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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Diagnosis: Small lime-green frog with yellow spots (apple-green dorsum with white spots in Honduran specimens; McCranie and Wilson 2002) and an obtuse snout in profile, light green bones, translucent parietal peritoneum, and white pericardium, liver, and digestive tract (Savage 2002).

Can be distinguished from all other Honduran centrolenids except Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi by extensive webbing between Fingers II-III. T. pulverata differs from H. chirripoi by having vomerine teeth, pale green bones, a white parietal pericardium, an obtuse snout, and an unpigmented Type I nuptial pad in males (McCranie and Wilson 2002, comparing to H. cardiacalyptum, which has been synonymized with H. chirripoi).

Description: This uncommon, small frog has a snout-vent length of 22 mm to 29 mm in males and 23 mm to 29 mm in females. The top of the head is flat. The snout is moderately elongated, appearing rounded from the dorsal view and obtuse in lateral profile. The canthus rostralis is distinct and rounded, while the loreal region is slightly concave. Nostrils are slightly swollen and directed anterolaterally, situated closer to the margin of the snout than to the eyes, and the internarial area is slightly concave. Eyes are protuberant and visible past the lip margin from overhead, with horizontally elliptical pupils. The tongue is ovoid and slightly free posteriorly. Vomerine teeth are in patches on elevated, medial, inclined ridges and separated from neighboring tooth patches by a distance shorter than the width of the patches. Maxillary teeth are also present. The tympanum can appear either distinct or indistinct; a supratympanic fold narrowly obscures the upper edge of the tympanum. The body shape is angular and slightly flat. Upper arms are slender and forearms are moderately robust. A low dermal ridge is present along the posterior ventrolateral margin of the forearm. Discs on fingers are moderately expanded, and the disc pads on the hands and fingers are truncate. Fingers have round, globular to slightly raised subarticular tubercles. The palmar tubercle is elevated and ovoid. The prepollex lacks a free distal end, and the prepollical spine is absent. Finger lengths relative to each other are II < I < IV < III. Fingers I and II have basal webbing, and the remaining fingers are characterized by webbing pattern II 1-3 III 1 3/4-1 IV. Fingers II-IV have weak lateral keels on the unwebbed portions. Heels overlap broadly when adpressed. The inner tarsal fold is weak and extends about one-third the length of the tarsus. Toes have round subarticular tubercles. The inner metatarsal tubercle is elevated and elliptical while the outer metatarsal tubercle is either absent or indistinct. Toe lengths relative to each other are I < II < III = V < IV, with expanded, truncated toe discs that are slightly smaller than those on the fingers. Webbing on the feet is characterized by I 1-2 II 3/4-2 III 3/4-2 IV 2-3/4 V. Lateral keels are present on unwebbed portions of the toes. The dorsal skin is weakly granular and the most obvious granules are present on the snout and sides of the head. The throat, belly and ventral surfaces of the thighs are characterized by coarsely areolate skin. Below the vent, granules range in size from small to large with subcloacal folds positioned laterally to the granules. Males possess paired vocal slits, a medium-sized sub-gular sac, and unpigmented nuptial pads (Savage 2002; McCranie and Wilson 2002).

In life, female specimens have "apple green" (McCranie and Wilson 2002) dorsal surfaces with numerous indistinct white spots. The skin of the lower portion of the flanks is yellowish-white while the skin on the belly and chest is translucent. Eyes have translucent and unpatterned palpebral membranes. The bones of this species are pale green. The parietal pericardium and the visceral peritoneum are white while the parietal peritoneum is translucent (Savage 2002).

In preservative, the dorsal surfaces of the frog take on a yellowish-white tinge with many tiny lavender flecks. The flecking is absent where white spots were present when the frog was alive. The anterior and posterior surfaces of the thighs are pale yellow, while the skin of the chest and belly are translucent and colorless. The parietal pericardium and visceral peritoneum remain white, and the parietal peritoneum remains colorless in preservative (the same as in life).

