Overview

Distribution

Distribution and Habitat

Found from south-east corner of Queensland, along the east coast of New South Wales and into central Victoria.The extent of occurrence of the species is approximately 721300 km2Was considered the most common and widespread member of its genus, but populations have appeared to decline in some areas in recent years.

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Range Description

This Australian endemic is found from the south-east corner of Queensland, along the east coast of New South Wales, and into central Victoria and South Australia (including Kangaroo Island), from 20-1,000m asl.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in dry forest, woodland, shrubland and grassland, and shelters under leaf-litter and other debris in moist soaks and depressions. Calling is from February to August and frogs have been noted calling in temperatures of only 4°C. Between 70 and 200 large eggs are deposited terrestrially on damp leaf mould, in shallow nests or under stones and logs near water, and these hatch after rain floods the area and provides pools for larvae. Metamorphosis takes three to seven months.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Associations

Vertebrate Associates on Kangaroo Island, Australia

The most notable mammal present is the endemic Kangaroo Island Kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus fuliginosus), the icon for whom the island was named upon European discovery in 1802. A smaller marsupial present on the island is the Tammar Wallaby (Macropus eugenii). An endemic dasyurid is the Critically Endangered Kangaroo Island Dunnart (Sminthopsis aitkeni), which is found only in the west of the island in Eucalyptus remota/E. cosmophylla open low mallee, E. baxteri low woodland or E. baxteri/E. remota low open woodland. The Common Brush-tailed Possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is a widespread folivore native to Australia.

Monotremes are also represented on the island. There is also an introduced population of the Duck-billed Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in the western part of the island in Flinders Chase National Park. The Short-beaked Echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) is also found moderately widespread on Kangaroo Island.

Chiroptera species on Kangaroo Island include the Yellow-bellied Pouched Bat (Saccolaimus flaviventris), which species is rather widespread in Australia and also occurs in Papua New Guinea. Australia's largest molossid, the White-striped Free-tail Bat (Tadarida australis) is found on Kangaroo Island. Another bat found on the island is the Southern Forest Bat (Eptesicus regulus), a species endemic to southern Australia (including Tasmania).

Several anuran species are found on Kangaroo island: Brown Tree Frog (Litoria ewingii), Spotted Marsh Frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis), Painted Spadefoot Frog (Neobatrachus pictus), Brown Toadlet (Pseudophryne bibroni) and Brown Froglet (Crinia signifera).

The Heath Monitor (Varanus rosenbergi ) is a lizard that grows up to a metre in length, preying on smaller reptiles, juvenile birds and eggs; it is frequently observed on warmer days basking in the sunlight or scavenging on roadkill. The Black Tiger Snake (Notechis ater) is found on Kangaroo Island. Another reptile particularly associated with this locale is the Kangaroo Island Copperhead (Austrelaps labialis).

The Glossy Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami) is found on the island, especially in the western part, where its preferred food, fruit of the Drooping Sheoak, is abundant. The Kangaroo Island Emu (Dromaius baudinianus) became extinct during the 1820s from over-hunting and habitat destruction due to burning.

Marine mammals that are observed on the island include the Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea) and New Zealand Fur Seal (Arctocephalus forsteri), each species of which is native to Kangaroo Island, and abundant at Admiral's Arch as well as at Seal Bay.

Kangaroo Island is not so adversely impacted by alien species grazers as parts of the mainland. No rabbit species are present on the island, and introduced (but escaped) Domestic Goats (Capra hircus) and pigs (Sus scrofa) have generated only minor issues. However, a Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population introduced to the island in the 1920s has caused significant damage to certain woodland communities, especially to Manna Gum trees.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Jean-Marc Hero, Graeme Gillespie, Frank Lemckert, Murray Littlejohn, Peter Robertson

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Near Threatened because this species is probably in significant decline (but probably at a rate of less than 30% over ten years) because of widespread habitat loss through much of its range, and also due to unexplained causes, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.

