Data about <i>Pinus virginiana</i>

TraitBank assembles data records from many providers. Select a row for more details about the record, or search TraitBank.

Distribution

 
native range includes
Additional detail
Lower 48 United States of America
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail
United States (USA)
US Forest Service Fire Effects Information Service  
 
introduced range includes
Additional detail
Canada
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
geographic distribution
  • geographic distribution
    A description of the geographic distribution, or range, of the taxon. Includes descriptions of global, regional, or political aspects of range and whether the taxon is native or introduced in portions of the range and endemicity.
    http://rs.tdwg.org/ontology/voc/SPMInfoItems#Distribution
Additional detail
Asia - China - Jiangsu
Missouri Botanical Garden  
Additional detail
Asia - China - Jiangxi
Missouri Botanical Garden  
Additional detail
North America - United States
Missouri Botanical Garden  
Additional detail
North America - United States - Alaska
Missouri Botanical Garden  

Physical Description

 
leaf color
Additional detail
green
  • green
    A color hue with medium-low wavelength of that portion of the visible spectrum lying between yellow and blue, evoked in the human observer by radiant energy with wavelengths of approximately 490 to 570 nanometers.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0000320
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
plant height median
Additional detail
70 ft mature
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
plant height max
Additional detail
25 ft base age
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
fruit or seed color
Additional detail
brown
  • brown
    A color consisting of dark orange, red, of very low intensity.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0000952
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
wood density
Additional detail
0.45 g/cm³
Global Wood Density Database  
 
growth habit
Additional detail
tree
  • tree
    Perennial, woody plant with a single stem (trunk), normally greater than 4 to 5 meters (13 to 16 feet) in height; under certain environmental conditions, some tree species may develop a multi-stemmed or short growth form (less than 4 meters or 13 feet in height).
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/tree
US Forest Service Fire Effects Information Service  
Additional detail
tree
  • tree
    Perennial, woody plant with a single stem (trunk), normally greater than 4 to 5 meters (13 to 16 feet) in height; under certain environmental conditions, some tree species may develop a multi-stemmed or short growth form (less than 4 meters or 13 feet in height).
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/tree
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
shape
Additional detail
irregular
  • irregular
    Lacking perfect symmetry or evenness.
    http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#C63815
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
primary growth form
  • primary growth form
    The primary growth form on the landscape in relation to soil stabilization on slopes and streamsides. Each plant species is assigned the single growth form that most enhances its ability to stabilize soil.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/PrimaryGrowthForm
Additional detail
single stem
  • single stem
    Plant development by the production of one stem. Examples: corn (Zea mays) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia).
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/singleStem
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
carbon-to-nitrogen ratio
Additional detail
high (>59)
  • high (>59)
    The percentage of organic carbon divided by the percentage of total nitrogen in organic material is higher than 59.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/highCNRatio
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
foliage texture
Additional detail
rough
  • rough
    A texture quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's irregular surface.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0000700
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  