The name pulveratum stems from the Latin word pulveris meaning "dust" or "powder" and the Latin suffix -atus , meaning "provided with"; it alludes to the tiny spots on the dorsal surfaces of preserved specimens (McCranie and Wilson 2002).

A Spanish-language species account can be found at the website of Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio).

  • McCranie, J. R., and Wilson, L. D. (2002). ''The Amphibians of Honduras.'' Contributions to Herpetology, Vol 19. K. Adler and T. D. Perry, eds., Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York.
  • Savage, J.M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Castro, F., Grant, T., Acosta-Galvis, A., and Kubicki, B. (2008). Cochranella pulverata. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 05 May 2010.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is known from the humid lowlands on the Atlantic versant from north-central Honduras, and on the Pacific slope from southwestern Costa Rica up to 960m asl. It is also known from northern Colombia along the Pacific coast from Chocó and Valle del Cauca departments up to 300m asl into northwestern Ecuador, provinces of Esmeralda and Pichincha.
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Distribution and Habitat

Distribution on the Atlantic versant ranges from north-central Honduras to Valle de Cauca, Colombia and on the Pacific versant from southern Costa Rica to southeastern Panama (Savage 2002; McCranie and Wilson 2002). Within Honduras this species is known from northwestern and eastern Olancho and from a single locality in southeastern Colon (McCranie and Wilson 2002). Teratohyla pulverata lives in moist lowland and wet forest habitats at low to moderate elevations, up to 960 m asl (Savage 2002).

  • McCranie, J. R., and Wilson, L. D. (2002). ''The Amphibians of Honduras.'' Contributions to Herpetology, Vol 19. K. Adler and T. D. Perry, eds., Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York.
  • Savage, J.M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Castro, F., Grant, T., Acosta-Galvis, A., and Kubicki, B. (2008). Cochranella pulverata. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 05 May 2010.
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Countries

Countries

Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama

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Countries

Countries

Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Identification

Adult

Species description based on Savage (2002).  A small glassfrog (males to 29 mm, females to 33 mm).

Dorsal

The dorsal surface is green, covered in tiny white spots.

Eye

The iris is silvery.

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Identification

Adult

Species description based on Ibanez et al (1999) and Savage (2002).  Small frog, males to 25-29 mm, females to 27-33 mm.

Dorsal

Dorsal surface lime green with small white spots.

Distinguishing characteristics

Teratoyla pulverata has a white fleshy fringe along the back of the lower arm and leg.

Eye

Iris silver with black reticulations.

Extremities

Feet moderately webbed.

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Ecology

Habitat

Moist Pacific Coast Mangroves Habitat

This taxon occurs in the Moist Pacific Coast mangroves, an ecoregion along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica with a considerable number of embayments that provide shelter from wind and waves, thus favouring mangrove establishment. Tidal fluctuations also directly influence the mangrove ecosystem health in this zone. The Moist Pacific Coast mangroves ecoregion has a mean tidal amplitude of three and one half metres,

Many of the streams and rivers, which help create this mangrove ecoregion, flow down from the Talamanca Mountain Range. Because of the resulting high mountain sediment loading, coral reefs are sparse along the Pacific coastal zone of Central America, and thus reef zones are chiefly found offshore near islands. In this region, coral reefs are associated with the mangroves at the Isla del Caño Biological Reserve, seventeen kilometres from the mainland coast near the Térraba-Sierpe Mangrove Reserve. The Térraba-Sierpe, found at the mouths of the Térraba and Sierpe Rivers, is considered a wetland of international importance.