History
  • 2002
    Data Deficient
  • 1994
    Insufficiently Known
    (Groombridge 1994)
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Population

Population
It was considered to be the most common and widespread member of its genus, but populations have appeared to decline in some areas in recent years.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Found in dry forest, woodland, shrubland and grassland. It shelters under leaf litter and other debris in moist soaks and depressions.Calling is from February to August and frogs have been noted calling in temperatures on only 4ºC. Between 70 - 200 large eggs are deposited terrestrially on damp leaf mould, in shallow nests or under stones and logs near water and hatch after rain floods the area and provide pools for tadpoles. Metamorphosis takes 3 - 7 months.

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Threats

Major Threats
The major threat to this species is habitat loss due to transport infrastructure development and agriculture (including cultivation of crops and livestock rearing). Increasing water salinity is also a problem. However, the specific reasons for the many declines are not known.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Formerly widespread species. Current status unknown. Population size, area of occupancy, population trends unknown.

Threats
Encroaching development.

Conservation Measures
None in place, except for where species occurs in National Parks and State Forests.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no conservation measures in place for this species, apart from its habitat being protected when it occurs in national parks and state forests. The causes of the recent declines need to be identified.
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Wikipedia

Bibron's toadlet

The Bibron's toadlet or brown toadlet, (Pseudophryne bibronii)[2] is a species of Australian ground-dwelling frog, that although has declined over much of its range, is widespread through most of New South Wales, Victoria, south-eastern Queensland and eastern South Australia, including Kangaroo Island.

Physical description[edit]

This species is variable and may represent more than one species. It grows to about 30mm in length and is brown, grey or black above, often with scattered red spots. It is normally strongly marbled black and white on the ventral surface, however in some areas this marbling can be faint. There is always an orange, red or yellow patch in the armpits. This patch varies from yellow to orange between sites. At the Jervis Bay region this patch is always yellow, this may be a result of hybridisation with the Dendy's toadlet (Pseudophryne dendyi) which has a strong yellow patch in the armpits. There is also a yellow/orange patch or raised bump on the back of the thigh.

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

This species inhabits areas that are likely to be inundated after rain. This can be anything from coastal swamps, creeks, temporary ponds/roadside ditches in forest, cleared land, heathland and even sub-alpine areas. When threatened, the Bibron's toadlet will often lie on its back, unresponsive, pretending to be dead. This performance had been reported to last for up to an hour.

Reproduction[edit]

The males attract the females by making a grating "ark" noise from a concealed area, in mud, under rocks or damp leaf litter. They normally call after heavy rain or when water is available, they call all year round but normally from February to June at temperatures as low as 4 °C (39 °F).

The species is polyandrous, with each female mating with several males. The female visits up to eight males, mates with each, and deposits eggs in the shallow nest he has dug.[3][4][5] The female moves on and the male tends the nest. The nest, which may contain moist leaf litter or sphagnum moss, floods during rain. The eggs hatch and the tadpoles develop in the water. If no sufficient rain happens soon after laying the eggs can remain unhatched for many weeks, with the tadpoles developing inside. The nest must stay wet so the eggs remain moist, but not too wet or they will be washed away. Female frogs that mate with more males, thus depositing eggs in more nest sites, are more likely to have some young survive.[3][4]

Sources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jean-Marc Hero, Graeme Gillespie, Frank Lemckert, Murray Littlejohn, Peter Robertson (2004). "Pseudophryne bibronii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Pseudophryne bibronii Günther, 1859". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Byrne, P. G.; Keogh, J. S. (2009). "Extreme sequential polyandry insures against nest failure in a frog". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276 (1654): 115–120. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0794.  edit
  4. ^ a b Ehrenberg, R. (9 September 2008). "Female frogs play the field". ScienceNews. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  5. ^ Monash University (26 September 2008). "Australian Frog Species Chooses Not To Put Eggs In One Basket". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
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