeneration.
Hot or cool surface fires do not remove sufficient canopy for good
Virginia pine regeneration .
Virginia pine is less resistant to fire than loblolly pine, shortleaf
pine, or pitch pine. Fire will therefore reduce the importance of
Virginia pine in mixed stands . Sapling stands are more vulnerable
to grass fires than similar-aged stands of shortleaf or loblolly pine
Thickness of Virginia pine bark was estimated at 2.7 percent of d.b.h.
. Bark thickness required for 50 percent survival of Virginia pine
subjected to low-intensity fire was calculated by three models. Using
that estimate, the length of time needed for tree growth to be
sufficient to resist fire damage was calculated as 13 years for
open-grown stands and 23 to 28 years for closed-canopy stands .
Virginia pine had the slowest decay rate for standing dead trees of 10
commonly associated species .
Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire
The Research Project Summary Early postfire response of southern Appalachian Table Mountain-pitch pine stands to prescribed fires in North Carolina and Virginia provides information on prescribed fire use and postfire response of plant community species, including Virginia pine, that was not available when this species review was originally written.
Plant Response to Fire
Virginia pine is an aggressive invader of burned sites . After a
hot surface fire in a 30-year-old pine-hardwood stand, 45 percent of all
trees died within 2 years. There were large numbers of pine (Virginia
and loblolly pine) seedlings by 2.25 years after the fire. Density was
10,750 per acre, compared with 250 per acre on unburned plots .
Immediate Effect of Fire
surface fires. Severe fires will kill Virginia pine .
Tree without adventitious-bud root crown
Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)
Virginia pine is not well adapted to survive fire due to thin bark and
shallow roots . Large trees however, are apparently able to survive
fires. Virginia pine stands that include six size classes (d.b.h) have
nbeen documented. This size distribution is apparently due to fires
that burned at approximately 20- to 30-year intervals. The larger
trees, therefore, survived at least one fire . Virginia pine
populations are maintained by fire or other disturbance; Virginia pine
is a colonizer of recently burned sites . Root crown sprouts have
been reported, but are apparently not an important fire survival
FIRE REGIMES in habitats containing Virginia pine have been altered by
humans for many years. It is thought that prior to European settlement,
Indians maintained large tracts of pine forests through intentional
burning of forest lands for various purposes (e.g., agriculture,
wildlife harvest) [9,57]. These fires created a patchwork of
communities, increasing the amount of area covered by pioneer or
pyrophytic species such as Virginia and pitch pines . Currently,
lightning fires do occur, but are of low importance compared to those
started by people . Landers  estimated the fire return interval
in the southeastern United States at approximately 2 fires of high
intensity per 100 years. In the Great Smoky Mountains National Park,
Tennesee and South Carolina, fire intervals for 1856 to 1900 and for
1900 to 1940 were both estimated to be 9.2 years below 2,000 feet (610
m) elevation, and 11.3 years above that elevation .
Virginia pine occurs in the area in and around Shenandoah National Park,
Virginia, which has two fire seasons: spring (February 15 to May 15) and
fall (October 15 to December 15) .
Obligate Initial Community Species
Virginia pine is an aggressive invader of burned sites [5,14,37]. It is
intolerant of shade [7,14]. Virginia pine is a transitional type, and
is usually quickly replaced by tolerant hardwoods . In pioneer
stands in Virginia, Virginia pine made up to 50 percent of the total
importance value. Its importance decreases with stand age. Mixed stands
with white oak, yellow-poplar and sweetgum are formed by mid-succession.
Late-successional stands are dominated by oaks and hickories, with very
little Virginia pine remaining [38,50].
Virginia pine is usually well represented in early stages of oldfield
succession on dry sites .
years of age. Some precocious specimens have flowered at 18 months.
Sexual maturity may be delayed for up to 50 years of age in trees in
suppressed stands . Virginia pine is a prolific seed producer
[15,29]. The cones open at maturity, and persist for at least several
years . Most seeds are dispersed within 100 feet (30 m) of the
parent . Exposed mineral soil is required for successful seedling
establishment; little to no shade is required. Seedlings are tolerant
of lower soil moisture than most other pines, though growth is slower on
dry sites .
