Overview

Distribution

This is a cosmopolitan species in warm seas. According to Newman & Ross (1978), its distribution is mainly natural.
  • Kerckhof, F. (2002). Barnacles (Cirripedia, Balanomorpha) in Belgian waters, an overview of the species and recent evolutions, with emphasis on exotic species. Bull. Kon. Belg. Inst. Natuurwet. Biologie 72(Suppl.): 93-104
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 5 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 73.152
  Temperature range (°C): 24.625 - 24.625
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.794 - 1.794
  Salinity (PPS): 32.493 - 32.493
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.875 - 4.875
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.359 - 0.359
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.817 - 3.817

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 73.152
 
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Migration

Alien species

De zeetulp Megabalanus tintinnabulum- een zeepok - kwam oorspronkelijk alleen voor in tropische wateren. De exacte plaats van herkomst is niet bekend, hoewel sommigen verwijzen naar de westkust van Afrika en de Indo-Pacifische regio. De soort werd in Nederland al in 1764 waargenomen op scheepsrompen. Langsheen de Belgische kust werden in 1998 populaties van deze exoot op boeien ontdekt. De zeetulp behoort tot de vaste aangroeigemeenschap van scheepsrompen en andere harde oppervlakken. Deze zeepok treedt, wegens haar grootte, in competitie met inheemse zeepokken
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Alien species

The barnacle Megabalanus tintinnabulum was naturally only found in tropical waters. Its exact place of origin is unknown, although some suggest the western coast of Africa and the Indo-Pacific region. The species was already observed in the Netherlands in 1764, on ship’s hulls. Populations of this species were discovered on buoys along the Belgian coast in 1998. The barnacle is part of the fouling community of ship’s hulls and other hard substrates. As a result of its big size, this barnacle competes with indigenous barnacles.
  • VLIZ Alien Species Consortium
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Megabalanus tintinnabulum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Megabalanus tintinnabulum

Megabalanus tintinnabulum is a species of large barnacle in the family Balanidae. It is the type species of the genus. The specific name comes from the Latin tintinnabulum meaning a handbell and probably refers to the fact that small groups of barnacles resemble clusters of miniature bells.

Contents

Taxonomy

When Carl Linnaeus first described this species in 1758, he named it Balanus tintinnabulum. The lectotype was depicted by Georg Eberhard Rumphius in 1705, the type locality being Ambon, Indonesia. In a monograph on barnacles in 1854, Charles Darwin described the species as being very variable and assigned it to Section A of the genus Balanus, characterised by having the parietes, basis, and radii (different plates in the shell wall) permeated by minute pores. In 1916, Henry Augustus Pilsbry elevated Balanus tintinnabulum to subspecies rank and in subsequent years a number of varieties were described. Later it was placed in the subgenus Megabalanus and in 1976, Newman and Ross elevated Megabalanus to generic rank, giving species rank to each of the 22 subspecies of what had previously been known as Balanus (Megabalanus) tintinnabulum.[2]

Description

Megabalanus tintinnabulum is a large barnacle, barrel shaped or narrowly conical, up to 5 centimetres (2 in) tall and 6.5 cm (2.6 in) in diameter. It is distinguished from other members of the genus by having ungrooved growth ridges on the scutum and by the parietes having no spines or spiny projections. The parietes can be either rough or smooth, and they are sometimes slightly folded. The basal margin of the shell is either straight or slightly sinuous. The colour is a pale shade of reddish or bluish purple, sometimes streaked longitudinally with a darker or lighter shade and sometimes with transverse bands of colour.[2]

Distribution and habitat

Megabalanus tintinnabulum is of tropical origin, perhaps being native to West Africa and parts of the Indo-Pacific. It is common on both the eastern and western coasts of India.[3] It has spread to other parts of the world attached to the hulls of ships. It was observed on ships' hulls in the Netherlands in 1764 and in 1998 it was found attached to buoys off the Belgian coast.[1] It was first observed in Western Australia in 1949 and arrived on the east coast of Australia by 1990.[4] It is also found on reefs, bedrock, boulders and timber structures down to about 40 metres (130 ft) deep.[5]

Biology

Like other acorn barnacles, Megabalanus tintinnabulum is a filter feeder. Specially adapted legs called cirri are extended through the opening at the top of the shell and are waved about at right angles to the flow of water past the shell. Food particles are caught by these and the cirri are periodically withdrawn into the shell and the food scraped off.[6]

Eggs of Megabalanus tintinnabulum are fertilized internally by sperm from another barnacle nearby and start to develop into larvae within a few days. These are planktonic and disperse in the water column. They pass through six naupliar stages and one cypris larval stage before settling on the seabed, undergoing metamorphosis and developing into juveniles. These cement themselves to the substrate and remain sessile for the rest of their lives.[3]

Ecology

Megabalanus tintinnabulum is found at or below the low tide mark in the littoral zone and is part of the fouling community. It is found on the hulls of ships and on man-made structures in ports. It has a stable population structure and low mortality rate and is a long-lived species.[7] In the South China Sea it was found that molluscs and acorn barnacles, including Megabalanus tintinnabulum, were primary foulers of hulls and other man-made structures and that their presence allowed algae, hydrozoans and bryozoans to take hold.[8]

Empty but still attached shells of Megabalanus tintinnabulum are sometimes occupied by the tessellated blenny (Hypsoblennius invemar). It not only uses a shell for a refuge but the male also broods the fish's eggs inside.[9]

References

  1. ^ a b c WoRMS (2012). "Megabalanus tintinnabulum (Linnaeus, 1758)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved March 1, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Dora P. Henry & Patsy A. McLaughlin (1986). "The Recent species of Megabalanus (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha) with special emphasis on Balanus tintinnabulum (Linnaeus) sensu lato" (PDF). Zoologische Verhandelingen 235: 1–69. 
  3. ^ a b V. Thiyagarajan, V. P. Venugopalan, T. Subramoniam & K. V. K. Nair (1997). "Description of the naupliar stages of Megabalanus tintinnabulum (Cirripedia: Balanidae)". Journal of Crustacean Biology 17 (2): 332–342. JSTOR 1549282. 
  4. ^ Diana S. Jones (1992). "A review of Australian fouling barnacles". In Brian Morton. Asian Marine Biology 9–10. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. pp. 89–100. ISBN 978-962-209-323-2. 
  5. ^ Megabalanus tintinnabulum (acorn barnacle) Marine pests of Australia. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
  6. ^ Megabalanus coccopoma Smithsonian Marine Station. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
  7. ^ J. H. Liu, Z. G. Huang & S. Lin. Proceedings of the Second International Marine Biological Workshop: The Marine Flora and Fauna of Hong Kong and Southern China. p. 780. 
  8. ^ Yan Tao, Yan Wen-xia, Liang Guan-he, Dong Yu, Wang Hua-jie & Yan Yan (2000). "Marine biofouling in offshore areas south of Hainan Island, northern South China Sea". Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 18 (2): 132–139. doi:10.1007/BF02842572. 
  9. ^ Hypsoblennius invemar, Smith-Vaniz & Acero P., 1980: Tessellated Blenny USGS. Retrieved 2012-03-02.
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