Ecology

 
frost free days min
  • frost free days
    The average number of frost-free days within the plant’s known geographical range. For cultivars, the geographical range is defined as the area to which the cultivar is well adapted rather than marginally adapted.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/FrostFreeDays
Additional detail
165 days
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
precipitation tolerance min
  • precipitation tolerance
    Minimum tolerable rainfall (in inches), expressed as the average annual minimum precipitation that occurs 20% of the time (i.e., the probability of it being this dry in any given year is 20%) at the driest climate station within the known geographical range of the plant. geographical range of the plant. For cultivars, the geographical range is defined as the area to which the cultivar is well adapted rather than marginally adapted.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/PrecipitationTolerance
Additional detail
32 inch
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
precipitation tolerance max
  • precipitation tolerance
    Minimum tolerable rainfall (in inches), expressed as the average annual minimum precipitation that occurs 20% of the time (i.e., the probability of it being this dry in any given year is 20%) at the driest climate station within the known geographical range of the plant. geographical range of the plant. For cultivars, the geographical range is defined as the area to which the cultivar is well adapted rather than marginally adapted.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/PrecipitationTolerance
Additional detail
65 inch
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
soil depth min
  • soil depth
    The minimum depth of soil required for good growth. Plants that do not have roots such as rootless aquatic plants (floating or submerged) and epiphytes are assigned a minimum root depth value of zero.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/SoilDepth
Additional detail
20 inch
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
low temperature tolerance min
  • low temperature tolerance
    The minimum tolerable temperature is the lowest temperature recorded in the plant’s historical range. If this is not available, the record low January temperature recorded at climate stations within the current geographical range of the plant is used. This definition does not apply to summer annuals.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/TemperatureTolerance
Additional detail
-23 degrees Fahrenheit
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
habitat
Additional detail
arenosol
  • arenosol
    Arenosols are sandy soils, including both soils developed in residual sands after in situ weathering of usually quartz-rich sediments or rock, and soils developed in recently deposited sands such as dunes in deserts and beach lands.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002229
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
arenosol
  • arenosol
    Arenosols are sandy soils, including both soils developed in residual sands after in situ weathering of usually quartz-rich sediments or rock, and soils developed in recently deposited sands such as dunes in deserts and beach lands.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002229
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
canopy
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
clay
  • clay
    A group of hydrous aluminium phyllosilicate (phyllosilicates being a subgroup of silicate minerals) minerals (see clay minerals), that are typically less than 2micrometres in diameter. Clay consists of a variety of phyllosilicate minerals rich in silicon and aluminium oxides and hydroxides which include variable amounts of structural water.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002982
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
coast
  • coast
    The general region of indefinite width that extends from the sea inland to the first major change in terrain features.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000303
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
coastal plain
  • coastal plain
    An area of flat, low-lying land adjacent to a seacoast and separated from the interior by other features.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000090
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
conifer woodland
  • conifer woodland
    A conifer woodland is a woodland which has a tree community primarily composed of coniferous trees, from the Division Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_01000240
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
coniferous forest biome
  • coniferous forest biome
    A coniferous forest biome is a forest biome which contains densely packed populations or communities of coniferous trees, strongly limiting light penetration to the forest floor.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_01000196
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
coniferous forest biome
  • coniferous forest biome
    A coniferous forest biome is a forest biome which contains densely packed populations or communities of coniferous trees, strongly limiting light penetration to the forest floor.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_01000196
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
cultivated habitat
  • cultivated habitat
    A geographical feature modified by humans by the preparation of the land, usually for the purposes of growing crops.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000113
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
cut
  • cut
    An excavation of the Earth's surface to provide passage for a road, railway, canal, etc.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000474
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
farm
  • farm
    A tract of crop or grazing land, as well as the group of buildings with and often surrounding a farmhouse, including barns, sheds, and other outbuildings, used for agricultural production.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000078
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
farm
  • farm
    A tract of crop or grazing land, as well as the group of buildings with and often surrounding a farmhouse, including barns, sheds, and other outbuildings, used for agricultural production.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000078
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
forest
  • forest
    An area with a high density of trees. A small forest may be called a wood.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000111
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
forest
  • forest
    An area with a high density of trees. A small forest may be called a wood.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000111
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
grassland
  • grassland
    An area in which grasses (Graminae) are a significant component of the vegetation.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000106
