Overview

Brief Summary

Until its rediscovery in 2010 in Malaysia’s Sarawak State, this species was known from only three specimens. It had last been seen in the field in 1924.

A team of scientist lead by Dr. Indraneil Das of Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) set out to find the rare toad in the context of the Search for Lost Frogs, a project of Conservation International and the IUCN Amphibian Specialist Group.

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Distribution

Range Description

This species is known only from two locations in the western corner of Borneo: Mount Damus, near Sambas, in Kalimantan (Indonesia), and Mount Penrissen, in western Sarawak (Malaysia). It possibly occurs more widely than current records suggest, especially in areas between the two known sites.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The known localities were primary, hilly rainforest at the time the frogs were collected. The adults are primarily terrestrial, and the larvae are found in forest streams. If it is similar to other members of its genus, it is unlikely to be able to adapt to modified habitats.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Robert Inger, Indraneil Das, Robert Stuebing, Maklarin Lakim, Paul Yambun

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Endangered, in view of its extent of occurrence of less than 5,000 km2 and area of occupancy of less than 500 km2, with all individuals in fewer than five locations, and a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat.
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Population

Population
There are no estimates of population size. Only two specimens are known and it was last collected over 50 years ago. There are no recent records, probably due to lack of herpetological work within its range.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The main threat to this species is habitat loss and degradation primarily as a result of logging. The remaining suitable habitat within its range has been almost entirely converted for recreational use (one of the two known sites, Mount Penrissen, has recently been converted into a golf course), or converted to cultivated land. An additional threat is the resultant sedimentation of streams (following logging) which results in the deterioration of breeding habitat.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Effective preservation of hilly rainforest in the regions of the two known localities is essential. In addition, further survey work in the hilly border area of Sarawak and Kalimantan is necessary to help provide a better indication of the species' current population status.
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Wikipedia

Ansonia latidisca

Ansonia latidisca, commonly called the Sambas stream toad or Bornean rainbow toad, is a small true toad rediscovered in 2011 after being unseen since 1924.[1] It is found in Indonesia and Malaysia. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and rivers. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Contents

Description [edit]

The three specimens known of A. latidasca are small, ranging in size from 30 to 50 mm (1.2 to 2.0 in) in length.[2] They have long spindly limbs and variegated dorsal skin "splattered in bright green, purple, and red."[3] The colorful spots on the dorsum are not flat but "pebbly" and have been compared to warts. Amphibian expert Robin Moore told the National Geographic that such skin on a toad "usually indicates the presence of poison glands ... You probably don't want to put this in your mouth."[4] Moore was the initiator of Conservation International’s Search for Lost Frogs.[3]

Herpetologist Indraneil Das, leader of the 2011 team that rediscovered the toad, called its coloration "mosslike" and noted that it may be an adaptation for camouflage on the mossy tree bark of its habitat.[3]

Conservation status and rediscovery [edit]

Ansonia latidisca was listed by Conservation International as one of the "world's top 10 most wanted frogs" in its Global Search for Lost Amphibians in 2010. It had not been seen since 1924.[3] Until its recent rediscovery, the only depictions of the toad were drawings of specimens collected by explorers in the 1920s.[5][2] The type specimen were collected by Johann Gottfried Hallier.

In July 2011, scientists from Universiti Malaysia Sarawak led by Dr. Indraneil Das found and photographed three specimens in the high branches of a tree after months of night expeditions in the Gunung Penrissen range of Western Sarawak.[6] According to Moore, the team organized its search based on what was known of similar species, searching at night along streams for a toad they thought might be found climbing trees.[4] Dr. Das said these were "standard search techniques appropriate for amphibians in rainforest habitats," adding that they entailed "dangers and annoyances" that included heavy rainfall, leeches, and poachers.[3]

The scientists were unwilling to make public information about the toads' exact location, citing concern about poachers and the international pet trade.[3]

References [edit]

  1. ^ ""Lost" Amphibian Stages Amazing Reappearing Act in Borneo after Eluding Scientists for 87 years". Conservation International. Retrieved 14 July 2011. 
  2. ^ a b Bryner, Jeanna (13 July 2011). "'Lost' Rainbow Toad Rediscovered After 87 Years". LiveScience. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Lin, Thomas (15 July 2011). "After 8 Decades, Tiny Toad Resurfaces in Asia". NY Times. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  4. ^ a b Than, Ker. "Rainbow Toad Rediscovered, Photographed for First Time". National Geographic. 
  5. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/14151541
  6. ^ "Lost rainbow toad is rediscovered". BBC. 14 July 2011. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-14. 
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