Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Dutch (1) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

Goose barnacles have a misleading name. They have nothing to do with geese. Just like acorn barnacles, goose barnacles are crustaceans. However, unlike acorn barnacles, goose barnacles stand on a stalk. They regularly stick out a 'dip-net' to fish food from the water. The dip-net is made up of transformed legs, similar to that of the acorn barnacle. Up till the 17th century, one thought that goose barnacles grew on trees and that they were larvae from barnacle geese. In fact, that's how the goose got its name! The stems of the barnacle in particular are a delicacy in southwestern Europe.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Copyright Ecomare

Source: Ecomare

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Biology

Goose barnacles are marine crustaceans but, unlike many other members of their class, they are hermaphrodites, meaning that the animal has both male and female sexual organs. Their eggs hatch into free-swimming larvae, which drift with the ocean currents as one of the immense number of animals that comprise zooplankton. As they develop, the larvae attach themselves to an object by way of a strong stalk or 'peduncle'. Once they have attached themselves to an object, they do not move again unless torn off by accident. As they grow they develop a feathery feeding apparatus, which filters particles of food from the water as the current passes over it. This filter can be speedily withdrawn inside the hard capitulum when the barnacle feels threatened. If barnacles grow in sufficient numbers on the hull of a ship, they increase the vessel's drag though the water and have to be removed when the ship is dry-docked. However, they were considered a great delicacy in some parts of the world. Even in Cornwall, if a boat arrived with clusters of barnacles attached to the hull, they were scrapped off and sold for food.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Goose barnacles gave rise to one of the strangest of animal beliefs. The heart-shaped shell, or 'capitulum', is a chalky-white in colour and has black lines, which were thought to resemble the head of the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Because barnacle geese rarely nest in Britain no-one had ever seen their eggs or nests. It was supposed, therefore, that the geese 'grew up on the planks of ships' and the birds finally emerged clothed in feathers and flew away. This curious theory also provided a convenient way round the church's ban on eating meat or flesh on Fridays. As the barnacle goose was obviously “not born of the flesh” but from a barnacle, they could be eaten not just on Fridays but throughout Lent!
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Description

 Lepas anatifera is made up of two parts; the capitulum, 4-5 cm long, bears the feeding tentacles and body of the barnacle, and the peduncle, 4-85 cm long, which is a flexible, contractile stalk that attaches the barnacle to floating objects. The capitulum is roughly oblong with five smooth white plates, separated by red/brown or black tissue. If Lepas anatifera is observed underwater, the brush-like feeding appendages may be seen protruding from lower end of the animal.A guide to the identification of the various species of Lepas is given by Bassindale (1964).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Biology/Natural History: This seems to be the most common pelagic gooseneck barnacle along the Washington coast. The opening of this barnacle is lined with beautiful scarlet tissue. The peduncle (stalk) is purplish-brown. Reaches sexual maturity when the capitulum is about 2.5 cm across. Fertilization is internal. Young are brooded in a mass attached to the mantle wall. Nauplii are released after about a week.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 2.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

© Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory

Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

This gooseneck barnacle (attached by a fleshy stalk) has a flattened capitulum with only 5 plates. Attaches to floating objects such as driftwood, glass, or plastic. It has no notch on the side that borders the scutum. The plates are covered with fine striations.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 2.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

© Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory

Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Lepas anatifera is a cosmopolitan barnacle, inhabiting most tropical and temperate seas throughout the world.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); palearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native ); australian (Native ); oceanic islands (Native ); atlantic ocean (Native ); pacific ocean (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: cosmopolitan

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Geographical Range: Cosmopolitan in the open sea (pelagic). Often found washed up on the beach on the open coast; on our shores not usually washed up south of Point Conception, CA.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 2.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

© Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory

Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

Goose barnacles occur throughout most of the temperate seas of the world.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

The main characteristic of Lepas anatifera is its heart-shaped bivalve shell, called a capitulum, that can grow up to 5 cm in length and surrounds the body and limbs. The capitulum is composed of five striated, glossy white, calcareous plates. The first pair of calcareous plates are located at the aperture and the end of the peduncle. The second pair is more distal, located near the aperture. The fifth plate, the carina, creates a spine that connects all the valves to one another. The capitular valve allows extrusion and extraction of six food-catching tentacular structures called cirri. The barnacle attaches to objects using its stalk or peduncle, which ranges in length from 4-90 cm. The peduncle is a part of the head and is attached by a basal disc and covered by a tough cuticle that is unarmored and flexible. Beneath the cuticle lie longitudinal muscles. Attachment is maintained with cement produced from the glands of the peduncle.

