Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Pacifastacus gambelii is common and wideranging across the Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountains. It is distributed along the Pacific slope and in the Missouri River drainage in California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming, with a suspected introduction into California.
The pilose crayfish is widespread and often abundant in the Bear and River drainages.
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endemic to a single nation

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Pacific versant in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Wyoming and possibly northeast California. Missouri drainage in Montana and Wyoming and Utah. Only extant member of its genus east of the North American continental divide (Hobbs, 1989; Rogers, 2005).

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Pigmented, eyes normal; rostrum with margins converging to indistinct acumen and with at least 3 pr lateral marginal spines, carinate; postorbital ridges without posterior spines or tubercles; dorsal surface of palm studded with minute tubercles and 2 conspicuous longitudinal clusters of setae.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Pacifastacus gambelii is found in lentic and lotic habitats and is likely to breed during the spring. This species is believed to be an opportunistic feeder that breeds in the springtime and has a home range estimated to be no more than 50 meters (Wyoming Game and Fish Department 2002). The pilose crayfish is belived to be intollerable of warmer waters or of the warmer water fish populations (Johnson 1986).

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: It is found in lentic and lotic habitats and is likely to breed during the spring. This species is believed to be an opportunistic feeder that breeds in the springtime and has a home range estimated to be no more than 50 meters (Wyoming Game and Fish Department 2002). The pilose crayfish is belived to be intollerable of warmer waters or of the warmer water fish populations (Johnson, 1986).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Home range probably does not exceed 50 m.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: No data; probably opportunistic.

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Population Biology

Global Abundance

>1,000,000 individuals

Comments: The pilose crayfish is widespread and often abundant in the Bear and River drainages (Johnson, 1986) and also abundant in Salt Creek.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: Data suggest most active after sundown, but sometimes move about stream bed in day hours.

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Reproduction

Data suggest spring breeding.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Schuster, G.A., Taylor, C.A. & Cordeiro, J.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B. & Richman, N.

Contributor/s
Livingston, F., Livingston, F., Soulsby, A.-M., Batchelor, A., Dyer, E., Whitton, F., Milligan, H.T., Smith, J., Lutz, M.L., De Silva, R., McGuinness, S., Kasthala, G., Jopling, B., Sullivan, K. & Cryer, G.

Justification
Pacifastacus gambelii has been assessed as Least Concern. This species is widespread across several states in the Pacific Northwest, and is considered to be abundant where it is found. Furthermore, it has been assessed as Currently Stable by the American Fisheries Society. However it may be undergoing localised declines as a result of pollution and siltation that compromises the high quality environmental conditions this species requires. Additionally invasive species are thought to have caused declines in Montana. Threats to the global population are currently unidentified; however its widespread distribution is likely to be a buffer against most threats. Further research on current threats to this species and population size is recommended so that significant changes in the population can be identified.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: This species is common and wideranging across the Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountains. Population information is not known but it is abundant in some drainages. Some extirpations have occurred due to exotic crayfish introductions (Montana).

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Population

Population
The pilose crayfish is widespread and often abundant in the Bear and River drainages (Johnson 1986) and also abundant in Salt Creek.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Pacifastacus gambelii has been assessed as Currently Stable by the American Fisheries Society (Taylor et al. 2007). However, the government of Wyoming has stated that potential threats to this species include the requirement of high quality water coupled with a low tolerance for pollution and siltation. In addition, the sources of pollution and siltation are yet to be precisely identified (Wyoming Game and Fish Department 2002).
Pacifastacus gambelii is believed to be extirpated in Montana due to introduced species (Montana Natural Heritage Program 2008). Hubert (1988) believed that introduced species were having a negative affect on the pilose crayfish in the Snake and Bear River areas.
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Degree of Threat: Unknown

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Pacifastacus gambelii received protection under the federal Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) and classified as species of concern by the Wyoming Game and Fish Department. The abundance of this species is largely unknown, and little life history information is available. In addition to this the sources of pollution and siltation are yet to be precisely identified (Wyoming Game and Fish Department 2002). Further research into the causes of potential threats are needed.

NatureServe G4G5
AFS Currently Stable (Taylor et al. 2007).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Comments: No known economic value.

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