Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species ranges from south-eastern Oaxaca, Mexico, southward to Guatemala and eastern El Salvador (from 500-2200m asl). It probably occurs more widely than current records suggest.
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Physical Description

Type Information

Paratype for Ptychohyla euthysanota
Catalog Number: USNM 115051
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. 1942. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28 (5): 78, plate 9, figure 1.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ptychohyla euthysanota
Catalog Number: USNM 115050
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. 1942. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28 (5): 78, plate 9, figure 1.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ptychohyla euthysanota
Catalog Number: USNM 115049
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. 1942. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28 (5): 78, plate 9, figure 1.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ptychohyla euthysanota
Catalog Number: USNM 115048
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. 1942. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28 (5): 78, plate 9, figure 1.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ptychohyla euthysanota
Catalog Number: USNM 115047
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. 1942. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28 (5): 78, plate 9, figure 1.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ptychohyla euthysanota
Catalog Number: USNM 115046
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. 1942. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28 (5): 78, plate 9, figure 1.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ptychohyla euthysanota
Catalog Number: USNM 115045
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. 1942. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28 (5): 78, plate 9, figure 1.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ptychohyla euthysanota
Catalog Number: USNM 115044
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. 1942. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28 (5): 78, plate 9, figure 1.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ptychohyla euthysanota
Catalog Number: USNM 115043
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. 1942. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28 (5): 78, plate 9, figure 1.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ptychohyla euthysanota
Catalog Number: USNM 115042
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. 1942. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28 (5): 78, plate 9, figure 1.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ptychohyla euthysanota
Catalog Number: USNM 115041
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. 1942. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28 (5): 78, plate 9, figure 1.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ptychohyla euthysanota
Catalog Number: USNM 115040
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. 1942. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28 (5): 78, plate 9, figure 1.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Holotype for Ptychohyla euthysanota
Catalog Number: USNM 115039
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico
  • Holotype: Taylor, E. H. 1942. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28 (5): 78, plate 9, figure 1.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ptychohyla euthysanota
Catalog Number: USNM 115038
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. 1942. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28 (5): 78, plate 9, figure 1.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Holotype for Ptychohyla euthysanota
Catalog Number: USNM 73296
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1927
Locality: Los Esesmiles, Chalatenango, El Salvador
Elevation (m): 1951 to 1951
  • Holotype: Kellogg, R. 1928. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington. 41: 123.
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Ecology

Habitat

Southern Pacific Dry Forests Habitat

This taxon is found in the Southern Pacific dry forests ecoregion, which is situated along the southeastern versant of the Sierra Madre del Sur Mountains including the Pacific Ocean coastal plain. These forests are a key locus of endemism for butterflies, and has the greatest diversity of scorpions and spiders in the entirety of Mexico. This ecoregion is classified in the Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests biome. The Southern Pacific dry forests exhibit a moderate to high faunal species richness; for example, there are a total of 744 vertebrate taxa recorded in the ecoregion, with a particularly large number of endemic reptiles.

The ecoregion elevation ranges from sea level to 1400 metres. The climate is tropical and dry, with precipitation levels of 800 millimetres (mm) per annum. There is an extended arid season, which factor drives the prevalence of deciduous vegetation. The forests grow chiefly on shallow, well-drained soils derived from limestone. Closer to the base of the Sierra Madre del Sur Mountains, the soils are more rocky, and are derived from igneous rocks.

The dominant plant species include Mauto (Lysiloma divaricatum), Bursera excelsa and Fragrant Bursera (B. fagaroides), which are typically found in association with Pochote (Ceiba aesculifolia), Comocladia engleriana, and Trichilia americana. In the Mexican state of Michoacán, the macro plant species more generally in evidence are Ficus insipida, F. pertusa, Breadnut (Brosimum alicastrum), Licania arborea, Sideroxylon capiri and Elephant Ear (Enterolobium cyclocarpum).