Range length: 50 (high) mm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Look Alikes

How to Distinguish from Similar Species: Mitella polymerus, the other goosneck barnacle commonly found intertidally, has more than 10 plates in the capitulum and attaches to rocks. Lepas pacifica has a notch on the side of the capitulum that borders the scutum. Lepas hilli has smooth plates and 3 or more filamentous growths from the base of the first cirri.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 2.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

© Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory

Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Lepas anatifera is a pelagic barnacle that can be found attached to a variety of floating objects, including driftwood, bottles, boats, buoys, macroalgal rafts, and turtles. It can also be found on fixed objects such as rocks and off-shore structures. This species is most abundant in tropical and subtropical waters where sea temperatures exceed 18-20 ºC.

Range depth: 0 to 2909 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; saltwater or marine

Aquatic Biomes: pelagic ; coastal

Other Habitat Features: intertidal or littoral

  • Castro, J., J. Santiago, V. Hernandez-Garcia. 1999. Fish associated with aggregation devices off the Canary Islands (Central-East Atlantic). Scientia Marina, 63(3-4): 191-198.
  • NOBANIS, 2008. "Lepas anatifera Linnaeus, 1758 – Common goose barnacle" (On-line). NOBANIS European Network on Invasive Alien Species. Accessed July 29, 2012 at http://www.nobanis.org/MarineIdkey/Barnacles/LepasAnatifera.htm.
  • Patel, B. 1959. The influence of temperature on the reproduction and moulting of Lepas anatifera L. under laboratory conditions. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 38(3): 589-597.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 11 specimens in 3 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 2909
  Temperature range (°C): 1.605 - 2.916
  Nitrate (umol/L): 28.470 - 38.052
  Salinity (PPS): 34.210 - 34.652
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.401 - 6.136
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.908 - 3.012
  Silicate (umol/l): 26.666 - 173.635

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 2909

Temperature range (°C): 1.605 - 2.916

Nitrate (umol/L): 28.470 - 38.052

Salinity (PPS): 34.210 - 34.652

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.401 - 6.136

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.908 - 3.012

Silicate (umol/l): 26.666 - 173.635
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

 A pelagic species attached to hard floating objects such as logs.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth Range: Shallow pelagic, usually within a meter of the surface attached to a floating object.

Habitat: Pelagic, attached to floating wood and debris.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 2.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

© Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory

Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

This species is found attached to rocks, the planking of wooden ships, on driftwood, discarded rope; in fact, anything floating or fixed. A related species has also been found attached to the bodies of whales.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Lepas anatifera is predatory, capturing prey (shrimp, polyps, young flying fish) with the cirri. Goose barnacles also filter currents, using a feathery filter feeding apparatus. Populations of L. anatifera can also be divided into two groups-monophagous and polyphagous consumers. These two groups differ in their prey size, location, diet composition and diversity, and feeding apparatus morphology.

Animal Foods: fish; terrestrial non-insect arthropods; aquatic or marine worms; aquatic crustaceans; cnidarians; other marine invertebrates; zooplankton

Foraging Behavior: filter-feeding

Primary Diet: carnivore (Piscivore , Eats non-insect arthropods, Eats other marine invertebrates)

  • Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences. Feeding and spawning of the goose barnacle Lepas anatifera (Cirripedia, Lepadidae) on floating substrates in the open Northwestern Pacific Ocean. 117851. Moscow: Russian Academy of Sciences. 2000.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Adult Lepas anatifera are filter feeders in the water and are food for various other species.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Adult Lepas anatifera are protected by an outer shell, but still may be preyed on by gastropods, starfish, crabs, and others. As larvae, the barnacles lack a shell, making them vulnerable to planktivores.

Fiona pinnata, a pelagic sea slug, is a known predator of Lepas anatifera. The sea slug uses its jaws to grasp the barnacle near the junction of the stalk and shell, and then uses its radula to rasp. The barnacle soon gapes open, allowing the sea slug to consume the prey.

Known Predators:

  • Fiona, Fiona pinnata

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Little is noted about the communication in Lepas anatifera.

Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Cycle

The eggs of Lepas anatifera are about 140-260 X 100-120 microns and hatch into free swimming larvae that undergo six specialized naupliar stages. Development to the 10 mm long, plankton-eating stage VI can take up to two months. The larvae then transforms into a cyprid, which is a non-feeding search and settlement stage. The cyprid larvae drift along the ocean currents until it identifies and attaches to a substratum. Once they are attached, cirri develop. Lepas anatifera reaches sexual maturity when the capitulum reaches 2.5 cm across. Sexual maturity occurs more slowly in cold waters than in warmer waters. Approximately 120 days after settlement these barnacles develop reproductive organs at temperatures between 10.2 to 18.4 ºC, but the reproductive development takes 30 days if the surface temperature of the water is around 25 ºC.

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

Information about the lifespan of Lepas anatifera is not available, but some barnacle species live around six years or longer.

  • Abbott, D. 1980. Intertidal Invertebrates of California. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Unlike most barnacles, Lepas anatifera is hermaphroditic and individuals cross fertilize via a copulatory organ. The large protrusible penis is located on the ventral surface of the abdomen and its top is the opening of the male gonopore. The female gonopores are associated with the base of the first cirri.