Asexual regeneration: Sprouts on cut stumps of Virginia pine have been
reported, but are usually short lived .
Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)
Reaction to Competition
Life History and Behavior
Virginia pine pollen is released from March to May, depending on
latitude [7,14]. Fertilization occurs in June, 13 months after
pollination. Seeds mature by mid- to late August. Cones mature by late
September to early November. Seed dispersal begins in October and is
usually complete by January .
Grafting generally is about 65 percent successful when dormant scions are grafted onto dormant rootstock. The side-veneer graft technique is most commonly used, but other methods also are successful. Virginia pine grafts are more susceptible to mold than grafts of the other southern pines (25).
Clonal plantlets can be obtained from tissue cultures when cotyledons from Virginia pine embryos are used. However, the rooting techniques necessary for commercial production of these plantlets have not yet been developed (10).
Exposing wet Virginia pine seeds to artificial light before sowing greatly increases germination. Maximum germination is obtained by exposing seeds that have been soaked in water for 24 hours to 30 minutes of red light. The stimulus to germination by this exposure can be reversed by treatment with far-red light (39). Germination is epigeal (35).
Seedlings require direct sunlight for best growth. Even partial shade reduces growth, and seedlings do not survive under full shade. Given adequate light and a good seedbed, however, several thousand seedlings per hectare can become established. Precommercial thinning at age 5 has been recommended to prevent stagnation in heavily stocked seedling stands (11).
Virginia pine seedlings grown in containers in the greenhouse can be used to advance growth and cone production by 1 year compared to the use of bare-root stock (6). Extra light from an incandescent source coupled with a high level of nutrition can quadruple height growth in one season. Long photoperiods also induce other effects such as increased internodal length, accelerated cycles of bud formation, and breaking of bud dormancy (39).
The balance and relative abundance of inorganic elements in the soil solution also are important to the establishment and growth of Virginia pine. In basic nutrition studies in irrigated sand cultures, symptoms of deficiency appeared when either potassium or magnesium was supplied at 0.01 milliequivalent (meq) or less per liter. Amounts adequate for healthy height growth were 0.35 meq of calcium and 2 meq of magnesium per liter. The adequacy level for potassium was between 0.1 and 1 meq; the minimum levels for nitrogen and phosphorus were 1.78 and 0.03 meq, respectively (39).
Virginia pine seedlings are more tolerant of low soil moisture than most other pines. Although they may survive when moisture is low, their rate of growth is slower on dry sites. Seedlings reach a height of 10 to 20 cm (4 to 8 in) in the first year when growth conditions are favorable. At the end of 10 years, the average height may reach 5 m (17 ft) on the better sites.
Many species of mycorrhizae representing nine genera (Amanita, Boletus, Cenococcum, Gomphidius, Lepiota, Paxillus, Rhizopogon, Russula, and Scleroderma) are known to form associations with the roots of Virginia pine (23).
Seed Production and Dissemination
Seed dispersal starts in October and is complete within 3 months, though some seeds may continue to be released until the following spring. Most of the seeds fall within 30 m (100 ft) of trees with an average height of 18 m (60 ft); however, stocking often is adequate at greater distances, particularly on the lee side of a seed source. In the coastal plain of Maryland, seedfall was measured on a 40-meter-wide (132 ft) strip cut through Virginia pine. Over a 4-year period, seedfall per hectare ranged from 15,800 to 98,800 (6,400 to 40,000/acre) (18). The number of clean seeds per kilogram ranges from 100,750 to 200,800 (45,700 to 91,100/lb); the average is 122,100 (55,400/lb) (35).
Seed and cone insects can severely reduce the yield of viable seed. Seed yields from cones from which insects were excluded by wire screens were twice as high as those from unprotected cones (8). Major insect pests are two types of seedbugs: the shieldbacked pine seedbug (Tetyra bipunctata) and the southern pine seedbug (Leptoglossus corculus). Several types of coneworms (Dioryctria spp.) and cone borers (Eucosma spp.) also infect Virginia pine. The Virginia pine sawfly (Neodiprion pratti pratti) and Nantucket pine tip moth (Rhyacionia frustrana) can destroy young conelets (16).
