Distribution and Habitat
Found from south-east corner of Queensland, along the east coast of New South Wales and into central Victoria.The extent of occurrence of the species is approximately 721300 km2Was considered the most common and widespread member of its genus, but populations have appeared to decline in some areas in recent years.
Habitat and Ecology
Vertebrate Associates on Kangaroo Island, Australia
The most notable mammal present is the endemic Kangaroo Island Kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus fuliginosus), the icon for whom the island was named upon European discovery in 1802. A smaller marsupial present on the island is the Tammar Wallaby (Macropus eugenii). An endemic dasyurid is the Critically Endangered Kangaroo Island Dunnart (Sminthopsis aitkeni), which is found only in the west of the island in Eucalyptus remota/E. cosmophylla open low mallee, E. baxteri low woodland or E. baxteri/E. remota low open woodland. The Common Brush-tailed Possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is a widespread folivore native to Australia.
Monotremes are also represented on the island. There is also an introduced population of the Duck-billed Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in the western part of the island in Flinders Chase National Park. The Short-beaked Echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) is also found moderately widespread on Kangaroo Island.
Chiroptera species on Kangaroo Island include the Yellow-bellied Pouched Bat (Saccolaimus flaviventris), which species is rather widespread in Australia and also occurs in Papua New Guinea. Australia's largest molossid, the White-striped Free-tail Bat (Tadarida australis) is found on Kangaroo Island. Another bat found on the island is the Southern Forest Bat (Eptesicus regulus), a species endemic to southern Australia (including Tasmania).
Several anuran species are found on Kangaroo island: Brown Tree Frog (Litoria ewingii), Spotted Marsh Frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis), Painted Spadefoot Frog (Neobatrachus pictus), Brown Toadlet (Pseudophryne bibroni) and Brown Froglet (Crinia signifera).
The Heath Monitor (Varanus rosenbergi ) is a lizard that grows up to a metre in length, preying on smaller reptiles, juvenile birds and eggs; it is frequently observed on warmer days basking in the sunlight or scavenging on roadkill. The Black Tiger Snake (Notechis ater) is found on Kangaroo Island. Another reptile particularly associated with this locale is the Kangaroo Island Copperhead (Austrelaps labialis).
The Glossy Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami) is found on the island, especially in the western part, where its preferred food, fruit of the Drooping Sheoak, is abundant. The Kangaroo Island Emu (Dromaius baudinianus) became extinct during the 1820s from over-hunting and habitat destruction due to burning.
Marine mammals that are observed on the island include the Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea) and New Zealand Fur Seal (Arctocephalus forsteri), each species of which is native to Kangaroo Island, and abundant at Admiral's Arch as well as at Seal Bay.
Kangaroo Island is not so adversely impacted by alien species grazers as parts of the mainland. No rabbit species are present on the island, and introduced (but escaped) Domestic Goats (Capra hircus) and pigs (Sus scrofa) have generated only minor issues. However, a Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population introduced to the island in the 1920s has caused significant damage to certain woodland communities, especially to Manna Gum trees.
- C.Michael Hogan. 2013. Kangaroo Island. Encyclopedia of Earth, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC ed. M.McGinley
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 2002Data Deficient
- 1994Insufficiently Known(Groombridge 1994)
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Found in dry forest, woodland, shrubland and grassland. It shelters under leaf litter and other debris in moist soaks and depressions.Calling is from February to August and frogs have been noted calling in temperatures on only 4ºC. Between 70 - 200 large eggs are deposited terrestrially on damp leaf mould, in shallow nests or under stones and logs near water and hatch after rain floods the area and provide pools for tadpoles. Metamorphosis takes 3 - 7 months.
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Formerly widespread species. Current status unknown. Population size, area of occupancy, population trends unknown.
None in place, except for where species occurs in National Parks and State Forests.
The Bibron's toadlet or brown toadlet, (Pseudophryne bibronii) is a species of Australian ground-dwelling frog, that although has declined over much of its range, is widespread through most of New South Wales, Victoria, south-eastern Queensland and eastern South Australia, including Kangaroo Island.
This species is variable and may represent more than one species. It grows to about 30mm in length and is brown, grey or black above, often with scattered red spots. It is normally strongly marbled black and white on the ventral surface, however in some areas this marbling can be faint. There is always an orange, red or yellow patch in the armpits. This patch varies from yellow to orange between sites. At the Jervis Bay region this patch is always yellow, this may be a result of hybridisation with the Dendy's toadlet (Pseudophryne dendyi) which has a strong yellow patch in the armpits. There is also a yellow/orange patch or raised bump on the back of the thigh.
Behaviour and ecology
This species inhabits areas that are likely to be inundated after rain. This can be anything from coastal swamps, creeks, temporary ponds/roadside ditches in forest, cleared land, heathland and even sub-alpine areas. When threatened, the Bibron's toadlet will often lie on its back, unresponsive, pretending to be dead. This performance had been reported to last for up to an hour.
The males attract the females by making a grating "ark" noise from a concealed area, in mud, under rocks or damp leaf litter. They normally call after heavy rain or when water is available, they call all year round but normally from February to June at temperatures as low as 4 °C (39 °F).
The species is polyandrous, with each female mating with several males. The female visits up to eight males, mates with each, and deposits eggs in the shallow nest he has dug. The female moves on and the male tends the nest. The nest, which may contain moist leaf litter or sphagnum moss, floods during rain. The eggs hatch and the tadpoles develop in the water. If no sufficient rain happens soon after laying the eggs can remain unhatched for many weeks, with the tadpoles developing inside. The nest must stay wet so the eggs remain moist, but not too wet or they will be washed away. Female frogs that mate with more males, thus depositing eggs in more nest sites, are more likely to have some young survive.
- Anstis, M. 2002. Tadpoles of South-eastern Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.
- Robinson, M. 2002. A Field Guide to Frogs of Australia. Australian Museum/Reed New Holland: Sydney.
- Frogs of Australia Network — frog call available here.
- SA EPA's Frogs of South Australia website
|Wikispecies has information related to: Pseudophryne bibronii|
- Jean-Marc Hero, Graeme Gillespie, Frank Lemckert, Murray Littlejohn, Peter Robertson (2004). "Pseudophryne bibronii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
- Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Pseudophryne bibronii Günther, 1859". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
- Byrne, P. G.; Keogh, J. S. (2009). "Extreme sequential polyandry insures against nest failure in a frog". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276 (1654): 115–120. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0794.
- Ehrenberg, R. (9 September 2008). "Female frogs play the field". ScienceNews. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
- Monash University (26 September 2008). "Australian Frog Species Chooses Not To Put Eggs In One Basket". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 14 April 2014.