Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Clear body with some red-orange patches. Both A1 bright red. Caudal rami are strongly pigmented.

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Distribution

Endemic of the North Pacific: Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk, and Bering Sea. Can be carried into the Chukchi Sea, some individual – into the Arctic Basin. Especially abundant in the Gulf of Alaska.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Female:
Body elongate-oval shaped in dorsal view. The head is smoothly rounded and does not extend in the anterior-dorsal quadrant. The cephalosome is fused to the 1st thoracic segment, but the line of fusion is visible dorsally and somewhat extends ventrally. On the posterior edge of the head a well-defined dorsal knob is present. The posterior corners of the last thoracic segment are smoothly rounded, without projections of points. The cephalosome is over 45% of the total cephalothorax length. The genital segment is about as long as wide; its ventral aspect has a rounded outline with the widest point at about half the length; it is strongly convex. The caudal rami are 1.75 times longer than wide. Caudal setae are placed at a narrow angle relative to each other.
The 2 penultimate segments on A1 carry 2 long and densely plumose chaetae.
Mouthparts reduced in many aspects. Reduction of Mx2 is especially extreme, its setae are tiny and flaccid.
Thoracic legs all have 3 segments in both branches. The second basipodite of P1 carries a round seta on its anterior distal corner, which extends along the medial side of the 1st endopodital segment, then bends to follow its distal edge. The anterior distal edge of the 1st segment of the endopodite of P1 carries a set of flexible, straight spines, the anterior surface carries patches of fine hairs. The 2nd segment of the endopodite of P3-P5 carries a thin, sharp projection on the lateral distal corner. P5 are similar to other legs, but are smaller and with a relatively longer projection on the lateral distal corner of the 2nd endopodital segment.

Male:
In profile the head extends far antero-dorsally, having roughly the brow profile of a sperm whale. The head and the 1st thoracic segment are practically fused except on the dorsal side, the knob on the posterior dorsal corner of the cephalosome is larger than in female. The posterior corners of the last thoracic segment are freely articulated with no hairs or spinules near the end. The second abdominal segment is the longest, more than twice longer than the 1st one, and about 1.17 times longer than wide. Caudal rami are 1.69 times longer than wide, slightly shorter than in the female.
A1 is more stout than in females, with 24 or 25 segments, when folded ventrally it extends past the caudal rami by several segments.
Thoracic legs are relatively longer than in females or C5’s. In particular, the 2nd and 3rd endopodital segments are longer, and the terminal spines are very long and stout.
The P5 have modifications comparable to those general in the family. The 2nd exopodital segment of P5 is about 1.3 times longer than the 3rd segment. The length of the left endopodite is less than the combined length of the first 2 exopodital segments of the corresponding leg.

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Size

Female: 4,00-6,32 mm
Male: 4,18-5,00 mm

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Diagnostic Description

Very similar to sympatric species N. flemingeri, but can be distinguished by the following features:

C5:
-Clear body with some red-orange patches. Both A1 bright red. Caudal rami are strongly pigmented.
-Body proportions: the ratio of cephalosome : cephalothorax is mostly >0.45
-Abdominal segments are narrower on average
-The 2nd bristle of caudal rami is more than 3 times longer than the abdomen length
-The setae on the 2 penultimate segments on A1 are long and densely plumose, brightly pigmented
-Mx2 longer than 0.42mm, with longer setae and setules more densely placed

Females:
-The line of fusion between the head and the 1st thoracic segments extends farther ventrally than in N. flemingeri
-Body proportions: the ratio of cephalosome : cephalothorax is mostly >0.45
-Genital segment: widest point at about half the length; the sides are strongly convex
-Spermatophore without coil and without amorphous patch of matter in the middle
-Mx2 larger relative to the cephalosome length

Males:
-Curvature of the head reaches farther antero-dorsally
-Body proportions: the ratio of cephalosome : cephalothorax is mostly =0.55-0.56
-Spermatophore forming organ extends only to the middle 3rd thoracic segment.
-The length of the 2nd abdominal segment is longer relative to width than in N. flemingeri.
-A1 reaches beyond the end of caudal rami by several segments
-Mx2 is larger relative to cephalosome length
-The 2nd exopodital segment of P5 is 1.3 times longer than the 3rd segment.

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 818 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 641 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 2909
  Temperature range (°C): -1.437 - 10.119
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.313 - 38.052
  Salinity (PPS): 31.032 - 34.652
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.085 - 8.635
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.695 - 3.012
  Silicate (umol/l): 8.517 - 173.635

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 2909

Temperature range (°C): -1.437 - 10.119

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.313 - 38.052

Salinity (PPS): 31.032 - 34.652

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.085 - 8.635

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.695 - 3.012

Silicate (umol/l): 8.517 - 173.635
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Selective filter feeder. Females and males do not feed at adulthood.

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General Ecology

Ecology

Oceanic, epi- to bathypelagic species

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Annual cycle. Females do not feed, so all reproduction occurs based on lipids accumulated over the prior summer. Although they cannot exploit current production, it allows them to spawn much earlier than other co-occurring species. N. plumchrus diapause as C5, then need to molt and spawn, reaching the surface later. Nauplii feed at C3.

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Reproduction

Spermatophores have a simple spindle shape and extend from the genital opening back to the anal segment. The neck bends slightly, but never forms a loop. The duct extends into one of the receptacles and fills the left or the right side only.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Neocalanus plumchrus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 11 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

GTTAAGTGGTTATGGTCATGTAACCATAAAGATATTGGTACCTTATACTTATTAGCTGGGGCCTGGTCAGGTATAATTGGTACTGGATTAAGAATAATCATCCGCCTAGAGTTAGGTCAAGCTGGCTCACTTATTGGGGAT---GATCAGATTTATAATGTTGTGGTTACTGCTCACGCATTTATCATAATTTTTTTCATGGTTATACCAATCCTAATTGGTGGGTTCGGTAATTGACTYGTCCCTTTAATACTGGGGGCAGCAGATATGGCGTTTCCTCGTATAAATAACATAAGGTTTTGGTTTTTGATACCAGCYTTAATTATACTTTTATCGAGATCTTTAGTTGAAAGGGGAGCKGGWACAGGATGAACCGTATACCCGCCTCTATCTAGAAACATTGCYCATGCTGGAGGTTCTGTGGACTTTGCTATTTTTTCMCTTCACTTGGCGGGTGTTAGRTCTATTTTAGGAGCTGTAAATTTTATCAGAACCCTTGGGAATTTGCGAGTATTTGGAATATTATTAGACCGTATACCTTTGTTTGCCTGAGCTGTTCTTATCACGGCCGTACTATTACTATTATCYTTGCCAGTATTAGCCGGTGCYATTACTATACTYCTAACAGAYCGTAATCTTAATACTTCATTTTATGATGTCGGRGGRGGAGGTGACCCTATTCTATATCAACACTTATTTTGATTCTTTGGGCACCCTGAAGTTTACATTTTAATTCTTCCAGGATTTGGRTTAATTTCACATATTGTGGCTCAAGAAAGTGGTAAAAAAGAGACATTYGGTGTTCTTGGAATAATTTATGCTATAYTAGCTATTGGGGTGTTAGGCTTTGTTGTGTGGGCACAYCATATATTTACTGTGGGGATGGACGCCGATACACGTG
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Neocalanus plumchrus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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