Overview

Brief Summary

Hermit crabs of the genus Parapagurus are among the most conspicuous organisms on the continental slope region (200 to 3,000 m) of practically every major ocean. However, they occur from depths of 55 m to nearly 5,000 m. Parapagurus pilosimanus is found in the western Atlantic from off Nova Scotia to Guyana and in the eastern Atlantic from southwest of Iceland and the Faeroe Islands to west of Ireland and the Bay of Biscay and south to the Gulf of Guinea (possibly as far south as Tristan da Cunha). This species has been collected from 102 to 3,864 m, but is found most frequently between 400 m and 1400 m.

Lemaitre (1989) examined a large number of Parapagurus samples from throughout the world's oceans, but never found P. pilosimanus from outside the Atlantic. Thus, in the absence of solid evidence to the contrary, he considered the species to be limited to the Atlantic, despite reports of its occurrence elsewhere.

Many Parapagurus species have developed striking symbiotic relationships with various anthozoan cnidarians (zoanthids or actinians), living in shelters formed by their hosts known as carcinoecia. Parapagurus are usually found living in shelters formed by a species of Epizoanthus. Large individuals of P. pilosimanus commonly inhabit large colonies of this zoanthid.

(Lemaitre 1986,1989; Cardoso and Lemaitre 2012)

Key sources of information on Parapagurus pilosimanus and related species include Lemaitre (1986,1989,1990) and Cardoso and Lemaitre (2012).

  • Cardoso, Irene and Lemaitre, Rafael 2012. First Reports of Deep-Water Hermit Crabs Parapagurus Smith, 1879 (Decapoda, Parapaguridae) and Coelenterate Associates from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and South Atlantic. Crustaceana 85(4-5): 591-600. doi:10.1163/156854012X634384
  • Lemaitre, Rafael 1986. Western Atlantic species of the Parapagurus pilosimanus complex (Anomura, Paguroidea, Parapaguridae): description of a new species and morphological variations. Journal of Crustacean Biology 6(3): 525-542.
  • Lemaitre, Rafael 1989. Revision of the genus Parapagurus (Anomura, Paguroidea, Parapaguridae), including redescriptions of the western Atlantic species. Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden) 253: 1-106.
  • Lemaitre, Rafael 1990. A review of the eastern Atlantic species of the family Parapaguridae (Decapoda, Anomura, Paguroidea). Journal of Natural History 24: 219-240.
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P. pilosimanus occurs in the western Atlantic Ocean and is most common at depths of 1,000 meters. It is part of a complex of related deep water hermit crabs. P. pilosimanus, along with its sister species P. scaber, has a symbiotic relationship with zoanthid polyps, an order of Anthozoans related to the anemones. It is from their symbiosis with zoanthids that P. pilosimanus is also called the Anemone Crab.

  • Lemaitre, R. (1986). Western Atlantic species of the Parapagurus pilosimanus complex (Anomura: Paguroidea: Parapaguridae): Description of a new species and morphological variations. Journal of Crustacean Biology. 6(3): 525-542. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1548192
  • Global Biodiversity Information Facility. (2013). Species: Parapagurus pilosimanus S. I. Smith, 1879. Retrieved from the GBIF website: http://data.gbif.org/species/2224073/
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Distribution

Distribution includes Indian Ocean <91>.
  • Barnard, K.H., 1950. Descriptive catalogue of South African decapod Crustacea (crabs and shrimps).— Annals of the South African Museum 38: 1-837.
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Cosmopolitan
  • Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.) (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp.
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Nova Scotia to Guyana
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Physical Description

Type Information

Type for Parapagurus pilosimanus Smith, 1879
Catalog Number: USNM 21413
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): Mceachern
Locality: S Of Nova Scotia, Canada, North Atlantic Ocean
Depth (m): 457 to 457
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 451 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 328 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 102 - 4706
  Temperature range (°C): 1.795 - 16.594
  Nitrate (umol/L): 5.034 - 44.880
  Salinity (PPS): 34.412 - 35.881
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.348 - 6.376
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.541 - 3.401
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.012 - 163.265

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 102 - 4706

Temperature range (°C): 1.795 - 16.594

Nitrate (umol/L): 5.034 - 44.880

Salinity (PPS): 34.412 - 35.881

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.348 - 6.376

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.541 - 3.401

Silicate (umol/l): 3.012 - 163.265
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Parapagurus pilosimanus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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