Because of high moisture availability, the salinity gradient is more moderate than in the more northern ecoregion such as the Southern dry Pacific Coast ecoregion. Resulting mangrove vegetation is mixed with that of marshland species such as Dragonsblood Tree (Pterocarpus officinalis), Campnosperma panamensis, Guinea Bactris (Bactris guineensis), and is adjacent to Yolillo Palm (Raphia taedigera) swamp forest, which provides shelter for White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Mantled Howler Monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Mangrove tree and shrub taxa include Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), Mangle Caballero (R. harrisonii) R. racemosa (up to 45 metres in canopy height), Black Mangrove (Avicennia germinans) and Mangle Salado (A. bicolor), a mangrove tree restricted to the Pacific coastline of Mesoamerica.

Two endemic birds listed by IUCN as threatened in conservation status are found in the mangroves of this ecoregion, one being the Mangrove Hummingbird (Amazilia boucardi EN), whose favourite flower is the Tea Mangrove (Pelliciera rhizophorae), the sole mangrove plant pollinated by a vertebrate. Another endemic avain species to the ecoregion is the  Yellow-billed Cotinga (Carpodectes antoniae EN).  Other birds clearly associated with the mangrove habitat include Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaia ajaja), Gray-necked Wood Rail (Aramides cajanea), Rufous-necked Wood Rail (A. axillaris), Mangrove Black-hawk (Buteogallus anthracinus subtilis),Striated Heron (Butorides striata), Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata), Boat-billed Heron (Cochlearius cochlearius), American White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), Amazon Kingfisher (Chloroceryle amazona), Mangrove Cuckoo (Coccyzus minor), Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia), and Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus VU) among other avian taxa.

Mammals although not as numerous as birds, include species such as the Lowland Paca (Agouti paca), Mantled Howler Monkey (Alouatta palliata), White-throated Capuchin (Cebus capucinus), Silky Anteater (Cyclopes didactylus), Central American Otter (Lontra longicaudis annectens), White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus), feeds on leaves within A. bicolor and L. racemosa forests. Two raccoons: Northern Raccoon (Procyon lotor) and Crab-eating Raccoon (P. cancrivorus) can be found, both on the ground and in the canopy consuming crabs and mollusks. The Mexican Collared Anteater (Tamandua mexicana) is also found in the Moist Pacific Coast mangroves.

There are a number of amphibians in the ecoregion, including the anuran taxa: Almirante Robber Frog (Craugastor talamancae); Chiriqui Glass Frog (Cochranella pulverata); Forrer's Grass Frog (Lithobates forreri), who is found along the Pacific versant, and is at the southern limit of its range in this ecoregion. Example salamanders found in the ecoregion are the Colombian Worm Salamander (Oedipina parvipes) and the Gamboa Worm Salamander (Oedipina complex), a lowland organism that is found in the northern end of its range in the ecoregion. Reptiles including the Common Basilisk Lizard (Basiliscus basiliscus), Boa Constrictor (Boa constrictor), American Crocodile (Crocodilus acutus), Spectacled Caiman (Caiman crocodilus), Black Spiny-tailed Iguana (Ctenosaura similis) and Common Green Iguana (Iguana iguana) thrive in this mangrove ecoregion.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is an arboreal species of primary humid lowland and montane forest. It occurs in riparian vegetation. Eggs are deposited on leaves and when hatched the larvae drop in to the streams where they develop further. It is known to persist in small patches of suitable habitat.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Habitat

Lowland and premontane forest to 960 m.

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Habitat

Lowland rainforest to almost 1000 m.

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Behaviour

Call

A series "dik, dik, dik" (Savage and Starrett 1967, Ibanez et al 1999).

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Behaviour

Call

A series of ticks or diks, similar to but slower than the call of Espadarana prosoblepon (Ibanez et al 1999, Savage 2002).

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Life Cycle

Life History

Breeding season

Breeding occurs during the rainy season (Savage 2002). Males call from vegetation above swift streams (Savage 2002).

Egg

Eggs are laid on the upper side of leaves, near the tip (Villa 1984). Clutches contain 44-80 green eggs (Savage 2002).