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
hill
  • hill
    A rounded elevation of limited extent rising above the surrounding land with local relief of less than 300m.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000083
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
limestone
  • limestone
    A sedimentary rock composed largely of the mineral calcite.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002053
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
loam
  • loam
    A soil composed of sand, silt, and clay in relatively even concentration (about 40-40-20% concentration respectively).
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002258
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
marine biome
  • marine biome
    An aquatic biome that comprises systems of open-ocean and unprotected coastal habitats, characterized by exposure to wave action, tidal fluctuation, and ocean currents as well as systems that largely resemble these. Water in the marine biome is generally within the salinity range of seawater: 30 to 38 ppt.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000447
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
mixed forest biome
  • mixed forest biome
    A mixed forest biome is a forest biome which contains densely packed populations or communities of broadleaf and coniferous trees, strongly limiting light penetration to the forest floor.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_01000198
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
mount
  • mount
    A mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface (sea level), and thus is not an island. Typically formed from volcanoes that rise abruptly and are usually found rising from a seafloor of 1,000 - 4,000 meters depth. Independent features that rise to at least 1,000 meters above the seafloor.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000264
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
mountain
  • mountain
    A landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill, but there is no universally accepted standard definition for the height of a mountain or a hill although a mountain usually has an identifiable summit and a local relief of more than 300m.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000081
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
mountain range
  • mountain range
    A series of connected and aligned mountains or mountain ridges.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000080
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
national park
  • national park
    A reserve of land, usually, but not always declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. National parks are a protected area of IUCN category II.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000367
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
plateau
  • plateau
    An elevated and comparatively level expanse of land.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000182
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
plateau
  • plateau
    An elevated and comparatively level expanse of land.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000182
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
plateau
  • plateau
    An elevated and comparatively level expanse of land.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000182
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
sand
  • sand
    A naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_01000017
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
sand
  • sand
    A naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_01000017
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
sandstone
  • sandstone
    A sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002055
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
scrubland
  • scrubland
    Area covered with low-growing or stunted perennial vegetation and usually not mixed with trees.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000300
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
scrubland
  • scrubland
    Area covered with low-growing or stunted perennial vegetation and usually not mixed with trees.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000300
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
scrubland
  • scrubland
    Area covered with low-growing or stunted perennial vegetation and usually not mixed with trees.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000300
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
scrubland
  • scrubland
    Area covered with low-growing or stunted perennial vegetation and usually not mixed with trees.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000300
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
shale
  • shale
    A fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. It is characterized by thin laminae breaking with an irregular curving fracture, often splintery and usually parallel to the often-indistinguishable bedding plane.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002056
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
shale
  • shale
    A fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. It is characterized by thin laminae breaking with an irregular curving fracture, often splintery and usually parallel to the often-indistinguishable bedding plane.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002056
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
slope
  • slope
    The part of an elevation or depression between the relatively flat surrounding area and the peak of a mount or the bottom of a depression.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002000
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
soil
  • soil
    Any material within 2 m from the Earth's surface that is in contact with the atmosphere, with the exclusion of living organisms, areas with continuous ice not covered by other material, and water bodies deeper than 2 m.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00001998
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
soil
  • soil
    Any material within 2 m from the Earth's surface that is in contact with the atmosphere, with the exclusion of living organisms, areas with continuous ice not covered by other material, and water bodies deeper than 2 m.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00001998
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
terrestrial biome
  • terrestrial biome
    A biome that applies to the terrestrial realm.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000446
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
terrestrial habitat
  • terrestrial habitat
    A habitat that is on or at the boundary of the surface of the Earth.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002009
IUCN  
Additional detail
watercourse
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
wood
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
woodland
Environments - EOL project  
 