Fertilization is internal and the young are brooded in the mantle cavity before they are released.

Average gestation period: 1 weeks.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 30 (low) days.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 30 (low) days.

Key Reproductive Features: simultaneous hermaphrodite; sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); ovoviviparous

In Lepas anatifera, cross fertilization is followed by oviposition of the eggs in the mantle cavity. After oviposition they develop past their first embryonic stages. The newly fertilized eggs develop for about a week before being released as free swimming nauplii.

Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning); pre-hatching/birth (Protecting: Female)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lepas anatifera

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Genomic DNA is available from 2 specimens with morphological vouchers housed at Australia Museum
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Ocean Genome Legacy

Source: Ocean Genome Resource

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

Lepas anatifera is common and there are no current conservation programs for this species.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Common
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Goose barnacles are common around the British coast and, apart from the ever-present threat of marine pollution, are not presently endangered.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation

As this species is not listed as threatened, there are currently no conservation programmes for goose barnacles.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Lepas anatifera often attach to the hulls of ships, increasing the drag and reducing speed and efficiency. Thus, barnacles are often removed from ships' hulls.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Lepas is the only genus of barnacles eaten by humans, and is considered a delicacy in some parts of the world.

Positive Impacts: food

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Lepas anatifera

Lepas anatifera, commonly known as the pelagic gooseneck barnacle or smooth gooseneck barnacle, is a species of barnacle in the family Lepadidae. These barnacles are found, often in large numbers, attached by their flexible stalks to floating timber, the hulls of ships, piers, pilings, seaweed and various sorts of flotsam.[2]

Description[edit]

Barnacles dangling from a piece of timber, from the Natural History Museum, London

The body or capitulum of Lepas anatifera is supported by a long, flexible stalk or peduncle. There are five smooth, translucent plates, edged with scarlet and separated by narrow gaps. The plates have growth lines parallel with their margins and a few faint radial sculpture lines. Inside the capitulum, the barnacle has a head and thorax and vestigial abdomen. A number of brown, filamentous cirri or feeding tentacles project from between the plates. The peduncle is tough and a purplish-brown colour. The capitulum can grow to a length of 5 centimetres (2.0 in) and the peduncle varies between 4 centimetres (1.6 in) and 80 centimetres (31 in).[3]

Distribution[edit]

Lepas anatifera has a cosmopolitan distribution and is found in tropical and subtropical seas worldwide. Because it is often attached to objects carried into colder seas by currents, such as the North Atlantic Drift, it is often found well away from its place of origin and in waters too cold for it to reproduce. In this way it has been recorded from Norway, the Shetland Islands, the Faeroe Islands, Iceland and Spitzbergen.[3]

Biology[edit]

Lepas anatifera is a hermaphrodite and starts to breed when it is about 2.5 centimetres (1 in) long. Fertilisation is internal and the eggs are brooded inside the mantle for a week before emerging as free swimming nauplius larvae. After further development, drifting as part of the plankton, these settle onto floating objects.[2]

Lepas anatifera has long been known to grow on sea turtles, but in 2008, some small specimens were found attached to an American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) on the Pacific coast of Mexico. This crocodile species mostly inhabits mangrove swamps and river estuaries but it is salt tolerant, and is sometimes found in marine environments. In this instance, the size of the goose-neck barnacles indicated that the crocodile must have been in the sea for at least a week. This is the first time that Lepas anatifera has been recorded as an epibiont of a crocodilian.[4]

Origin of the name[edit]

In 13th-century England the word "barnacle" was used for a species of waterfowl, the barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis). This bird breeds in the Arctic but winters in the British Isles so its nests and eggs were never seen by the British. It was thought at the time that the gooseneck barnacles that wash up occasionally on the shore had spontaneously generated from the rotting wood to which they were attached, and that the geese might be generated similarly. Credence to the idea was provided by the tuft of brown cirri that protruded from the capitulum of the crustaceans which resembled the down of an unhatched gosling. Popular belief linked the two species and a writer in 1678 wrote "multitudes of little Shells; having within them little Birds perfectly shap'd, supposed to be Barnacles [by which he meant barnacle geese]."[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lepas anatifera Linnaeus, 1758 World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  2. ^ a b Lepas anatifera Linnaeus, 1758 WallaWalla. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  3. ^ a b Lepas anatifera Marine Species Identification Portal. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  4. ^ Fabio Germán Cupul-Magaña, Armando Rubio-Delgado, Armando H. Escobedo-Galván and Carolina Reyes-Núñez (2011). "First report of the marine barnacles Lepas anatifera and Chelonibia testudinaria as epibionts on American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus)". Herpetology Notes 4: 213–214. Retrieved 2011-12-02. 
  5. ^ Barnacle American Heritage Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!