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Life History

Breeding season

Males call from vegetation overhanging streams during the rainy season (May to October-November; Ibanez et al 1999).

Egg

Clutches of 44-80 eggs are laid on the upper side of leaves (Savage 2002, Villa 1984). Eggs are green in color (Savage 2002).

Tadpole

Hoffman (2004) provides an in-depth description of the tadpole at many stages of development. Similar to other glassfrog tadpoles, the body is elongate and the tail is long and thin (drawings in Hoffman 2004). The entire dorsal surface is covered in small pimented spots and flecks, while the ventral surface is relatively transparent (Hoffman 2004). Tadpoles appear dark red in color due to the visibility of the internal organs, rather than because of highly vascularized skin (Hoffman 2004). Centrolenid tadpoles are fossorial, living in the low-oxygen environment under mud and leaf litter in stream bottoms (McDiarmid and Altig 1999).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Teratohyla pulverata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Castro, F., Grant, T., Acosta-Galvis, A. & Kubicki, B.

Reviewer/s
Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A. & Young, B.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
This species is moderately common in Honduras, but uncommon in Costa Rica. There is no information on the population’s status in Nicaragua and Panama. It is considered a rare species in Colombia.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

During the rainy season from May to October, males call from the vegetation surrounding fast-moving streams, similar to other Costa Rican centrolenids (Savage 2002). Eggs are deposited on leaves above water (Solís et al. 2008). Ovarian eggs found within a collected female specimen were greenish-tinged (McCranie and Wilson 2002). A single clutch of unguarded embryos was observed to exit their egg capsules with exposure to formalin; these embryos had pale brown bodies and tail musculature in life, along with greenish-yellow yolk sacs (McCranie and Wilson 2002).

  • McCranie, J. R., and Wilson, L. D. (2002). ''The Amphibians of Honduras.'' Contributions to Herpetology, Vol 19. K. Adler and T. D. Perry, eds., Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York.
  • Savage, J.M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Castro, F., Grant, T., Acosta-Galvis, A., and Kubicki, B. (2008). Cochranella pulverata. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 05 May 2010.
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Threats

Major Threats
Habitat loss resulting from deforestation, and water pollution are localized threats, but there are no major threats to the species overall.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

It is somewhat common in Honduras, not common in Costa Rica, and rare in Colombia. Its population status in Nicaragua and Panama has not been reported. It occurs within several protected areas. Although populations may face local threats from deforestation and pollution, overall the species is not threatened. It can apparently tolerate some habitat fragmentation as it is known to persist in small patches of suitable habitat (Solís et al. 2008).

  • McCranie, J. R., and Wilson, L. D. (2002). ''The Amphibians of Honduras.'' Contributions to Herpetology, Vol 19. K. Adler and T. D. Perry, eds., Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York.
  • Savage, J.M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Castro, F., Grant, T., Acosta-Galvis, A., and Kubicki, B. (2008). Cochranella pulverata. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 05 May 2010.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The species has been recorded from several protected areas throughout its range.
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Wikipedia

Powdered glass frog

The powdered glass frog or Chiriqui glass frog, Teratohyla pulverata, is a frog species in the glass frog family (Centrolenidae). It is found from north-central Honduras south to northwestern Ecuador.[1][2]

Description[edit]

Teratohyla pulverata is a small glass frog, lacking humeral spines in males, and has a lobed bulbous liver, placing it in the genus Cochranella. Adult males measure 22-24.5 mm from the snout to the vent, while the females are larger at 25.3-28.3 mm snout-vent length. The snout is rounded if seen from above, but presents a distinctly sloped profile when viewed from the side. The translucent tympanum is visible but not large, measuring about one-fifth to one-fourth of the eye's diameter; the tympanic annulus is not hidden except for the dorsal margin, which is covered by the supratympanic fold.[3]