interacts with
  • interacts with
    an organism has an effect on another organism in the community.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/interactsWith
Additional detail GloBI  
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Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
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Additional detail GloBI  
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Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
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Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
 
fire resistance
Additional detail
is not fire resistant
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
allelopathic effect
  • allelopathic effect
    This is an assay of any direct or indirect, harmful or beneficial effect of one plant on another through the production of chemical compounds (allelochemicals) that escape in the environment.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/TO_0000624
Additional detail
no known allelopathy
  • no known allelopathy
    There is no evidence that the organism produces compounds (allelochemicals) that influence the growth, survival, and reproduction of other organisms.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/allelopathyUnknown
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
soil requirements
Additional detail
adapted to coarse textured soils
  • adapted to coarse textured soils
    This plan can establish and grow in soil with a coarse textured surface layer. Includes: Sand, Coarse sand, Fine sand, Loamy coarse sand, Loamy fine sand, Loamy very fine sand, Very fine sand, Loamy sand.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/coarseSoilYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail
adapted to fine textured soils
  • adapted to fine textured soils
    This plan can establish and grow in soil with a fine textured surface layer. Includes: Sandy clay, Silty clay, Clay.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/fineSoilYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail
adapted to medium textured soils
  • adapted to medium textured soils
    This plan can establish and grow in soil with a medium textured surface layer. Includes: Silt, Sandy clay loam, Very fine sandy loam, Silty clay loam, Silt loam, Loam, Fine sandy loam, Sandy loam, Coarse sandy loam.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/mediumSoilYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
anaerobic soil tolerance
Additional detail
low tolerance
  • low tolerance
    decreased tolerance to: A tolerance quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's decreased ability to endure a stimulus.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0002394
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
drought tolerance
Additional detail
high tolerance
  • high tolerance
    increased tolerance to: A tolerance quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's increased ability to endure a stimulus.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0002393
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
calcareous soil tolerance
  • calcareous soil tolerance
    The relative tolerance of the plant to calcareous soil. Calcareous soil is defined as soil containing sufficient free CaCO3 and other carbonates to effervesce visibly or audibly when treated with cold 0.1M HCl. These soils usually contain from 10 to almost 1000g/kg CaCO3 equivalent.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/CalcareousSoilTolerance
Additional detail
low tolerance
  • low tolerance
    decreased tolerance to: A tolerance quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's decreased ability to endure a stimulus.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0002394
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
moisture use
Additional detail
low
  • low
    A minimum level or position or degree; less than normal in degree, intensity or amount.
    http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#C54722
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
salt tolerance
Additional detail
none
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
shade tolerance
Additional detail
low tolerance
  • low tolerance
    decreased tolerance to: A tolerance quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's decreased ability to endure a stimulus.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0002394
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  

Life History and Behavior

 
life cycle habit
Additional detail
perennial
  • perennial
    Of plant duration, a plant whose life span extends over more than two growing seasons, c.f. annual, biennial, ephemeral, of flowering with respect to architecture, hapaxanthic, monocarpic, pleonanthic
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/perennial
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
shedability
Additional detail
evergreen
  • evergreen
    Evergreen (plant): A quality inhering in a plant by virtue of the bearer's disposition to retain foliage.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0001733
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
bloom period
Additional detail
mid spring
  • mid spring
    The mid part of the season between the vernal equinox and the summer solstice.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/midSpring
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
active growth period
Additional detail
spring and summer
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
growth rate
Additional detail
fast
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
life span
Additional detail
moderate life span
  • moderate life span
    A life span which is neither relatively low nor relatively high.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/moderateLifeSpan
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
grass growth type
Additional detail
not a low growing grass
  • not a low growing grass
    The growing point (terminal meristem) of the vegetative grass tiller does not remain at or near the crown.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/lowGrowingGrassNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
resprout ability after clipping
Additional detail
will not resprout
  • will not resprout
    The plant will not resprout following top (above ground biomass) removal.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/ResproutNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
germination requirements
Additional detail
cold stratification required
  • cold stratification required
    Cold stratification significantly increases the seed germination percentage of this plant.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/coldStratificationYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
fire tolerance
Additional detail
medium (normal)
  • medium (normal)
    Average. A quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's exhibiting no deviation from normal or average.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0000461
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
fruit/seed abundance
Additional detail
high
  • high
    An elevated level or position or degree; greater than normal in degree or intensity or amount.
    http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#C25227
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
seed period end
Additional detail
autumn
  • autumn
    The season between the autumnal equinox and the winter solstice.
    http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#C94733
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
seed period begin
Additional detail
summer
  • summer
    The season between the summer solstice and the autumnal equinox.
    http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#C94732
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
fruit/seed persistence
Additional detail
fruit/seed is persistent
  • fruit/seed is persistent
    The fruit or seed is persistent on the plant.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/fruitPersistentYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
seeds per pound average
Additional detail
52,160
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
seed spread rate
Additional detail
fast
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
seedling survival
Additional detail
high
  • high
    An elevated level or position or degree; greater than normal in degree or intensity or amount.
    http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#C25227
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
vegetative spread rate
Additional detail
none
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  