There are a number of anuran species present in the ecoregion, including: Blunt-toed Chirping Frog (Eleutherodactylus modestus VU); Cloud Forest Stream Frog (Ptychohyla euthysanota NT), found from southeast Oaxaca to Guatemala and eastern El Salvador; Matuda's Spikethumb Frog  (Plectrohyla matudai VU). A special status caecilian found in the ecoregion is the Mexican Caecilian (Dermophis mexicanus VU), a fossorial species that can attain lengths up to sixty centimetres. A special status salamander found in the ecoregion is the Sierra Juarez Salamander (Pseudoeurycea juarezi CR), a near-endemic known only between Cerro Pelón and Vista Hermosa in the Sierra de Juarez, north-central Oaxaca. The White-lipped Peeping Frog (Eleutherodactylus albolabris CR), a near-endemic known chiefly from Agua del Obispo, central Guerrero.

The Southern Pacific dry forests contain numerous reptilian taxa, including the following endemics: Bocourt's Anole (Norops baccatus); Taylor's Anole (Norops taylori), known only to  Puerto Marquez area, in northern Acapulco, Guerrero; Simmons' Anole (Anolis simmonsi), restricted to the vicinity of Pinotepa Nacional, Oaxaca; Stegneger's Blackcollar Spiny Lizard (Sceloporus stejnegeri), restricted to the Pacific versant in the state of Guerrero, Mexico; Red Earth Snake (Geophis russatus), found in a very narrow range outside of Putla, Oaxaca; Sierra Mije Earth Snake (Geophis anocularis), known only from around Totontepec on the Atlantic versant of the Sierra Mixe, Oaxaca; Ramirez`s Hooknose Snake (Ficimia ramirezi), restricted to the Pacific versant of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Niltepec, Oaxaca; Halberg's Cloud Forest Snake (Cryophis hallbergi), found only in northern Oaxaca, at Sierra de Juarez and Sierra Mazateca; Isthmian Earth Snake (Geophis isthmicus), known only from the vicinity of Tehuantepec, Mexico; the endemic Macdougall's Spiny Lizard (Sceloporus macdougalli).

Characteristic mammalian fauna include the endemic Oaxacan Pocket Gopher (Orthogeomys cuniculus), restricted to several sites on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca. Other mammals seen in the ecoregion include the: Lesser Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae VU), Tropical Hare (Lepus flavigularis EN), restricted to Salina Cruz, Oaxaca to the extreme west of  Chiapas; Greater Bulldog Bat (Noctilio leporinus), Coati (Nasua narica), Buller’s Pocket Gopher (Pappogeomys bulleri), Javelina (Tayassu tajacu), and Mexican Long-tongued Bat (Choeronycteris mexicana NT).

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The subspecies Ptychohyla euthysanota euthysanota lives in cloud forests while the other subspecies (P. e. macrotympanum) lives in broadleaf forests and pine forests. Both subspecies are highly associated with mountain streams. Reproduction occurs by direct development.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ptychohyla euthysanota

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Georgina Santos-Barrera, Manuel Acevedo, Antonio Muñoz Alonso

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Near Threatened because its Extent of Occurrence is probably not much greater than 20,000km2, and the extent and quality of its habitat are declining, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.

History
  • 2004
    Near Threatened
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Population

Population
It is common in Guatemala and abundant in Chiapas, Mexico. Its population status is unknown in El Salvador.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
A major threat to this species is alteration of the original habitats and microhabitats due to smallholder agricultural activity and logging. Chytridiomycosis is also a potential threat to this species, particularly for high-altitude populations. Declines due to chytridiomycosis amongst species of this genus have already been detected in Guatemala (Mendelson, et al. 2004).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It occurs in at least two Biosphere Reserves in Chiapas (La Sepultura and El Triunfo) and is listed as "threatened" (Amenazada) by the Mexican government, although improved protection of forest habitats in southern Mexico is needed. It also occurs in Parque Nacional Montecristo in El Salvador, but is not protected in Guatemala. Given the potential threat of chytridiomycosis populations of this species should be monitored closely.
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Wikipedia

Ptychohyla euthysanota

The cloud forest stream frog, Ptychohyla euthysanota, is a species of frog in the Hylidae family found in El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, and possibly Honduras. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, and rivers. It is threatened by habitat loss.

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