Their color is green above, with a rich scattering of small, white spots – hence the species' scientific name, which means "the powdered one". The back has a rough shagreen-like texture, particularly in males, where it is covered in tiny spicules. The belly is transparent and has a grained texture. Thus, the green bones and some internal organs can be observed in the living animal – particularly as this species' parietal (outer) peritoneum is completely translucent, too; the inner peritonea covering the liver and gastrointestinal tract are white. The iris is greyish-white with tiny yellow dots and a network of thin, dark-grey lines; a thin cream-yellow ring surrounds the pupil. Melanophores are abundant on the dorsal surface of the fourth finger, but absent on the first three fingers. Preserved specimens are usually cream-colored to light lavender above, with the spotting remaining white or becoming transparent.[3]

The dentigerous process of the vomer carries two to four teeth. The males have a type-I nuptial pad; the prepollex is concealed. The toes and most fingers of C. pulverata are webbed; the webbing between the first two fingers (which are of equal length) is absent or vestigial, however. The webbing formula for the outer fingers is II (1+-11/3) – (24/5-3-) III (11/3-12/3) – (1+-2-) IV; for the toes, it is I (1--1) – (12/3-2-) II (1--1) – (13/4-2-) III (1-1+) – (12/3-2+) IV (2--2+) – (1--1+) V. The discs at the finger and toe tips are small, about the size of the eardrum on the third finger. This species has no tubercles on the thighs; the metacarpus, ulna, metatarsus, and tarsus have tubercular folds, resulting in a wavy outline of the limbs.[3]

The tooth row formula of tadpoles is 2/3, with the A2 tooth row broadly separated in the center.[3]

Range and ecology[edit]

Its natural habitats are tropical moist lowland forests and rivers; it is mostly found in riparian vegetation. In the northern part of its range (south to the Isthmus of Panama approximately) it is found on the Atlantic side of the American Cordillera; on the Pacific side, it is found from Costa Rica southwards. It occurs up to 960 meters ASL in the northern parts of its range, but apparently only up to 300 m ASL in its southern haunts.[1]

The males call sitting on the upper sides of leaves, usually giving three notes of about 0.05 seconds duration with a dominant frequency of 5,600–6,200 Hz, separated by a 0.5– to 0.8-second pause from each other. It is unknown if and how they physically fight for females. The clutches are deposited on the upper sides of leaves above small streams; after hatching, the tadpoles drop into the water. The parents do not guard the eggs or care for their offspring otherwise.[3]

Moderately common in Honduras, it is uncommon in Costa Rica, and only rarely found in Colombia. Able to persist in small forest fragments, it is not considered threatened by the IUCN[1]

Taxonomy[edit]

This frog, like many Centrolenidae, has a confusing taxonomic history. It was initially described as a tree frog of genus Hyla; on recognizing its true affiliations, it was variously placed in the genera Centrolene, Centrolenella (now included in Centrolene) and Hyalinobatrachium. In 2008, it was found to include the mysterious frog that had been described as Cochranella petersi, and was subsequently considered allied or identical to Fleischmann's glass frog (H. fleischmanni) or H. valerioi in error.[3] In 2009, it was transferred to then-resurrected Teratohyla.[2]

Thus, the complete synonymy of this species is:[3]

  • Centrolene pulveratum (Peters, 1873)
  • Centrolenella petersi (Goin, 1961)
  • Centrolenella pulverata (Peters, 1873)
  • Centrolenella pulveratum (Peters, 1873; lapsus)
  • Cochranella pulverata (Peters, 1873)
  • Cochranella petersi Goin, 1961
  • Hyalinobatrachium petersi (Goin, 1961)
  • Hyalinobatrachium pulveratum (Peters, 1873)
  • Hyla pulverata Peters, 1873

The holotype of this species is specimen ZMB 7842, that of C. petersi is specimen BM 1902.5.27.24.[3]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Solís et al. (2010)
  2. ^ a b Frost, 2014
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Guayasamin et al. (2008)

References[edit]

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