Flowering and Fruiting
Growth and Yield
On the best sites, trees can reach a height of 37 m (120 ft) at maturity, but the average height ranges from 15 to 23 m (50 to 75 ft) at age 50. An annual growth rate of 6 m³/ha (1 cord/acre) is possible over a large portion of its natural range.
Because Virginia pine is shallow rooted and subject to windthrow and to damage from ice and snow, thinning is not recommended in older stands. In one thinned 17-year-old stand the diameter growth of trees was 50 percent greater than that of controls; however, there was no overall stand response because of frequent windthrow in the thinned stand. Windthrow is not serious in younger stands, which can be thinned safely, but the growth response in these stands may not be sufficient to replace the volume removed by the thinning (19).
Virginia pine planted on old fields grows well. One plantation in Iowa had a mean annual height growth of 0.6 m (1.9 ft) after 15 years. This growth was better than that of five other pine species planted on the same sites. The mean annual diameter growth was 8.6 mm (0.34 in) during the same period (39). Plantations in the Cross Timbers area of Oklahoma survived well when moisture was adequate during the year of establishment (32). In the Cumberland Plateau, planted Virginia pine on site index 21.2 m (70 ft) produced a merchantable volume of approximately 140 m³/ha (2,000 ft³/acre) at age 20 (37).
In central Tennessee, Virginia pine outperforms shortleaf and loblolly pines on dry ridges and on warm slopes with shallow soil (38). On these sites it is estimated to produce approximately 56 m³ more per hectare (800 ft³ or 4,000 fbm/acre) than shortleaf pine, on a 50-year rotation (22). On good sites in the Piedmont or on cove sites in the southern Appalachians, however, growth of Virginia pine is inferior to the other southern pines. Natural pruning in Virginia pine is slow because the branches are resinous.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Seeds from local sources or from locations with a climate similar to that of the planting site generally produce trees with the best survival and growth rates. Seed from southern provenances produce fast-growing trees on southern sites, but southern trees grow slowly and suffer winter injury when planted in the north (20,21).
Hybrids Hybrids of Virginia pine and Ocala sand pine (Pinus clausa var. clausa) can be made under controlled conditions with either species as the seed parent. Controlled crosses of P. virginiana with jack pine (P. banksiana) and lodgepole pine (P. contorta) have not been successful (25).
Barcode data: Pinus virginiana
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus virginiana
Public Records: 27
Specimens with Barcodes: 31
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
Pinus virginiana's very large extent of occurrence and its increase in recent decades on abandoned farmland indicate an assessment of Least Concern.
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable
Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure
loblolly pine. Yields and performance vary with seed source [25,49].
Virginia pine is best managed with even-aged silvicultural systems.
Strip and patch cutting in short rotations are successful techniques for
harvest and regeneration of Virginia pine [18,50,58]. The transition
from mostly pure Virginia pine stands to oak-pine or oak-hickory (Carya
spp.) can be hastened by harvesting techniques [50,58].
Results of plantation trials of Virginia pine in the Cross Timbers area
of Oklahoma varied with moisture availability; survival rates are mostly
very high. Virginia pine, therefore, has good potential for
reforestation projects in this area .
Virginia pine is a common woody competitor of loblolly pine in
It is recommended that old, decaying trees be left standing near the
margins of clearcuts for woodpecker nest sites .
Virginia pine can be propagated by grafting, and can be rooted from
Principal diseases of Virginia pine include heart rot and pitch canker.
Principal insect pests include the southern pine beetle, Ips spp.,
Virginia pine sawfly, redheaded pine sawfly, and pales weevil. Meadow
mice may girdle young trees . Virgina pine is resistant to damage
by ozone [13,20].
