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 Thallus: foliose, medium-sized to large, 3-5 cm wide, ±rounded or irregular, deeply and broadly lobate; lobes: 2-5 mm wide, (70-)110-200(-300) µm thick, rather few, extended, often repeatedly branched, broadly canaliculated; tips: ±rounded, margins not swollen, coarsely undulate, entire to slightly crenate; upper surface: dark olive-green to black, paler and ±transparent when moist, smooth to somewhat pustulate, usually dull, epruinose; isidia: laminal, rarely marginal, often numerous, globular, occasionally clavate or cylindrical, not or barely branched, up to 0.3 mm broad, concolorous with thallus or somewhat darker; lower surface: paler, grayish or bluish, with scattered or confluent hapters or rhizines forming a down; Apothecia: numerous or sparse, laminal, sessile, finally with constricted base, 0.5-1.5(-2) mm wide; disc: plane or concave to convex, red-brown or dark red, smooth, sometimes glossy, epruinose; thalline margin: ±thick, entire, smooth, or isidiate, lacking a pseudocortex; true exciple: euparaplectenchymatous, 45-110 µm thick; cells: (6.5-)10-20(-30); hymenium: hyaline, 85-130 µm tall; asci: clavate, 8-spored; ascospores: hyaline, ellipsoid to ovoid or subglobose, ends obtuse or ±acute, submuriform to muriform, often with 3 transverse and 1 longitudinal septa, 1524(-28) x 6.5-13(-15) µm; Pycnidia: laminal or marginal, immersed or semi-immersed, pale; conidia: bacilliform or with slightly swollen ends, 4.5-6 x 1.5 µm; Spot tests: all negative; Secondary metabolites: none detected.; Substrate and ecology: usually on periodically moistened calcareous or siliceous rocks or on mosses over rock (not observed in the Sonoran Region), in the mountains; World distribution: arctic to temperate areas of Europe, Asia and North America, and extending to northern Africa, the Near East, and India; Sonoran distribution: Arizona, and southern California.; Notes: Collema undulatum var. granulosum is very similar to Collema fuscovirens in having undulate, isidiate lobes, but its lobes are somewhat broader (up to 8 mm) and its spores are bacilliform with obtuse poles and 4-celled. Col-lema subflaccidum occurs on bark and rock, its lobes are flat or somewhat ascending but not undulate and its isidia are more slender (0.05-0.1 mm). 


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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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