Physiology and Cell Biology

 
soil pH min
  • soil pH
    The soil pH, of the top 12 inches of soil, within the plant’s known geographical range. For cultivars, the geographical range is defined as the area to which the cultivar is well adapted rather than marginally adapted.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/SoilPH
Additional detail
4.5
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
soil pH max
  • soil pH
    The soil pH, of the top 12 inches of soil, within the plant’s known geographical range. For cultivars, the geographical range is defined as the area to which the cultivar is well adapted rather than marginally adapted.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/SoilPH
Additional detail
7.5
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
nitrogen fixation
  • nitrogen fixation
    The process in which nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds useful for other chemical processes, such as ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/GO_0009399
Additional detail
none
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
primary macronutrient requirements
Additional detail
low
  • low
    A minimum level or position or degree; less than normal in degree, intensity or amount.
    http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#C54722
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  

Conservation

 
population trend
Additional detail
Increasing
IUCN  
 
conservation status
Additional detail
least concern
  • least concern
    A taxon is Least Concern when it has been evaluated against the criteria and does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable or Near Threatened. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/leastConcern
IUCN  

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

 
livestock bloat potential
Additional detail
none
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
horticulture
Additional detail
flower is not conspicuous
  • flower is not conspicuous
    Flowers are not conspicuous from a landscaping aesthetics standpoint.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/flowerConspicuousNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail
fruit/seed is not conspicuous
  • fruit/seed is not conspicuous
    The fruit or seed is not conspicuous from a landscaping aesthetics standpoint.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/fruitSeedConspicuousNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail
is not fall conspicuous
  • is not fall conspicuous
    The leaves or fruits are not conspicuous during Autumn from a landscaping aesthetics standpoint.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/fallConspicuousNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail
not suitable for the coppice method of silviculture
  • not suitable for the coppice method of silviculture
    The plant is not suitable for the coppice method of silviculture. Coppicing completely removes the canopy of woody plants, cutting them at or just above ground level.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/coppicePotentialNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
foliage porosity winter
  • foliage porosity winter
    Indicates the porosity (coverage) of the foliage during the winter months. Foliage porosity is an important factor when trees or shrubs are used as windbreaks for the protection of crops and livestock shelters. Denser (or less porous) foliage allows more wind to pass through.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/FoliagePorosityWinter
Additional detail
dense (low porosity)
  • dense (low porosity)
    A porosity quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's being incapable of admitting the passage of gas or liquid through pores or interstices.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/lowPorosity
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
foliage porosity summer
  • foliage porosity summer
    Indicates the porosity (coverage) of the foliage during the summer months. Foliage porosity is an important factor when trees or shrubs are used as windbreaks for the protection of crops and livestock shelters. Denser (or less porous) foliage allows more wind to pass through.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/FoliagePorositySummer
Additional detail
dense (low porosity)
  • dense (low porosity)
    A porosity quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's being incapable of admitting the passage of gas or liquid through pores or interstices.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/lowPorosity
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
human/livestock toxicity
Additional detail
none
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
hedge tolerance
Additional detail
low tolerance
  • low tolerance
    decreased tolerance to: A tolerance quality inhering in a bearer by virtue of the bearer's decreased ability to endure a stimulus.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PATO_0002394
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
planting density min
Additional detail
430 per acre
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
planting density max
Additional detail
800 per acre
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
commercial availability
Additional detail
routinely available
  • routinely available
    The plant is routinely available commercially.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/routinelyAvailable
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
 
plant propagation method
Additional detail
not propogated by bulbs
  • not propogated by bulbs
    It is not practical to propagate this plant as bulbs.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/propagatedByBulbsNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail
not propogated by corms
  • not propogated by corms
    It is not practical to propagate this plant as corms.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/propagatedByCormsNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail
not propogated by sod
  • not propogated by sod
    This plant does not lend itself to being developed as a sod product.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/propagatedBySodNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail
not propogated by sprigs
  • not propogated by sprigs
    It is not practical to propagate this plant by sprigs.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/propagatedBySprigsNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail
not propogated by tubers
  • not propogated by tubers
    It is not practical to propagate this plant by tubers.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/propagatedByTubersNo
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database  
Additional detail
propogated by bare root
  • propogated by bare root
    It is practical to propagate this plant as a bare root product.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/propagatedByBareRootYes
USDA NRCS PLANTS Database