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Other uses and values
Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites
Within its natural range, Virginia pine is often a pioneer on mined
soils . Virginia and loblolly pines have naturally reforested some
surface coal mines in Alabama, and are substantial producers of
commercial softwoods . Natural revegetation on manganese mine
spoils in Virginia and Tennessee includes Virginia pine. It is widely
planted in the middle and southern Appalachian region on surface coal
mine spoils, and has good potential for revegetation of other disturbed
Virginia pine is adapted to a wide range of mined soils and performs
well on acidic and droughty sites . On dark-colored coal mine wastes
in Pennsylvania, Virginia pine was more resistant to heat damage than
eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), Scotch pine (P. sylvestris) or jack
pine (P. banksiana). Plantings of Virginia pine outside its native
range are usually invaded by hardwoods within 15 to 20 years .
Performance of Virginia pine on surface coal mine spoils varies with
planting conditions and post-planting environmental conditions
reported as follows :
Importance to Livestock and Wildlife
Virginia pine seeds are an important food source for many small mammals
and birds, including northern bobwhites [14,52]. Virginia pine forms
good nesting sites for woodpeckers due to a preponderance of softened
wood in older trees . When used for revegetation of mine spoils,
Virginia pine has high value for wildlife cover and food . It
provides browse for white-tailed deer, and probably for other animals as
Virginia pine forests are the second highest producers of choice browse
for white-tailed deer in the Oconee National Forest, Georgia .
Young Virginia pine stands provide good habitat for rabbits, northern
bobwhite, and many nongame birds. Mature stands with a sparse shrub
layer are less valuable habitat .
Wood Products Value
Virginia pine was previously used only for mine props, railroad ties,
rough lumber, fuel, tar, and charcoal. It currently has little
importance for lumber, but is becoming more important as a pulpwood
species, especially through the reforestation of abandoned agricultural
lands, cutover, and mined sites [7,14,54]. Several thousand acres of
land are planted in Virginia pine annually .
In the Eastern and Central States, Virginia pine performs well when planted on strip-mined sites. In a study in West Virginia, Virginia pine survived well, grew quickly, and encountered no serious pests 14 years after being planted on a mined site (43). It is also a satisfactory species for the reclamation of spoil banks in the Southeast (27).
Because the wood of older trees is frequently softened by fungal decay, Virginia pine provides nesting habitat for woodpeckers. Leaving old, decayed trees near the margins of clearcuts provides nesting sites (13).
Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine, scrub pine, Jersey pine) is a medium-sized tree, often found on poorer soils from Long Island in southern New York south through the Appalachian Mountains to western Tennessee and Alabama. The usual size range for this pine is 9–18 m, but can grow taller under optimum conditions. The trunk can be as large as 0.5 m diameter. This tree prefers well-drained loam or clay, but will also grow on very poor, sandy soil, where it remains small and stunted. The typical life span is 65 to 90 years. The leaf type is simple. There are also some nice cultivated specimens of Pinus virginiana in the Arnold Arboretum in Boston, Massachusetts.
The short (4–8 cm), yellow-green needles are paired in fascicles and are often twisted. Pinecones are 4–7 cm long and may persist on the tree for many years, often (though not always) releasing their seeds in the second year. In growth habit, some trees may be inclined with twisted trunks.
This pine is useful for reforesting and provides nourishment for wildlife. Its other main use is on Christmas tree farms, despite having sharp-tipped needles and yellowish winter color. It also can provide wood pulp and lumber. Like some other southern yellow pines, Virginia Pine lumber case hardens. That is it becomes very hard over time during wood drying. Wood from Virginia pine is not normally considered to resist rot unless treated with preservatives.
It was classed as "near threatened" by the IUCN Red List, based on a 1998 assessment. However, a 2011 accessment upgraded its status to "least concern". In New York it is listed as endangered.
- Farjon, A. (2013). "Pinus virginiana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- Moore, Gerry; Kershner, Bruce; Craig Tufts; Daniel Mathews; Gil Nelson; Spellenberg, Richard; Thieret, John W.; Terry Purinton; Block, Andrew (2008). National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Trees of North America. New York: Sterling. p. 69. ISBN 1-4027-3875-7.
- Conifer Specialist Group (1998). Pinus virginiana. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 11 May 2006.
Names and Taxonomy